Advances in Cardiovascular Diseases: Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 July 2024 | Viewed by 5400

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, University of Szeged, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
Interests: cardiovascular diseases; aging; lifestyle modifications; oxidative stress; inflammation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Neuroscience, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
Interests: cardiovascular diseases; physical exercise; antioxidants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cardiovascular dysfunctions are affecting more and more people all over the world and are considered the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Countless risk factors can predispose one to the development of cardiac disorders including both genetic conditions and environmental causes. Additionally, as a problem of accelerated civilization, it has become clear that unhealthy lifestyle choices can further deteriorate cardiac health. However, the multifactorial nature of cardiovascular diseases makes diagnosis and treatment quite challenging. Therefore, a deeper understanding of specific molecular and cellular processes underlying cardiac diseases is pivotal. We believe that with newly acquired knowledge it is possible to develop high-potential diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies and thus improve personalized medicine.

We invite investigators to contribute research papers as well as review articles that develop a greater understanding of any aspect of this topic, including basic science or clinical studies.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Identifying new signaling pathways behind cardiovascular complications mediated by oxidants and inflammatory markers.
  • Potential diagnostic tools (biochemical markers, cardiac imaging) that may help the early detection of cardiovascular diseases.
  • Novel therapeutic interventions against CVDs, including pharmacological, invasive and non-invasive therapy.

Dr. Renáta Szabó
Dr. Denise Börzsei
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • cardiovascular diseases
  • cardiology
  • signaling pathways related to CVD
  • oxidative stress
  • inflammation
  • therapeutic interventions

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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23 pages, 3030 KiB  
Article
The Role of Macrophage Dynamics in Atherosclerosis Analyzed Using a Petri Net-Based Model
by Agnieszka Rybarczyk, Dorota Formanowicz and Piotr Formanowicz
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(8), 3219; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14083219 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 553
Abstract
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress-mediated disease impacting the arterial system, stands as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The complexity of this disease, driven by numerous factors, requires a thorough investigation of its underlying mechanisms. In our study, we [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory and oxidative stress-mediated disease impacting the arterial system, stands as a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The complexity of this disease, driven by numerous factors, requires a thorough investigation of its underlying mechanisms. In our study, we explore the complex interplay between cholesterol homeostasis, macrophage dynamics, and atherosclerosis development using a Petri net-based model anchored in credible, peer-reviewed biological and medical research. Our findings underscore the significant role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) inhibition in reducing atherosclerotic plaque formation by modulating inflammatory responses and lipid accumulation. Furthermore, our model highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting the C-X-C motif ligand 12 (CXCL12)/ C-X-C motif chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) pathway to hinder hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells’ (HSPCs’) mobilization and plaque development. Based on the results obtained, which are in agreement with current studies, additional strategies are also proposed, such as decreasing M1 macrophage polarization for therapeutic gains, opening the door to future research and novel treatment approaches. Full article
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17 pages, 1793 KiB  
Article
Morbidity and Mortality Trends of Ischemic Heart Disease and Medical Interventions in Mediterranean Countries—Pre-COVID Analysis: Croatia, Slovenia, France, Italy, and Spain
by Zrinka Biloglav, Petar Medaković, Josip Ćurić, Ivan Padjen, Dominic Vidović, William Anthonius Allan Migo and Ivana Škrlec
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062581 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) morbidity and mortality indices, along with medical intervention rates, were analyzed among Mediterranean countries, Croatia, Slovenia, Spain, Italy, and France, in the pre-COVID period. Standardized IHD incidence and prevalence rates from 1990 and mortality rates from 1985 were obtained [...] Read more.
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) morbidity and mortality indices, along with medical intervention rates, were analyzed among Mediterranean countries, Croatia, Slovenia, Spain, Italy, and France, in the pre-COVID period. Standardized IHD incidence and prevalence rates from 1990 and mortality rates from 1985 were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 and Health for All databases. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and transluminal coronary angioplasty (TCA) rates in the 2011–2019 period were obtained from Eurostat. Trends were estimated with Joinpoint regression analysis. IHD mortality rates range from 13.6 to 74.3 for females and from 37.8 to 126.03 for males. IHD mortality rates in Croatia were 5.6-fold higher among females and 3.3-fold higher among males compared to France. All countries decreased standardized IHD prevalence and incidence rates, although the magnitude varied. The high-to-low ratio, Croatia vs. Spain, was 3.5-fold for CABG and 3.2-fold for TCA. Slovenia, as opposed to Croatia, reduced the gap for all medical indicators except for relatively high prevalence rates. Despite a significant rise in medical interventions in Croatia, ineffective clinical and public health initiatives have led to only modest declines in IHD mortality rates over the past decade. Full article
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13 pages, 11313 KiB  
Article
Deletion of Transient Receptor Channel Vanilloid 4 Aggravates CaCl2-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Vascular Calcification: A Histological Study
by Isehaq Al-Huseini, Maryam Al-Ismaili, Ammar Boudaka and Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2566; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062566 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 509
Abstract
Vascular calcification is calcium deposition occurring in the wall of blood vessels, leading to mechanical stress and rupture due to a loss of elasticity and the hardening of the vessel wall. The role of the Transient Receptor Channel Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a Ca [...] Read more.
Vascular calcification is calcium deposition occurring in the wall of blood vessels, leading to mechanical stress and rupture due to a loss of elasticity and the hardening of the vessel wall. The role of the Transient Receptor Channel Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), a Ca2+-permeable cation channel, in the progression of vascular calcification is poorly explored. In this study, we investigated the role of TRPV4 in vascular calcification and the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Experimental mice were randomly divided into four groups: wild-type (WT) sham operated group, WT CaCl2-induced aortic injury, TRPV4-KO sham operated group, and TRPV4-KO CaCl2-induced aortic injury. The TRPV4-knockout (TRPV4-KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to the CaCl2-induced abdominal aortic injury. In histopathological analysis, the aorta of the TRPV4-KO mice showed extensive calcification in the tunica media with a significant increase in the outer diameter (p < 0.0001), luminal area (p < 0.05), and internal circumference (p < 0.05) after CaCl2 injury when compared to WT mice. Additionally, the tunica media of the TRPV4-KO mice aorta showed extensive damage with apparent elongation and disruption of the elastic lamella. These results indicate a protective function of TRPV4 against vascular calcification and the progression of AAA after CaCl2 injury. Full article
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23 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Cardiovascular Health Management in Diabetic Patients with Machine-Learning-Driven Predictions and Interventions
by Rejath Jose, Faiz Syed, Anvin Thomas and Milan Toma
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 2132; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14052132 - 4 Mar 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1195
Abstract
The advancement of machine learning in healthcare offers significant potential for enhancing disease prediction and management. This study harnesses the PyCaret library—a Python-based machine learning toolkit—to construct and refine predictive models for diagnosing diabetes mellitus and forecasting hospital readmission rates. By analyzing a [...] Read more.
The advancement of machine learning in healthcare offers significant potential for enhancing disease prediction and management. This study harnesses the PyCaret library—a Python-based machine learning toolkit—to construct and refine predictive models for diagnosing diabetes mellitus and forecasting hospital readmission rates. By analyzing a rich dataset featuring a variety of clinical and demographic variables, we endeavored to identify patients at heightened risk for diabetes complications leading to readmissions. Our methodology incorporates an evaluation of numerous machine learning algorithms, emphasizing their predictive accuracy and generalizability to improve patient care. We scrutinized the predictive strength of each model concerning crucial metrics like accuracy, precision, recall, and the area under the curve, underlining the imperative to eliminate false diagnostics in the field. Special attention is given to the use of the light gradient boosting machine classifier among other advanced modeling techniques, which emerge as particularly effective in terms of the Kappa statistic and Matthews correlation coefficient, suggesting robustness in prediction. The paper discusses the implications of diabetes management, underscoring interventions like lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatments to avert long-term complications. Through exploring the intersection of machine learning and health informatics, the study reveals pivotal insights into algorithmic predictions of diabetes readmission. It also emphasizes the necessity for further research and development to fully incorporate machine learning into modern diabetes care to prompt timely interventions and achieve better overall health outcomes. The outcome of this research is a testament to the transformative impact of automated machine learning in the realm of healthcare analytics. Full article
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10 pages, 1308 KiB  
Article
Moderate-Intensity Swimming Alleviates Oxidative Injury in Ischemic Heart
by Denise Börzsei, Viktória Kiss, András Nagy, Alexandra Hoffmann, Szilvia Török, Nikoletta Almási, Médea Veszelka, Csaba Varga and Renáta Szabó
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14052073 - 1 Mar 2024
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Abstract
The global burden of cardiovascular diseases is indisputable, as it claims nearly 18 million lives a year. In this current study, we aimed to prove that exercise, a cornerstone in cardiovascular disease management, emerges as a powerful tool in the pathology of myocardial [...] Read more.
The global burden of cardiovascular diseases is indisputable, as it claims nearly 18 million lives a year. In this current study, we aimed to prove that exercise, a cornerstone in cardiovascular disease management, emerges as a powerful tool in the pathology of myocardial ischemia. Male rats were divided into three groups: pre-swimming training + isoproterenol (ISO) treated, isoproterenol-treated, and control-sedentary. Myocardial infarction was induced by the subcutaneous injection of 1.0 mg/kg ISO. After the subsequent rest period, the animals swam for 3 weeks, every day for 25 min. At the end of the experiment, the serum levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), as well as the cardiac concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined. Our results indicate that both cardiac injury biomarkers (ANP, BNP) and ROS levels were significantly lower in swimming rats compared to the sedentary animals. Moreover, the level of enzymatic components of the intracellular antioxidant system, CAT, SOD, and GPx were increased in swimming animals after ISO-induced myocardial infarction. Our findings support the fact that moderate-intensity swimming training can be efficiently used to prevent myocardial infarction-induced ischemic injury, by inhibiting ROS production and strengthening intracellular antioxidant defense. Full article
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14 pages, 1024 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Interplay of Uric Acid and Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Following Myocardial Infarction
by Joanna Sikora, Tomasz Wybranowski, Aleksandra Karczmarska-Wódzka, Przemysław Sobczak, Stefan Kruszewski and Zbigniew Włodarczyk
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14051983 - 28 Feb 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Recent studies have underscored the potential elevation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) and uric acid following myocardial infarction, suggesting their involvement in the development and progression of coronary artery disease and potentially influencing patient outcomes. This study focuses explicitly on examining uric [...] Read more.
Recent studies have underscored the potential elevation of Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPP) and uric acid following myocardial infarction, suggesting their involvement in the development and progression of coronary artery disease and potentially influencing patient outcomes. This study focuses explicitly on examining uric acid and AOPP in the same patients to address the research gap in these biomarkers’ interplay. Recognizing the dual character of uric acid as both an antioxidant and a pro-oxidant, this study delves into its complex biological implications. An analysis was conducted on 40 patients who had experienced myocardial infarction. AOPP levels were quantified using absorbance at 340 nm. Results demonstrated significantly increased AOPP levels in myocardial infarction patients compared to healthy controls, especially in those with high serum uric acid. The serum uric acid and AOPP relationship exhibits a J-shaped curve, indicating a complex, multifactorial interaction. These findings offer new insights into the intricate relationship between serum uric acid and AOPP in myocardial infarction patients, underscoring the significance of these biomarkers in enhancing our understanding of clinical outcomes and informing targeted management strategies for coronary artery disease. Full article
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Review

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18 pages, 1246 KiB  
Review
Omics Insights into Epicardial Adipose Tissue: Unravelling Its Molecular Landscape
by Ivona Mitu, Roxana Popescu, Cristina-Daniela Dimitriu, Radu-Ștefan Miftode, Irina-Iuliana Costache and Ovidiu Mitu
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(10), 4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14104173 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a unique fat depot located around the heart, intimately associated with the myocardium and coronary arteries. The secretion of bioactive molecules and their interaction with neighbouring cardiac tissues makes it an active organ with important implications in cardiovascular [...] Read more.
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a unique fat depot located around the heart, intimately associated with the myocardium and coronary arteries. The secretion of bioactive molecules and their interaction with neighbouring cardiac tissues makes it an active organ with important implications in cardiovascular health and disease. In recent years, omics technologies have provided valuable insights into the molecular characteristics and functional relevance of EAT in patients with coronary atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and associated metabolic disorders. This review aims to summarize the current understanding of EAT biology through the lens of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and lipidomics approaches. We discuss key findings from omics studies on EAT, including gene expression profiles, metabolic activity, signalling pathways and regulatory network, in order to explore in depth the disease mechanisms, possible therapeutic strategies, and cardiovascular risk assessment. Further advances in this field and integrating data from multiple omics platforms hold promise for unlocking personalized cardiometabolic profiles with EAT as a possible biomarker and therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. Full article
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