Alternative Methods for Control of Pathogens in Livestock

A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 22961

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Disease, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
Interests: veterinary; bacteriology; food-borne pathogens; antibiotic resistance; bacteriophages; infectious diseases; ruminats diseases
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-033 Lublin, Poland
Interests: veterinary microbiology; bacteriology; antimicrobial susceptibility; probiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: avian diseases; infectious diseases; veterinary microbiology; antibiotic susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria; mechanisms of resistance; virulence genes
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin, Poland
Interests: avian diseases; birds microbiology; opportunistic pathogen; diagnostics; mechanisms of resistance; spread of resistance; virulence factors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

The aim of the Special Issue is to present current research on the possibility of pathogen control in livestock production using alternative methods to antibiotics.This is necessary because of the increasing drug resistance among bacteria as a consequence of antibiotics use. The current legal regulations significantly limit the use of antibiotics in animal production, and many particular groups of chemotherapeutics in EU countries are banned.

Prof. Renata Chmiel-Urban
Dr. Marta Dec
Dr. Agnieszka Marek
Dr. Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak

Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • antibiotic resistance
  • livestock
  • bacteria
  • foodborne pathogens

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 7726 KiB  
Article
Real-Time PCR as an Alternative Technique for Detection of Dermatophytes in Cattle Herds
by Dominik Łagowski, Sebastian Gnat, Aneta Nowakiewicz and Aleksandra Trościańczyk
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061662 - 2 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 6016
Abstract
Dermatophytes are filamentous fungi with the ability to digest and grow on keratinized substrates. The ongoing improvements in fungal detection techniques give new scope for clinical implementations in laboratories and veterinary clinics, including the monitoring of the disease and carrier status. The technologically [...] Read more.
Dermatophytes are filamentous fungi with the ability to digest and grow on keratinized substrates. The ongoing improvements in fungal detection techniques give new scope for clinical implementations in laboratories and veterinary clinics, including the monitoring of the disease and carrier status. The technologically advanced methods for dermatophyte detection include molecular methods based on PCR. In this context, the aim of this study was to carry out tests on the occurrence of dermatophytes in cattle herds using qPCR methods and a comparative analysis with conventional methods. Each sample collected from ringworm cases and from asymptomatic cattle was divided into three parts and subjected to the real-time PCR technique, direct light microscopy analysis, and culture-based methods. The use of the real-time PCR technique with pan-dermatophyte primers detected the presence of dermatophytes in the sample with a 10.84% (45% vs. 34.17%) higher efficiency than direct analysis with light microscopy. Moreover, a dermatophyte culture was obtained from all samples with a positive qPCR result. In conclusion, it seems that this method can be used with success to detect dermatophytes and monitor cowsheds in ringworm cases and carriers in cattle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods for Control of Pathogens in Livestock)
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14 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
Protective Immunity Induced by an Eimeria tenella Whole Sporozoite Vaccine Elicits Specific B-Cell Antigens
by Marco A. Juárez-Estrada, Amanda Gayosso-Vázquez, Guillermo Tellez-Isaias and Rogelio A. Alonso-Morales
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1344; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051344 - 9 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3350
Abstract
This study investigated protection against Eimeria tenella following the vaccination of chicks with 5.3 × 106 E. tenella whole-sporozoites emulsified in the nanoparticle adjuvant IMS 1313 N VG Montanide™ (EtSz-IMS1313). One-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were subcutaneously injected in the neck with [...] Read more.
This study investigated protection against Eimeria tenella following the vaccination of chicks with 5.3 × 106 E. tenella whole-sporozoites emulsified in the nanoparticle adjuvant IMS 1313 N VG Montanide™ (EtSz-IMS1313). One-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were subcutaneously injected in the neck with EtSz-IMS1313 on the 1st and 10th days of age. Acquired immunity was assayed through a challenge with 3 × 104 homologous sporulated oocysts at 21 days of age. The anticoccidial index (ACI) calculated for every group showed the effectiveness of EtSz-IMS1313 as a vaccine with an ACI of 186; the mock-injected control showed an ACI of 18 and the unimmunized, challenged control showed an ACI of −28. In a comparison assay, antibodies from rabbits and SPF birds immunized with EtSz-IMS1313 recognized almost the same polypeptides in the blotting of E. tenella sporozoites and merozoites. However, rabbit antisera showed the clearest recognition pattern. Polypeptides of 120, 105, 94, 70, 38, and 19 kDa from both E. tenella life cycle stages were the most strongly recognized by both animal species. The E. tenella zoite-specific IgG antibodies from the rabbits demonstrated the feasibility for successful B cell antigen identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods for Control of Pathogens in Livestock)
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10 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
The Addition of Nature Identical Flavorings Accelerated the Virucidal Effect of Pure Benzoic Acid against African Swine Fever Viral Contamination of Complete Feed
by Hengxiao Zhai, Chihai Ji, Maria Carol Walsh, Jon Bergstrom, Sebastien Potot and Heng Wang
Animals 2021, 11(4), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11041124 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1672
Abstract
African swine fever virus is one of the most highly contagious and lethal viruses for the global swine industry. Strengthening biosecurity is the only effective measure for preventing the spread of this viral disease. The virus can be transmitted through contaminated feedstuffs and, [...] Read more.
African swine fever virus is one of the most highly contagious and lethal viruses for the global swine industry. Strengthening biosecurity is the only effective measure for preventing the spread of this viral disease. The virus can be transmitted through contaminated feedstuffs and, therefore, research has been conducted to explore corresponding mitigating measures. The purpose of the current study was to test a combination of pure benzoic acid and a blend of nature identical flavorings for their ability to reduce African swine fever viral survival in feed. This virus was inoculated to feed with or without the supplementation of the test compounds, and the viral presence and load were measured by a hemadsorption test and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The main finding was that the combination of pure benzoic acid and nature identical flavorings could expedite the reduction in both viral load and survival in a swine feed. Therefore, this solution could be adopted as a preventive measure for mitigating the risk of contaminated feed by African swine fever virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods for Control of Pathogens in Livestock)
28 pages, 3094 KiB  
Article
Biodiversity of Ligilactobacillus salivarius Strains from Poultry and Domestic Pigeons
by Marta Dec, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Andrzej Puchalski, Tomasz Hauschild, Dorota Pietras-Ożga, Szymon Ignaciuk and Renata Urban-Chmiel
Animals 2021, 11(4), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040972 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3166
Abstract
Ligilactobacillus salivarius is an important member of the human and animal gut microbiota, and selected strains are promising probiotics, but knowledge of the characteristics of avian isolates is still limited. In this study, we examined selected phenotypic and genotypic traits of 33 L. [...] Read more.
Ligilactobacillus salivarius is an important member of the human and animal gut microbiota, and selected strains are promising probiotics, but knowledge of the characteristics of avian isolates is still limited. In this study, we examined selected phenotypic and genotypic traits of 33 L. salivarius strains from geese, chickens, turkeys and pigeons. The strains varied in terms of cell size, colony morphology, broth growth characteristics, biofilm formation, tolerance to bile, hydrophobicity and phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance profiles. Large variation among strains was noted for the utilization of sorbitol, salicin, trehalose, rhamnose, inulin and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The presence of genes related to sugar metabolism, i.e., mipB, tktA, rhaB and LSL_1894, was not always correlated with the biochemical phenotypic profile. Correlations were recorded between the host and utilization of certain sugars as well as tolerance to bile. The repA-type megaplasmid and genes coding for Abp118 bacteriocin were detected in 94% and 51.5% of L. salivarius strains, respectively. Phylogeny based on groEL gene sequences was partly correlated with the origin of the strains and revealed an evolutionary distance between L. salivarius strains from humans and birds. The results of the study contribute to knowledge of the characteristics of the species L. salivarius. Intraspecies variations of L. salivarius strains may affect their ability to colonize specific niches and utilize nutrients and reveal potential strain-dependent effects on host health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods for Control of Pathogens in Livestock)
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10 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Biofilm-Formation Ability and the Presence of Adhesion Genes in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolates from Chicken Broilers
by Agnieszka Marek, Ewelina Pyzik, Dagmara Stępień-Pyśniak, Marta Dec, Łukasz S. Jarosz, Anna Nowaczek and Magdalena Sulikowska
Animals 2021, 11(3), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030728 - 7 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2008
Abstract
The aim of the study was to analyze the biofilm-production capacity of 87 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains (CoNS) isolated from broiler chickens and to determine the occurrence of biofilm-associated genes. The biofilm production capacity of staphylococci was assessed using the microtiter plate method (MTP), [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to analyze the biofilm-production capacity of 87 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains (CoNS) isolated from broiler chickens and to determine the occurrence of biofilm-associated genes. The biofilm production capacity of staphylococci was assessed using the microtiter plate method (MTP), and the frequency of genes was determined by PCR. The ability to form a biofilm in vitro was shown in 79.3% of examined strains. Strong biofilm capacity was demonstrated in 26.4% of strains, moderate capacity in 25.3%, weak capacity in 27.6%, and a complete lack of biofilm production capacity in 20.7% of strains. The icaAB gene responsible for the production of extracellular polysaccharide adhesins was detected in 6.9% of strains. The other four genes, i.e., bap (encoding biofilm-associated protein), atlE (encoding cell surface protein exhibiting vitronectin-binding activity), fbe (encoding fibrinogen-binding protein), and eno (encoding laminin-binding protein) were detected in 5.7%, 19.5%, 8%, and 70.1% of strains, respectively. Demonstration of genes that play a role in bacterial biofilm formation may serve as a genetic basis to distinguish between symbiotic and potentially invasive coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods for Control of Pathogens in Livestock)
8 pages, 231 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Manuka (Leptospermum scoparium J.R. et G. Forst) and winter Savory (Satureja montana L.) Essential Oils and Their Blends against Pathogenic E. coli Isolates from Pigs
by Filippo Fratini, Mario Forzan, Barbara Turchi, Simone Mancini, Giuseppe Alcamo, Francesca Pedonese, Luisa Pistelli, Basma Najar and Maurizio Mazzei
Animals 2020, 10(12), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10122202 - 24 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
Neonatal diarrhoea (ND), post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and oedema disease (OD) are among the most important diseases affecting pig farming due to economic losses. Among the main aetiological agents, strains of Escherichia coli are identified as the major responsible pathogens involved. Several strategies have [...] Read more.
Neonatal diarrhoea (ND), post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) and oedema disease (OD) are among the most important diseases affecting pig farming due to economic losses. Among the main aetiological agents, strains of Escherichia coli are identified as the major responsible pathogens involved. Several strategies have been put in place to prevent these infections and, today, research is increasingly studying alternative methods to antibiotics to reduce the antibiotic resistance phenomenon. Essential oils (EOs) are among the alternative tools that are being investigated. In this study, the in vitro effectiveness of winter savory and manuka essential oils and their mixtures in different proportions against strains of E. coli isolated from episodes of disease in pigs was evaluated. The EOs alone demonstrated slight antibacterial effectiveness, whereas the blends, by virtue of their synergistic action, showed remarkable activity, especially the 70%–30% winter savory–manuka blend, showing itself as a potential tool for prevention and therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods for Control of Pathogens in Livestock)

Review

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13 pages, 311 KiB  
Review
The Use of Probiotics in the Reduction of Campylobacter spp. Prevalence in Poultry
by Marcin Śmiałek, Joanna Kowalczyk and Andrzej Koncicki
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1355; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051355 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2744
Abstract
Campylobacter spp. are widely distributed microorganisms, many of which are commensals of gastrointestinal tract in multiple animal species, including poultry. Most commonly detected are C. jejuni and C. coli. Although infections are usually asymptomatic in poultry, poultry meat and products represent main [...] Read more.
Campylobacter spp. are widely distributed microorganisms, many of which are commensals of gastrointestinal tract in multiple animal species, including poultry. Most commonly detected are C. jejuni and C. coli. Although infections are usually asymptomatic in poultry, poultry meat and products represent main sources of infection with these bacteria to humans. According to recent EFSA report, campylobacteriosis is the most commonly reported zoonotic disease. In 2018, EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards indicated that use of feed and water additives is the second most likely strategy that can be successful in minimizing Campylobacter spp. colonization rate in broiler chickens. One of those feed and water additives are probiotics. From numerous research papers it can be concluded that probiotics exhibit plenty of mechanisms of anti-Campylobacter activity, which were evaluated under in vitro conditions. These results, to some extent, can explain the efficacy of probiotics in in vivo studies, although different outcome can be observed under these two laboratory conditions. Probiotics are capable of reducing Campylobacter spp. population count in poultry gastrointestinal tract and they can reduce carcass contamination. Potential modes of anti-Campylobacter activity of probiotics, results of in vivo studies and studies performed at a farm level are widely discussed in the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods for Control of Pathogens in Livestock)
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