Bacteria Isolated from Animals: Virulence, Characterization and Antimicrobial Resistance

A special issue of Antibiotics (ISSN 2079-6382). This special issue belongs to the section "Antibiotics in Animal Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 February 2023) | Viewed by 24167

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Disease, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
Interests: veterinary; bacteriology; food-borne pathogens; antibiotic resistance; bacteriophages; infectious diseases; ruminats diseases
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Department of Hygiene of Food of Animal Origin, National Veterinary Research Institute, Partyzantow 57, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland
Interests: bacteriology; food-borne pathogens; antimicrobial resistance; molecular biology
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Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
Interests: veterinary microbiology; bacteriology; antimicrobial susceptibility; probiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: avian diseases; infectious diseases; veterinary microbiology; antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria; mechanisms of resistance; virulence genes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: avian diseases; birds microbiology; opportunistic pathogen; diagnostics; mechanisms of resistance; spread of resistance; virulence factors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleague,

Widespread prevalence of bacterial infections caused especially with antibiotic resistance bacteria is the cause of hundreds of thousands of deaths annually, and the significant increase in the population of multiresistant strains observed around the world means that the International Health Organization (WHO) has recognized this phenomenon as a major global health threat. The inappropriate use of antibiotics at different levels in animals and human is probably the main source of resistance in bacteria.

By defending against antibacterial agents, including antibiotics, bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to counteract the action of antibacterial particles. Numerous studies have documented that bacteria use two major genetic strategies for their antimicrobial defense, the first being a gene mutation often associated with the mechanism of action of an antibacterial compound, and the second being the implementation of foreign DNA encoding resistance determinants by horizontal gene transfer.

We welcome studies which show a comprehensive characterization of bacteria including foot-borne and zoonotic pathogens, which are a potential danger to humans and animals. We also welcome studies with phenotypic and genotypic characterization of virulence factors, chemotherapeutic resistance mechanisms, and presentation of source of prevention of increase in resistance mechanisms in bacteria, including alternatives for antibiotics methods of control infections. This idea has prompted the “One Health” concept, which is common throughout the world.

Prof. Renata Urban-Chmiel
Dr. Kinga Wieczorek
Dr. Marta Dec
Dr. Agnieszka Marek
Dr. Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • bacteria
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • virulence
  • infections
  • animals

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 4360 KiB  
Article
The Characterization and Beta-Lactam Resistance of Staphylococcal Community Recovered from Raw Bovine Milk
by Nisa Sipahi, Ertugrul Kaya, Cansu Çelik and Orhan Pınar
Antibiotics 2023, 12(3), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12030556 - 10 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1834
Abstract
Staphylococci is an opportunistic bacterial population that is permanent in the normal flora of milk and poses a serious threat to animal and human health with some virulence factors and antibiotic-resistance genes. This study was aimed at identifying staphylococcal species isolated from raw [...] Read more.
Staphylococci is an opportunistic bacterial population that is permanent in the normal flora of milk and poses a serious threat to animal and human health with some virulence factors and antibiotic-resistance genes. This study was aimed at identifying staphylococcal species isolated from raw milk and to determine hemolysis, biofilm, coagulase activities, and beta-lactam resistance. The raw milk samples were collected from the Düzce (Türkiye) region, and the study data represent a first for this region. The characterization of the bacteria was performed with MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The presence of coa, icaB, blaZ, and mecA was investigated with PCR. A nitrocefin chromogenic assay was used for beta-lactamase screening. In this context, 84 staphylococci were isolated from 10 different species, and the dominant species was determined as S. aureus (32.14%). Although 32.14% of all staphylococci were positive for beta hemolysis, the icaB gene was found in 57.14%, coa in 46.42%, mecA in 15.47%, and blaZ in 8.33%. As a result, Staphylococcus spp. strains that were isolated from raw milk in this study contained some virulence factors at a high level, but also contained a relatively low level of beta-lactam resistance genes. However, considering the animal–environment–human interaction, it is considered that the current situation must be monitored constantly in terms of resistance concerns. It must not be forgotten that the development of resistance is in constant change among bacteria. Full article
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15 pages, 3271 KiB  
Article
Prevalence of Potential Pathogenic and Antimicrobial Resistant Escherichia coli in Danish Broilers
by Louise Ladefoged Poulsen, Magne Bisgaard and Henrik Christensen
Antibiotics 2023, 12(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12020344 - 7 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are important bacteria in broiler production in terms of economy, welfare, and use of antibiotics. During a previous outbreak of APEC in the Nordic countries, it was suggested that the pathogenic clones of E. coli causing the outbreak [...] Read more.
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are important bacteria in broiler production in terms of economy, welfare, and use of antibiotics. During a previous outbreak of APEC in the Nordic countries, it was suggested that the pathogenic clones of E. coli causing the outbreak originated from grandparent stock and were transmitted to the offspring, causing increased first week mortality. This study investigated whether the pathogenic potential of E. coli at the parent and broiler level differs in relation to pathogenic potential described by the level of virulence-associated genes and pattern of antimicrobial resistance. The hypothesis was that, due to higher biosecurity at the parent level, the E. coli population will show a lower level of antimicrobial resistance and carry fewer virulence-associated genes, as a result of fewer E. coli infections observed. From four parent flocks and eight broiler flocks, 715 E. coli were isolated from cloacal swabs of newly hatched chickens (Ross 308). The isolated E. coli were characterized by eight virulence-associated genes and phenotypic resistance against six antimicrobials. It was found that the prevalence of virulence-associated genes and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance varied significantly between flocks, and the virulence-associated genes papC and irp2 and resistance against ampicillin were significantly more prevalent in breeder flocks compared to broiler flocks. Full article
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28 pages, 4809 KiB  
Article
Comparative Genome Analysis of 19 Trueperella pyogenes Strains Originating from Different Animal Species Reveal a Genetically Diverse Open Pan-Genome
by Zoozeal Thakur, Rajesh Kumar Vaid, Taruna Anand and Bhupendra Nath Tripathi
Antibiotics 2023, 12(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics12010024 - 24 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2093
Abstract
Trueperella pyogenes is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that causes severe cases of mastitis, metritis, and pneumonia in a wide range of animals, resulting in significant economic losses. Although little is known about the virulence factors involved in the disease pathogenesis, a comprehensive comparative [...] Read more.
Trueperella pyogenes is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that causes severe cases of mastitis, metritis, and pneumonia in a wide range of animals, resulting in significant economic losses. Although little is known about the virulence factors involved in the disease pathogenesis, a comprehensive comparative genome analysis of T. pyogenes genomes has not been performed till date. Hence, present investigation was carried out to characterize and compare 19 T. pyogenes genomes originating in different geographical origins including the draftgenome of the first Indian origin strain T. pyogenes Bu5. Additionally, candidate virulence determinants that could be crucial for their pathogenesis were also detected and analyzed by using various bioinformatics tools. The pan-genome calculations revealed an open pan-genome of T. pyogenes. In addition, an inventory of virulence related genes, 190 genomic islands, 31 prophage sequences, and 40 antibiotic resistance genes that could play a significant role in organism’s pathogenicity were detected. The core-genome based phylogeny of T. pyogenes demonstrates a polyphyletic, host-associated group with a high degree of genomic diversity. The identified core-genome can be further used for screening of drug and vaccine targets. The investigation has provided unique insights into pan-genome, virulome, mobiliome, and resistome of T. pyogenes genomes and laid the foundation for future investigations. Full article
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13 pages, 2253 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Human and Animal E. coli: Serotyping, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Virulence Gene Profiling
by Mahmoud M. Bendary, Marwa I. Abdel-Hamid, Walaa A. Alshareef, Hanan M. Alshareef, Rasha A. Mosbah, Nasreen N. Omar, Mohammad M. Al-Sanea, Majid Alhomrani, Abdulhakeem S. Alamri and Walaa H. Moustafa
Antibiotics 2022, 11(5), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11050552 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Widespread multidrug-resistant (MDR) and multi-virulent diarrheagenic E. coli create several crises among human and animal populations worldwide. For this reason, we looked forward to a breakthrough with this issue and tried to highlight these emerging threats. A total of 140 diarrheagenic E. coli [...] Read more.
Widespread multidrug-resistant (MDR) and multi-virulent diarrheagenic E. coli create several crises among human and animal populations worldwide. For this reason, we looked forward to a breakthrough with this issue and tried to highlight these emerging threats. A total of 140 diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were recovered from animal and human sources. The O26 serotype, alongside the ampicillin/cefoxitin resistance phenotype, was predominant among both human and animal isolates. Of note, imipenem represented the most effective antibiotic against all the investigated isolates. Unfortunately, 90% and 57.9% of the tested isolates showed MDR and multi-virulent patterns, respectively. The animal isolates were more virulent and showed higher sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. Both animal and human isolates could not be arranged into related clusters. A strong negative correlation between the existence of virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance was clearly detected. A significant correlation between serotypes and antimicrobial resistance was not detected; meanwhile, a significant positive correlation between some serotypes and the presence of certain virulence genes was announced. Finally, our results confirmed the urgent need for restricted guidelines, in addition to new alternative therapies, due to the genetic diversity and wide spreading of MDR side by side with multi-virulent E. coli isolates. Full article
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Review

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40 pages, 588 KiB  
Review
Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria—A Review
by Renata Urban-Chmiel, Agnieszka Marek, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Kinga Wieczorek, Marta Dec, Anna Nowaczek and Jacek Osek
Antibiotics 2022, 11(8), 1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11081079 - 9 Aug 2022
Cited by 129 | Viewed by 15194
Abstract
Background: A global problem of multi-drug resistance (MDR) among bacteria is the cause of hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. In response to the significant increase of MDR bacteria, legislative measures have widely been taken to limit or eliminate the use of [...] Read more.
Background: A global problem of multi-drug resistance (MDR) among bacteria is the cause of hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. In response to the significant increase of MDR bacteria, legislative measures have widely been taken to limit or eliminate the use of antibiotics, including in the form of feed additives for livestock, but also in metaphylaxis and its treatment, which was the subject of EU Regulation in 2019/6. Numerous studies have documented that bacteria use both phenotypis and gentic strategies enabling a natural defence against antibiotics and the induction of mechanisms in increasing resistance to the used antibacterial chemicals. The mechanisms presented in this review developed by the bacteria have a significant impact on reducing the ability to combat bacterial infections in humans and animals. Moreover, the high prevalence of multi-resistant strains in the environment and the ease of transmission of drug-resistance genes between the different bacterial species including commensal flora and pathogenic like foodborne pathogens (E. coli, Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp.) favor the rapid spread of multi-resistance among bacteria in humans and animals. Given the global threat posed by the widespread phenomenon of multi-drug resistance among bacteria which are dangerous for humans and animals, the subject of this study is the presentation of the mechanisms of resistance in most frequent bacteria called as “foodborne pathoges” isolated from human and animals. In order to present the significance of the global problem related to multi-drug resistance among selected pathogens, especially those danger to humans, the publication also presents statistical data on the percentage range of occurrence of drug resistance among selected bacteria in various regions of the world. In addition to the phenotypic characteristics of pathogen resistance, this review also presents detailed information on the detection of drug resistance genes for specific groups of antibiotics. It should be emphasized that the manuscript also presents the results of own research i.e., Campylobacter spp., E. coli or Enetrococcus spp. This subject and the presentation of data on the risks of drug resistance among bacteria will contribute to initiating research in implementing the prevention of drug resistance and the development of alternatives for antimicrobials methods of controlling bacteria. Full article
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