Advances in Avian Pathology

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). This special issue belongs to the section "Veterinary Clinical Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2022) | Viewed by 13416

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: avian diseases; infectious diseases; veterinary microbiology; antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria; mechanisms of resistance; virulence genes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: avian diseases; birds microbiology; opportunistic pathogen; diagnostics; mechanisms of resistance; spread of resistance; virulence factors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Data from the literature and our own observations show that more and more space in the scientific literature is devoted to the health problems of birds, which is reflected in numerous scientific studies on both the pathology of poultry as well as free-living or ornamental birds. A particularly important issue is the influence of various breeding factors on the health condition of individual systems and organs (e.g., the integumentary system, respiratory system, digestive tract, circulatory system). At a time when the world is struggling with the problem of infectious diseases again, great importance is attached to the efficient functioning of the immune system of birds (central and peripheral organs of the immune system) and its role in the processes of specific and non-specific immunity. In addition, the phenomenon of immunosuppression and the influence of various factors (non-infectious and infectious) on the immune system are of particular importance. The aim of this Special Issue of Animals is to collect papers on the broadly understood issue of Advances in Avian Pathology.

Of particular interest are studies that comprehensively study the characterization and pathogenesis of disease in free-living, as well as farm and companion, birds, including zoonotic pathogens that are a potential danger to both humans and animals. We also welcome studies involving the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of virulence factors, chemotherapy resistance mechanisms, and prevention of avian diseases. This idea was prompted by the "One Health" concept, which is used worldwide.

Dr. Agnieszka Marek
Dr. Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • pathogenesis
  • animals
  • virulence factors
  • prevention

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 1202 KiB  
Article
Early Post-Hatch Nutrition Influences Performance and Muscle Growth in Broiler Chickens
by Andrzej Gaweł, Jan Paweł Madej, Bartosz Kozak and Kamila Bobrek
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233281 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
The poultry industry is under pressure to produce safe and good quality meat in the welfare conditions. Many areas such as genetics, biosecurity, and immunoprophylaxis were improved, and hatchery is one of the areas in which welfare could be improved for better production [...] Read more.
The poultry industry is under pressure to produce safe and good quality meat in the welfare conditions. Many areas such as genetics, biosecurity, and immunoprophylaxis were improved, and hatchery is one of the areas in which welfare could be improved for better production output. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of early post-hatch nutrition providing body weight and muscle development in broiler chickens. The experiment involving two groups (chicken hatched with access to water and feed in the hatcher, and chicken without feed and water in hatcher) was replicated three times, and the body weights and breast-muscle index of the randomly chosen 30 chickens per group in each term were measured on the 1st, 7th, 21st, and 35th day of life. The breast-muscle sample was taken for genetic examination (the expression of the myoD, myoG, and MRF4 genes) and histological examination. The results showed that the positive effect of early nutrition was observed on the seventh day of bird life with higher expression of myoG and MRF4 and higher body weight of the birds. The positive effect of early nutrition on the diameter of the breast-muscle fibers was visible on days 21 and 35 of chicken life. The average final body weight in groups with early access to food and water was 5% higher than in groups hatched under classic conditions. Conclusions: early feeding in the hatcher improves performance and muscle growth in broiler chickens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Pathology)
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11 pages, 1945 KiB  
Article
Use of a Smartphone-Based Device for Fundus Examination in Birds: A Pilot Study
by Aure-Eline Grillot, Thomas Coutant, Eva Louste, Cécile Le Barzic, Pascal Arné, Guillaume Payen and Minh Huynh
Animals 2022, 12(18), 2429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12182429 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 2014
Abstract
Ophthalmic examination is essential in the avian triage process in order to apply prompt therapeutic plans and evaluate rehabilitation potential. Fundoscopy is traditionally performed by direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. Recent technological developments have enabled the design of a small-sized and affordable retinal imaging [...] Read more.
Ophthalmic examination is essential in the avian triage process in order to apply prompt therapeutic plans and evaluate rehabilitation potential. Fundoscopy is traditionally performed by direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. Recent technological developments have enabled the design of a small-sized and affordable retinal imaging system to examine the fundus. We investigate the use of a smartphone-based device to realize fundus examination through a prospective cross-sectional observational study. Seventy-seven eyes of 39 birds of 15 different species were evaluated using the smartphone-based device in a rescue wildlife center. Pupil dilation was achieved prior to examination via rocuronium topical application. Assessment of fundus by the smartphone was classified as satisfactory, moderately satisfactory, and unsatisfactory. Fundus examination was also performed with a 20D, 30D, or 78D lens for comparison. Pupillary dilation was satisfactory, moderately satisfactory, or absent in 17, 32, and 28 eyes, respectively. Fundus examination with the smartphone-based device was satisfactory, moderately satisfactory, or unsatisfactory in 44, 15, and 18 eyes, respectively. The feasibility of the fundus examination was affected by the form of the globe; by the quality of pupil dilation; by the color of the iris (images could not be obtained from species with an orange, bright iris); and by the species, with owls (Strigiformes) being the easiest to observe. Based on these findings, fundus examination was feasible in most bird species examined in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Pathology)
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14 pages, 1236 KiB  
Article
Molecular and Serological Characteristics of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolated from Various Clinical Cases of Poultry Colibacillosis in Poland
by Jarosław Wilczyński, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Danuta Wystalska and Andrzej Wernicki
Animals 2022, 12(9), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12091090 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1904
Abstract
Escherichia coli infections are a major problem in modern poultry production. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains have several mechanisms that enable them to colonize various ecosystems. In this study, 290 E. coli isolates were recovered from clinical cases of colibacillosis in chicken [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli infections are a major problem in modern poultry production. Avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strains have several mechanisms that enable them to colonize various ecosystems. In this study, 290 E. coli isolates were recovered from clinical cases of colibacillosis in chicken and turkey broilers and from laying and breeding hens. The samples were taken from organs with pathological changes suggesting colibacillosis. The lesions were assigned to three groups depending on their advancement, of which the largest (60% of the isolates) was group 3, with the most extensive changes. The most common serotype was shown to be O78 (14%). The most frequently detected gene among those tested was iss, while papC was the least prevalent. An analysis of the number of genes present per isolate revealed that the presence of four genes was the most common (22%), while only 1% of the strains tested had all eight genes. The most frequently detected genes for each serotype were iss and iucD for O78; irp2 and cvi/cva for O1; irp2, iucD, and iss for O2, and iss and iucD for O8, for which the least frequent was papC. All O18 serotype strains had the iss gene, while none had the vat gene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Pathology)
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6 pages, 1793 KiB  
Communication
Molecular Analysis of the Heterakis dispar Population in Domestic Geese Based on the ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 Fragment
by Kamila Bobrek, Andrzej Gaweł and Joanna Urbanowicz
Animals 2022, 12(7), 926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12070926 - 4 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Heterakidosis is a parasitic infection in birds caused by the cecal parasite Heterakis spp. The most common species in geese is H. dispar, the largest avian heterakids species. Because of a scarcity of data concerning the H. dispar population, the aim of [...] Read more.
Heterakidosis is a parasitic infection in birds caused by the cecal parasite Heterakis spp. The most common species in geese is H. dispar, the largest avian heterakids species. Because of a scarcity of data concerning the H. dispar population, the aim of this study was the genetic analysis of Heterakis dispar isolated from geese flocks based on the ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 fragment. Among the 71 H. dispar specimens isolated from 20 geese flocks, six haplotypes were determined (A, B, C, D, E, and F). The four nucleotide substitutions were noted in both ITS fragments, and all of them were transitions between adenine and guanine, or thymine and cytosine. The most frequently noted haplotype was type A (45%), followed by type B (18.3%), type C and D (11.3%), type E (8.5%), and F (5.6%). Infection with nematodes from different haplotype groups was noted in 30% of the flocks, with type A being the most prevalent, followed by types B, D, or E to make up 100%. This study represents the first H. dispar population analysis based on the ITS1-5.8rRNA-ITS2 fragment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Pathology)
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6 pages, 349 KiB  
Communication
Prevalence of Blastocystis in Geese Reproductive Flocks
by Piotr Falkowski, Andrzej Gaweł and Kamila Bobrek
Animals 2022, 12(3), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12030291 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Blastocystis is a unicellular, anaerobic protozoan that has a low specificity for the hosts, and it could be a zoonosis. There are not many data about the occurrence of Blastocystis in bird species, and this study aimed to check the prevalence of Blastocystis [...] Read more.
Blastocystis is a unicellular, anaerobic protozoan that has a low specificity for the hosts, and it could be a zoonosis. There are not many data about the occurrence of Blastocystis in bird species, and this study aimed to check the prevalence of Blastocystis infection in reproductive geese flocks. The result obtained showed that a parasite was present in 46.5% of tested flocks. The extensiveness of the Blastocystis invasion in reproductive geese flocks was low because the genetic material of parasites was found only in 7.48% of samples. There was no correlation between the infection and the bird’s age or the flock size. The data obtained showed that geese could be the source of infections in humans who have contact with carriers of the infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Pathology)
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Review

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19 pages, 3294 KiB  
Review
Regulatory Role of Apoptotic and Inflammasome Related Proteins and Their Possible Functional Aspect in Thiram Associated Tibial Dyschondroplasia of Poultry
by Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar, Wangyuan Yao, Quan Mo, Yanmei Ding, Yan Zhang, Jindong Gao, Kewei Li, Huachun Pan, Shah Nawaz, Muhammad Shahzad, Khalid Mehmood, Mudassar Iqbal, Muhammad Akhtar, Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta, Muhammad Waqas, Jiakui Li and Desheng Qi
Animals 2022, 12(16), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12162028 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Tibial dyschondroplasia debilities apoptotic and inflammasomal conditions that can further destroy chondrocytes. Inflammasomes are specialized protein complexes that process pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that many of the signaling molecules that govern programmed cell death also [...] Read more.
Tibial dyschondroplasia debilities apoptotic and inflammasomal conditions that can further destroy chondrocytes. Inflammasomes are specialized protein complexes that process pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that many of the signaling molecules that govern programmed cell death also affect inflammasome activation in a cell-intrinsic way. During the last decade, apoptotic functions have been described for signaling molecules involving inflammatory responses and cell death pathways. Considering these exceptional developments in the knowledge of processes, this review gives a glimpse of the significance of these two pathways and their connected proteins in tibial dyschondroplasia. The current review deeply elaborates on the elevated level of signaling mediators of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and the inflammasome. Although investigating these pathways’ mechanisms has made significant progress, this review identifies areas where more study is especially required. It might lead to developing innovative therapeutics for tibial dyschondroplasia and other associated bone disorders, e.g., osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, where apoptosis and inflammasome are the significant pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Pathology)
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Other

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12 pages, 2750 KiB  
Case Report
Detection and Identification of Avian Reovirus in Young Geese (Anser anser domestica) in Poland
by Tomasz Nowak, Adam Kwiecinski, Piotr Kwiecinski, Grzegorz Tomczyk and Karolina Wodz
Animals 2022, 12(23), 3346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12233346 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
Avian reovirus (ARV) is a cause of infections of broiler and turkey flocks, as well as waterfowl birds. This case report describes a reovirus detection in a fattening goose flock. GRV-infected geese suffer from severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis, depressed growth, or runting-stunting syndrome [...] Read more.
Avian reovirus (ARV) is a cause of infections of broiler and turkey flocks, as well as waterfowl birds. This case report describes a reovirus detection in a fattening goose flock. GRV-infected geese suffer from severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis, depressed growth, or runting-stunting syndrome (RSS), malabsorption syndrome, and respiratory and enteric diseases. GRV (goose reovirus) caused pathological lesions in various organs and joints, especially in the liver and spleen. GRV infection causes splenic necrosis, which induces immunosuppression, predisposing geese to infection with other pathogens, which could worsen the disease and lead to death. Our results showed that GRV was detected via RT-PCR and isolated in SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) embryos. This is the first report of the involvement of reovirus in arthritis, and the generalized infection of young geese in Poland, resulting in pathological changes in internal organs and sudden death. This study also provides new information about the GRV, a disease that is little known and underestimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Avian Pathology)
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