Modelling, Dimensioning and Optimization of 5G Communication Networks, Resources and Services

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 23 May 2024 | Viewed by 57925

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, University of Peloponnese (UoP), GR-221 31 Tripoli, Greece
Interests: teletraffic engineering; performance evaluation and optimization of telecommunication networks; protocol analysis; network simulation; network planning; queueing theory
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Communication and Computer Networks, Faculty of Computing and Telecommunications, Poznan University of Technology, ul. Polanka 3, 60-965 Poznan, Poland
Interests: tele-traffic; performance evaluation; communications networks; switching and routing; traffic control; elastic optical switching networks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, 50100 Kozani, Greece
Interests: IoT; 5G mobile communication; UAV; quality of service; radio access networks; computer network security; radio networks; artificial intelligence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Dept. of Electrical &Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
Interests: teletraffic theory and engineering, traffic/network control, simulation and performance optimization of telecommunications networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Designing, dimensioning and optimization of communication networks resources and services have been an inseparable part of the development of telecommunications and ICT infrastructure from the very beginning of their existence. These networking problems have changed substantially over the recent years as a result of the changes in users’ requirements for the communications convergent multi-service wired and wireless networks.

The global network of 5G remains a network of many heterogeneous systems interacting with each other, and widely used broadband mobile devices and cloud computing have given rise to a tremendous growth in network traffic. Contemporary telecom networks must carry large amounts of traffic and provide service to traffic streams with very much differentiated demands, not only in terms of bit-rate and service time but also of demanded quality of service (quality of experience) parameters. In such a communication infrastructure, there are important challenges, including the study of necessary multi-layer cooperation, new protocols, performance evaluation of different network parts, low layer network design, network management and security issues, new technologies in general.

Each and every newly introduced type of a network technology is followed by a substantial increase in both the number and the complexity of problems that need to be resolved by theoreticians and engineers. No matter what these developing changes may bring, the essential tasks for modern communication 4networks remain the same: (1) to develop new technologies offering increasing network capacity, (2) to determine and evaluate the relationship between the quality of service (quality of experience) parameters and the parameters characterizing traffic sources (services), (3) to control and optimize the usage of network resources, (4) to enhance the capabilities of data transport, transmission and reception between end users and the core network. These tasks provide a basis for developing engineering algorithms and tools used for designing, analysis, dimensioning and optimization of wired and wireless systems and networks.

The objective of this special issue is to bring together the state-of-the-art research contributions that address challenges in contemporary networks design, dimensioning and optimization.

The topics of primary interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Analytical and simulation models of 5G communication networks
  • Performance evaluation of 5G communication networks
  • Planning of 5G networks and services
  • Dimensioning of 5G communication network resources
  • Optimization techniques for 5G communication network resources
  • Resource management tools for 5G communication networks
  • Optical backhauling in 5G networks
  • BBU placement and management in 5G networks
  • Energy efficient 5G networks
  • 5G heterogeneous network deployment models
  • Big Data-supported resource allocation in 5G networks
  • Virtualization technologies in 5G networks
  • Passive optical networks in 5G networks
  • BBU optimization in 5G networks
  • BBU-RRH deployment and strategies.
  • BBU-RRH placement and optimization.

Prof. Dr. Ioannis D. Moscholios
Prof. Dr. Mariusz Głąbowski
Prof. Dr. Panagiotis Sarigiannidis
Prof. Dr. Michael D. Logothetis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (17 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

4 pages, 169 KiB  
Editorial
A Special Issue on Modeling, Dimensioning, and Optimization of 5G Communication Networks, Resources, and Services
by Ioannis D. Moscholios, Mariusz Głąbowski, Panagiotis G. Sarigiannidis and Michael D. Logothetis
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(4), 1859; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12041859 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Designing, dimensioning, and optimization of communication networks resources and services have been inseparable parts of the development of telecommunications since the very beginning of their existence [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

19 pages, 1299 KiB  
Article
Concensus-Based ALADIN Method to Faster the Decentralized Estimation of Laplacian Spectrum
by Thi-Minh-Dung Tran, Luu Ngoc An and Ngoc Chi Nam Doan
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5625; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165625 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
With the upcoming fifth Industrial Revolution, humans and collaborative robots will dance together in production. They themselves act as an agent in a connected world, understood as a multi-agent system, in which the Laplacian spectrum plays an important role since it can define [...] Read more.
With the upcoming fifth Industrial Revolution, humans and collaborative robots will dance together in production. They themselves act as an agent in a connected world, understood as a multi-agent system, in which the Laplacian spectrum plays an important role since it can define the connection of the complex networks as well as depict the robustness. In addition, the Laplacian spectrum can locally check the controllability and observability of a dynamic controlled network, etc. This paper presents a new method, which is based on the Augmented Lagrange based Alternating Direction Inexact Newton (ALADIN) method, to faster the convergence rate of the Laplacian Spectrum Estimation via factorization of the average consensus matrices, that are expressed as Laplacian-based matrices problems. Herein, the non-zero distinct Laplacian eigenvalues are the inverse of the stepsizes {αt,t=1,2,} of those matrices. Therefore, the problem now is to carry out the agreement on the stepsize values for all agents in the given network while ensuring the factorization of average consensus matrices to be accomplished. Furthermore, in order to obtain the entire Laplacian spectrum, it is necessary to estimate the relevant multiplicities of these distinct eigenvalues. Consequently, a non-convex optimization problem is formed and solved using ALADIN method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated through the simulation results and the comparison with the Lagrange-based method in advance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 1540 KiB  
Article
Fronthaul Design for Wireless Networks
by Ivo Sousa, Nuno Sousa, Maria Paula Queluz and António Rodrigues
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(14), 4754; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10144754 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2922
Abstract
Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architectures have arisen as an alternative to traditional wireless network architectures, notably by taking advantage of the functional split between the multiple distributed Remote Radio Heads (RRHs) and the centralized Baseband Units (BBUs), through the creation of a [...] Read more.
Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architectures have arisen as an alternative to traditional wireless network architectures, notably by taking advantage of the functional split between the multiple distributed Remote Radio Heads (RRHs) and the centralized Baseband Units (BBUs), through the creation of a new connectivity segment—the fronthaul. In order to maximize the investment return, it is important to find out, for this C-RAN segment, which technologies provide cost-effective solutions. This paper addresses this issue by evaluating and comparing the performance of Microwave Radio Transmission (MRT), Free Space Optics (FSO), and Fiber Optics (FO) technologies when applied to the fronthaul. First, a methodology is provided to determine the most cost-effective solution for each RRH–BBU link, as well as to compute the required number of BBUs and where they should be positioned in order to minimize the overall network costs. Next, a cost-effectiveness comparison of the aforementioned communication technologies is presented for individual fronthaul segments under different weather conditions, link lengths, and bit rate requirements. Moreover, an assessment is performed regarding the impact of the RRH density on the selection of cost-effective communication technologies for C-RANs. The obtained results allow concluding that fronthaul expenses are significantly affected by the performance of FSO systems, which in turn is affected by weather conditions; this highlights the relevance of having accurate climate statistics and forecasts in order to get the most out of the FSO technology and, consequently, lowering the overall network costs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2211 KiB  
Article
A Flexible FPGA-Based Channel Emulator for Non-Stationary MIMO Fading Channels
by Qiuming Zhu, Wei Huang, Kai Mao, Weizhi Zhong, Boyu Hua, Xiaomin Chen and Zikun Zhao
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4161; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124161 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2258
Abstract
In this paper, a discrete non-stationary multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel model suitable for the fixed-point realization on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware platform is proposed. On this basis, we develop a flexible hardware architecture with configurable channel parameters and implement it on [...] Read more.
In this paper, a discrete non-stationary multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel model suitable for the fixed-point realization on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) hardware platform is proposed. On this basis, we develop a flexible hardware architecture with configurable channel parameters and implement it on a non-stationary MIMO channel emulator in a single FPGA chip. In addition, an improved non-stationary channel emulation method is employed to guarantee accurate channel fading and phase, and the schemes of other key modules are also illustrated and implemented in a single FPGA chip. Hardware tests demonstrate that the output statistical properties of proposed channel emulator, i.e., the probability density function (PDF), cross-correlation function (CCF), Doppler power spectrum density (DPSD), and the power delay profile (PDP) agree well with the corresponding theoretical ones. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 512 KiB  
Article
A Palm-Jacobaeus Loss Formula for Multi-Service Systems with Separated Resources
by Mariusz Głąbowski, Adam Kaliszan and Maciej Stasiak
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 4019; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10114019 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2030
Abstract
This article presents a method to determine the blocking probability (non-availability) for strictly determined multi-service resources that belong to a group of multi-service resources. The dependencies obtained during the process correspond to the Palm-Jacobaeus formula derived for the group of resources servicing single-service [...] Read more.
This article presents a method to determine the blocking probability (non-availability) for strictly determined multi-service resources that belong to a group of multi-service resources. The dependencies obtained during the process correspond to the Palm-Jacobaeus formula derived for the group of resources servicing single-service traffic. The approach to determining the blocking probability is based on the determination of the availability of resources at the occupancy level of allocation units. The analytical results are compared with the obtained results of the simulation experiments for a number of selected parameters of multi-service groups of resources. The results of the present study indicate a high accuracy of the proposed solutions. The elaborated extension of the Palm-Jacobaeus formula can be used in the modeling of separated wireless resources in cellular networks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4926 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of 5G Mobile Communication Network Architectures
by Woosik Lee, Eun Suk Suh, Woo Young Kwak and Hoon Han
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(7), 2478; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10072478 - 4 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6743
Abstract
Mobile communication technology is evolving from 4G to 5G. Compared to previous generations, 5G has the capability to implement latency-critical services, such as autonomous driving, real-time AI on handheld devices and remote drone control. Multi-access Edge Computing is one of the key technologies [...] Read more.
Mobile communication technology is evolving from 4G to 5G. Compared to previous generations, 5G has the capability to implement latency-critical services, such as autonomous driving, real-time AI on handheld devices and remote drone control. Multi-access Edge Computing is one of the key technologies of 5G in guaranteeing ultra-low latency aimed to support latency critical services by distributing centralized computing resources to networks edges closer to users. However, due to its high granularity of computing resources, Multi-access Edge Computing has an architectural vulnerability in that it can lead to the overloading of regional computing resources, a phenomenon called regional traffic explosion. This paper proposes an improved communication architecture called Hybrid Cloud Computing, which combines the advantages of both Centralized Cloud Computing and Multi-access Edge Computing. The performance of the proposed network architecture is evaluated by utilizing a discrete-event simulation model. Finally, the results, advantages, and disadvantages of various network architectures are discussed. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 2485 KiB  
Article
Primary User Traffic Pattern Based Opportunistic Spectrum Handoff in Cognitive Radio Networks
by Kaleem Arshid, Iftikhar Hussain, Muhammad Khawar Bashir, Shahid Naseem, Allah Ditta, Natash Ali Mian, Misha Zahid and Israr Ali Khan
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(5), 1674; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051674 - 2 Mar 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2990
Abstract
Through the expeditious expansion of the wireless network, the unlicensed bandwidth-based devices are growing substantially as compared to the present vacant bandwidth. Cognitive radio networks present a proficient solution to the spectrum shortage diminution hitch by allowing the usage of the vacant part [...] Read more.
Through the expeditious expansion of the wireless network, the unlicensed bandwidth-based devices are growing substantially as compared to the present vacant bandwidth. Cognitive radio networks present a proficient solution to the spectrum shortage diminution hitch by allowing the usage of the vacant part of the spectrum that is not currently in use of the Primary User licensed bandwidth to the secondary user or cognitive radio user. Spectrum management procedure in cognitive radio network comprises of spectrum sharing, sensing and handoff. Spectrum handoff plays a vital role in spectrum management and primarily focuses on single handoff strategies. This paper presents a primary user traffic pattern-based opportunistic spectrum handoff (PUTPOSH) approach to use in the cognitive radio networks. PUTPOSH permits a secondary user to sense the arrival of a primary user and use an opportunistic handoff scheme. The opportunistic handoff scheme firstly detects the arrival of the primary users by energy detection sensing and secondly, it allows a cognitive radio user to decide whether to do handoff or not contingent upon the overall service time to reduce the unused handoffs. The handoffs can either be reactive or proactive based on the arrival rate of the primary user. The simulation results show that the presented PUTPOSH approach (a) minimizes the number of handoffs and the overall service time, and (b) maintains the channel utilization and throughput of the system at a maximal point. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1964 KiB  
Article
Velocity-Aware Handover Self-Optimization Management for Next Generation Networks
by Abdulraqeb Alhammadi, Mardeni Roslee, Mohamad Yusoff Alias, Ibraheem Shayea and Abdullah Alquhali
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1354; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041354 - 17 Feb 2020
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 3497
Abstract
The fifth generation (5G) network is an upcoming standard for wireless communications that coexists with the current 4G network to increase the throughput. The deployment of ultra-dense small cells (UDSC) over a macro-cell layer yields multi-tier networks, which are known as heterogeneous networks [...] Read more.
The fifth generation (5G) network is an upcoming standard for wireless communications that coexists with the current 4G network to increase the throughput. The deployment of ultra-dense small cells (UDSC) over a macro-cell layer yields multi-tier networks, which are known as heterogeneous networks (HetNets). HetNets play a key role in the cellular network to provide services to numerous users. However, the number of handovers (HOs) and radio link failure (RLF) greatly increase due to the increase in the UDSC in the network. Therefore, mobility management becomes a very important function in a self-organizing network to improve the system performance. In this paper, we propose a velocity-based self-optimization algorithm to adjust the HO control parameters in 4G/5G networks. The proposed algorithm utilizes the user’s received power and speed to adjust the HO margin and the time to trigger during the user’s mobility in the network. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves a remarkable reduction in the rate of ping-pong HOs and RLF compared with other existing algorithms, thereby outperforming such algorithms by an average of more than 70% for all HO performance metrics. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 3894 KiB  
Article
D-RoF and A-RoF Interfaces in an All-Optical Fronthaul of 5G Mobile Systems
by Zbigniew Zakrzewski
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(4), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10041212 - 11 Feb 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 7275
Abstract
This paper presents a solution for enabling the coexistence of digitized radio-over-fiber (D-RoF) and analog radio-over-fiber (A-RoF) interfaces operating in the optical fronthaul of 5G mobile systems. In the first section, we formulate the need to introduce new technologies to the cloud/centralized radio [...] Read more.
This paper presents a solution for enabling the coexistence of digitized radio-over-fiber (D-RoF) and analog radio-over-fiber (A-RoF) interfaces operating in the optical fronthaul of 5G mobile systems. In the first section, we formulate the need to introduce new technologies to the cloud/centralized radio access network (C-RAN) (Next Generation RAN (NG-RAN) in 5G systems). A proposition of construction of the optical remote radio head (O-RRH)/gNodeB—distributed unit (gNB-DU), which will enable the operation of digital Splits/Options and new proposed analog Splits/Options, is presented. The methods performing calculations of bit rate and optical bandwidth demand in the fronthaul/midhaul, with reference to the parameters of the new-radio-release-15 (NR-Rel-15) wireless interface and subsequent releases, towards the next generations, are presented. The bandwidth demands were calculated for selected Splits/Options, and the results are shown in diagrams. A special section is devoted to description of the results achieved and presenting potential applications of the proposed construction of a radio-photonic device as well as new Splits/Options of the next generation fronthaul/midhaul. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 587 KiB  
Article
Secure D2D Communication for 5G IoT Network Based on Lightweight Cryptography
by Byoungjin Seok, Jose Costa Sapalo Sicato, Tcydenova Erzhena, Canshou Xuan, Yi Pan and Jong Hyuk Park
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10010217 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 5822
Abstract
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is a direct means of communication between devices without an intermediate node, and it helps to expand cell coverage and to increase radio frequency reuse in a 5G network. Moreover, D2D communication is a core technology of 5G vehicle-to-everything (V2X) [...] Read more.
Device-to-device (D2D) communication is a direct means of communication between devices without an intermediate node, and it helps to expand cell coverage and to increase radio frequency reuse in a 5G network. Moreover, D2D communication is a core technology of 5G vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication, which is an essential technology for autonomous driving. However, typical D2D communication in an 4G network which is typical telecommunication network has various security challenges including impersonation, eavesdropping, privacy sniffing, free-riding attack, etc. Moreover, when IoT technology emerges with 5G networks in massive machine type communication (mMTC) and ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC) application scenarios, these security challenges are more crucial and harder to mitigate because of the resource-constrained nature of IoT devices. To solve the security challenges in a 5G IoT environment, we need a lightweight and secure D2D communication system that can provide secure authentication, data confidentiality/integrity and anonymity. In this paper, we survey and analyze existing results about secure D2D communication systems in terms of their security considerations and limitations. Then, we lastly propose a secure D2D communication system to address the aforementioned security challenges and the limitations of the existing results. The proposed secure D2D communication was designed based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) and lightweight authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) ciphers to cover resource-constrained IoT devices. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4181 KiB  
Article
An Analytical Framework in OFDM Wireless Networks Servicing Random or Quasi-Random Traffic
by Panagiotis I. Panagoulias, Ioannis D. Moscholios, Panagiotis G. Sarigiannidis, Mariusz Głąbowski and Michael D. Logothetis
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(24), 5376; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9245376 - 9 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1666
Abstract
We consider the downlink of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based cell that services calls from many service-classes. The call arrival process is random (Poisson) or quasi-random, i.e., calls are generated by an infinite or a finite number of sources, respectively. In order [...] Read more.
We consider the downlink of an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based cell that services calls from many service-classes. The call arrival process is random (Poisson) or quasi-random, i.e., calls are generated by an infinite or a finite number of sources, respectively. In order to determine congestion probabilities and resource utilization, we model the cell as a multirate loss model. Regarding the call admission, we consider the restricted accessibility, the bandwidth reservation (BR), and the complete sharing (CS) policies. In a system of restricted accessibility, a new call may be blocked even if resources do exist. In a BR system, subcarriers can be reserved in favor of calls of high subcarrier requirements. Finally, in a CS system, a new call is blocked due to resource unavailability. In all three policies, we show that there exist recursive formulas for the determination of the various performance measures. Based on simulation, the accuracy of the proposed formulas is found to be quite satisfactory. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 874 KiB  
Article
Interference Avoidance Using TDMA-Beamforming in Location Aware Small Cell Systems
by Khalid S. Mohamed, Mohamad Y. Alias and Mardeni Roslee
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 4979; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9234979 - 20 Nov 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2341
Abstract
It is ascertained that the current communication systems will not be able to support the future network demands due to the increasing traffic, limitation of frequency resources, and high level of interference. Recently, beamforming techniques have been introduced to reduce the interference by [...] Read more.
It is ascertained that the current communication systems will not be able to support the future network demands due to the increasing traffic, limitation of frequency resources, and high level of interference. Recently, beamforming techniques have been introduced to reduce the interference by redirecting the transmission towards the desired users only. While such beamforming enables better interference mitigation and improved network performance, the concerns on its effectiveness in dense deployment environments are arising. In this paper, the prospect of interference avoidance in location aware small cell environments using time division multiple access (TDMA) and beamforming is studied. The interference is reduced by identifying the aggressor small cell and transmit the beams towards the desired users at different times. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to enhance the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) by approximately 18 dB, enhance the user throughput by about 10 Mbps in comparison to small cell on/off control scheme with a discovery signal (SCon/off-DS), and improve the fairness index to about 95% in comparison to the baseline scheme. It is believed that the presented results promote the proposed scheme as an efficient interference management paradigm for the fifth generation (5G) communication systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 721 KiB  
Article
Towards Efficiently Provisioning 5G Core Network Slice Based on Resource and Topology Attributes
by Xin Li, Chengcheng Guo, Jun Xu, Lav Gupta and Raj Jain
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(20), 4361; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9204361 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3227
Abstract
Efficient provisioning of 5G network slices is a major challenge for 5G network slicing technology. Previous slice provisioning methods have only considered network resource attributes and ignored network topology attributes. These methods may result in a decrease in the slice acceptance ratio and [...] Read more.
Efficient provisioning of 5G network slices is a major challenge for 5G network slicing technology. Previous slice provisioning methods have only considered network resource attributes and ignored network topology attributes. These methods may result in a decrease in the slice acceptance ratio and the slice provisioning revenue. To address these issues, we propose a two-stage heuristic slice provisioning algorithm, called RT-CSP, for the 5G core network by jointly considering network resource attributes and topology attributes in this paper. The first stage of our method is called the slice node provisioning stage, in which we propose an approach to scoring and ranking nodes using network resource attributes (i.e., CPU capacity and bandwidth) and topology attributes (i.e., degree centrality and closeness centrality). Slice nodes are then provisioned according to the node ranking results. In the second stage, called the slice link provisioning stage, the k-shortest path algorithm is implemented to provision slice links. To further improve the performance of RT-CSP, we propose RT-CSP+, which uses our designed strategy, called minMaxBWUtilHops, to select the best physical path to host the slice link. The strategy minimizes the product of the maximum link bandwidth utilization of the candidate physical path and the number of hops in it to avoid creating bottlenecks in the physical path and reduce the bandwidth cost. Using extensive simulations, we compared our results with those of the state-of-the-art algorithms. The experimental results show that our algorithms increase slice acceptance ratio and improve the provisioning revenue-to-cost ratio. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 2751 KiB  
Article
A Novel Self-Interference Cancellation Method Using an Optimized LMS Algorithm in CCFD Systems for a 5G Communication Network
by Zeng-You Sun and Yu-Jie Zhao
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3308; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163308 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2633
Abstract
The Co-frequency Co-time Full Duplex (CCFD) is a key concept in 5G wireless communication networks. The biggest challenge for CCFD wireless communication is the strong self-interference (SI) from near-end transceivers. Aiming at cancelling the SI of near-end transceivers in CCFD systems in the [...] Read more.
The Co-frequency Co-time Full Duplex (CCFD) is a key concept in 5G wireless communication networks. The biggest challenge for CCFD wireless communication is the strong self-interference (SI) from near-end transceivers. Aiming at cancelling the SI of near-end transceivers in CCFD systems in the radio frequency (RF) domain, a novel time-varying Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive filtering algorithm which is based on step-size parameters gradually decrease with time varying called the DTV-LMS algorithm is proposed in this paper. The proposed DTV-LMS algorithm in this paper establishes the non-linear relationship between step factor and the evolved arct-angent function, and using the relationship between the time parameter and error signal correlation value to coordinately control the step factor to be updated. This algorithm maintains a low computational complexity. Simultaneously, the DTV-LMS algorithm can also attain the ideal characteristics, including the interference cancellation ratio (ICR), convergence speed, and channel tracking, so that the SI signal in the RF domain of a full duplex system can be effectively cancelled. The analysis and simulation results show that the ICR in the RF domain of the proposed algorithm is higher than that in the compared algorithms and have a faster convergence speed. At the same time, the channel tracking capability has also been significantly enhanced in CCFD systems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 9825 KiB  
Article
Performance Improvement of Ethernet-Based Fronthaul Bridged Networks in 5G Cloud Radio Access Networks
by Muhammad Waqar and Ajung Kim
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2823; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142823 - 15 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3991
Abstract
Cloud radio access networks (C-RANs) are emerging architectural solutions to anticipate the increased capacity and quality demands of future 5G cellular networks at a reduced cost. In C-RANs, a transport segment referred to as fronthaul has been defined, which become a major constraint [...] Read more.
Cloud radio access networks (C-RANs) are emerging architectural solutions to anticipate the increased capacity and quality demands of future 5G cellular networks at a reduced cost. In C-RANs, a transport segment referred to as fronthaul has been defined, which become a major constraint in practical implementations due to its high cost. A transport protocol referred to as eCPRI (enhanced common public radio interface), which was specifically designed for the fronthaul networks, imposes stringent end-to-end (E2E) latency and capacity requirements, which can be satisfied through the extortionate optical links. The high implementation cost of optical fronthaul networks significantly increased the system cost and made the fronthaul a hurdle to accomplish the cost–benefits of the C-RANs’ architecture. The globally deployed Ethernet networks could be leveraging solutions, but are inadequate to comply with the eCPRI requirements in fronthaul bridged networks and result in intolerable latencies due to ineffectual traditional quality of service aware forwarding schemes. Therefore, to realize the cost–benefits of ubiquitously deployed Ethernet infrastructure, this paper proposes the E2E latency aware path computation and packet forwarding schemes, which ameliorate the performance of Ethernet-based fronthaul bridged networks to transport the eCPRI traffic at tolerable latencies. The simulation results verify the feasibility of low-cost Ethernet to carry the eCPRI traffic streams up to 100 Gbps with the proposed schemes in fronthaul bridged networks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 1334 KiB  
Article
Time Coding OTDM MIMO System Based on Singular Value Decomposition for 5G Applications
by Rana M. Aly, Amira Zaki, Waleed K. Badawi and Moustafa H. Aly
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2691; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9132691 - 2 Jul 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
For 5G and beyond cellular communication systems, new coding and modulation techniques are suggested to reach the requirements of high data rate and quality of service. In this paper, a new space-time coded orthogonal transform division multiplexing (STC OTDM) technique is proposed for [...] Read more.
For 5G and beyond cellular communication systems, new coding and modulation techniques are suggested to reach the requirements of high data rate and quality of service. In this paper, a new space-time coded orthogonal transform division multiplexing (STC OTDM) technique is proposed for 5G applications. The proposed system is used to enhance the data rate and performance of the orthogonal transform division multiplexing (OTDM) technique. The proposed system is based on using space-time coding (STC) with OTDM to increase the system diversity and consequently the system performance. The OTDM technique is based on transmitting data on orthogonal basis functions obtained from the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of the channel impulse response of the desired user. Various modulation techniques like QPSK, 64-QAM, and 256-QAM are investigated using different subcarriers and channel models. The simulation results show that the proposed system achieved a better performance when compared to classical and recent multicarrier techniques. The proposed technique increases the diversity gain resulting in a decrease in the fading effect of the multipath channel and an enhancement in the bit error rate (BER) performance. The proposed technique also provides a secure data transmission to the desired user as his data is sent on the basis functions extracted from his own channel impulse response that cannot be decoded by other users. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

9 pages, 282 KiB  
Letter
Intrinsic Interference Use for FBMC-IOTA Systems
by Lei Wen, Razieh Razavi and Jing Lei
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3210; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163210 - 7 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2220
Abstract
In this paper, the intrinsic interference of filter bank-based multicarrier systems (FBMC) systems with isotropic orthogonal transfer algorithm (IOTA) pulse-shaping is analyzed and used. Such intrinsic interference is treated as a parity symbol, and an iterative soft-in-soft-out (SISO) detector, which is based on [...] Read more.
In this paper, the intrinsic interference of filter bank-based multicarrier systems (FBMC) systems with isotropic orthogonal transfer algorithm (IOTA) pulse-shaping is analyzed and used. Such intrinsic interference is treated as a parity symbol, and an iterative soft-in-soft-out (SISO) detector, which is based on message-passing algorithm (MPA), is proposed to exploit the useful information of the intrinsic interference. The performance of the intrinsic interference user (IIU) is investigated. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop