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Poultry, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 6 articles

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14 pages, 1049 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Boron as a Feed Additive to Improve Musculoskeletal Health of Hy-Line W-36 Pullets
by Mallory G. Anderson, Alexa M. Johnson, Alexis Clark, Cerano Harrison, Mireille Arguelles-Ramos and Ahmed Ali
Poultry 2024, 3(2), 147-160; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3020012 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Boron supplementation may improve the musculoskeletal health of pullets before entering the lay phase. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different boron amounts on the performance, muscle deposition, tibia cross-sectional area (CSA) and mineral density (BMD), ash percent, breaking strength, and [...] Read more.
Boron supplementation may improve the musculoskeletal health of pullets before entering the lay phase. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different boron amounts on the performance, muscle deposition, tibia cross-sectional area (CSA) and mineral density (BMD), ash percent, breaking strength, and bone mineralization (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase [BALP] and pro-collagen type 1 n-terminal propeptide [P1NP]) of a white-feathered strain of pullets. A total of 528 Hy-Line W-36 pullets were distributed across 24 pens and fed basal diets containing varying amounts of boron (C: 0 mg/kg; L: 50 mg/kg; M: 100 mg/kg; H: 150 mg/kg) for 17 weeks. Performance parameters (body weight, average daily weight gain/bird, and average daily feed intake/bird) were measured at weeks 4, 7, 10, 13, and 16, while all other measures were taken at 11 and 17 weeks of age. Performance was not impacted by boron supplementation. Pectoralis major weights were higher in H pullets at 11 weeks of age, and we also observed higher pectoralis major, minor, and leg muscle weights in H pullets at 17 weeks of age. Pullets fed the H diet had larger cortical CSA than the other treatment groups at 11 weeks of age. At 17 weeks of age, both the H and M groups had larger cortical CSA than the L and C groups, but the M group had slightly smaller cortical CSA. Pullets fed the H diet had higher BMD values than the other treatment groups at 11 weeks of age. At 17 weeks of age, pullets fed the H diet had the highest total BMD values compared to the other treatment groups, and cortical BMD increased with increasing boron inclusion. Pullets fed the H diet had the highest tibia ash percentages and concentrations of BALP and P1NP. Pullets fed the M and H diets had greater failure load and maximum bending moment than pullets fed the L or C diet at 11 weeks of age, with H pullets having greater stiffness values than other groups. At 17 weeks of age, pullets fed the H diet had greater failure load and maximum bending moment compared to all other treatment groups. Our results suggest that providing boron within the diet at 150 mg/kg can improve the musculoskeletal characteristics of Hy-Line W-36 pullets up to 17 weeks of age, without impacting performance parameters. Full article
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18 pages, 2412 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Dietary Synbiotic on Agonistic Behavior, Stress, and Brain Monoamines via Modulation of the Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis in Laying Hens
by Alexa M. Johnson, Alexis Clark, Mallory G. Anderson, Elyse Corbin, Mireille Arguelles-Ramos and Ahmed B. A. Ali
Poultry 2024, 3(2), 129-146; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3020011 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 514
Abstract
A complex system of neural pathways, collectively known as the microbiota–gut–brain (MGB) axis, interconnects the gut microbiota, the gastrointestinal system, and the brain along with its periphery. Previous studies have demonstrated that modulation of the MGB axis can influence stress-related behaviors such as [...] Read more.
A complex system of neural pathways, collectively known as the microbiota–gut–brain (MGB) axis, interconnects the gut microbiota, the gastrointestinal system, and the brain along with its periphery. Previous studies have demonstrated that modulation of the MGB axis can influence stress-related behaviors such as anxiety. This connection becomes apparent in scenarios like agonistic behavior in laying hens, which is characterized by aggressive head and feather pecks, that can ultimately result in cannibalism and death. The objective was to examine the effects of a dietary synbiotic on agonistic behavior, plasma and brain monoamines, stress parameters, and cecal microbiota counts via modulation of the MGB axis. A total of 396 W36 Hy-Line laying hens were provided at random with a control (CON: basal diet) or treatment (SYN: basal diet supplemented with synbiotic) diet from 50 to 60 weeks old (nine pens/treatment, 22 birds/pen). Blood samples and video recordings (three consecutive days/week) were taken at 50 and 60 weeks. At 60 weeks, three hens/pen were euthanized for brain and cecal microbiota collection. Threatening, fighting, head, body, and feather pecking all occurred less frequently at 60 weeks in the SYN group (p < 0.05). Plasma corticosterone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, dopamine, and serotonin were significantly lower while tryptophan and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly higher in birds from the SYN group (p < 0.05). Significant differences in serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, dopamine, homovanillic acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were observed in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala of the brain. Serotonin and dopamine turnover rates were significantly different in all three regions of the brain (p < 0.05). Cecal counts of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly higher in the SYN group (p < 0.05). Synbiotic supplementation resulted in many significant differences, indicating activation of the serotonergic systems and modulation of both the MGB axis and HPA axis with positive effects on welfare and stress. Full article
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22 pages, 407 KiB  
Review
Impact of Heat Stress on Broiler Chicken Production
by Oluwabunmi O. Apalowo, Deji A. Ekunseitan and Yewande O. Fasina
Poultry 2024, 3(2), 107-128; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3020010 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 767
Abstract
Poultry farmers need to consider making adaptations now to help reduce cost, risk, and concern in the future; the industry’s high and unstable input costs, which result in losses, need to incentivize manufacturers to concentrate on efficient management, welfare, and health improvements, thereby [...] Read more.
Poultry farmers need to consider making adaptations now to help reduce cost, risk, and concern in the future; the industry’s high and unstable input costs, which result in losses, need to incentivize manufacturers to concentrate on efficient management, welfare, and health improvements, thereby creating premium and value-added products. Heat stress, a significant concern, particularly affects broiler chicken, which is vital for global meat supply in the dynamic field of poultry farming. Despite advances in breeding and management, these pressures have a negative influence on avian development, well-being, and overall health, threatening the poultry industry’s long-term viability. This study investigates the physiological reactions and production consequences of various heat conditions in the chicken business. It thoroughly investigates the complicated implications of heat stress, which has a negative impact on broiler performance and causes economic losses. This article investigates various dietary techniques, such as antioxidants, probiotics, amino acid balance, and vitamin supplementation, with the goal of improving chicken thermotolerance as part of a comprehensive stress reduction strategy. This assessment emphasizes the industry’s continuous commitment to sustainable practices by highlighting the need for more research to enhance methodology, investigate creative tactics, and address regional variances in heat stress. Full article
12 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Supplementation with Organic Acid and Oregano Oils in Drinking Water on Pekin Duck Growth and Welfare
by Jessica J. Rocha and Gregory S. Archer
Poultry 2024, 3(2), 95-106; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3020009 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 497
Abstract
This study evaluated duck growth, health, and welfare in response to water supplementation with organic acid (OA) and oregano oils (OOs) in Pekin duck. The treatments used in this study included a control (CON) treatment with no water additives given, an OA treatment [...] Read more.
This study evaluated duck growth, health, and welfare in response to water supplementation with organic acid (OA) and oregano oils (OOs) in Pekin duck. The treatments used in this study included a control (CON) treatment with no water additives given, an OA treatment (ProPhorce Exclusive NC®), and an OO treatment (Nubiotic 4X Concentrate®). The OA and OO improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body weight (BW) (p < 0.01) compared to the control (CON). Both OA and OO showed differences (p < 0.05) in villus height and crypt depth compared to the CON. But only OA showed an increase (p < 0.01) in villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio. On D 35, the total plasma corticosterone levels, heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, and asymmetry scores for OA and OO were decreased (p < 0.05) compared to CON, indicating lower stress susceptibility. The pH levels of OA ceca and jejunum were lower (p < 0.05) compared to CON. Tibia breaking strength was increased (p = 0.02) for OA compared to CON, while no differences were found with OO (p > 0.05). In conclusion, these experiments indicate that OA and OO can be used to improve duck growth, feed efficiency, stress susceptibility, and bird welfare. Full article
10 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Efficiency of Utilization of Metabolizable Energy for Carcass Energy Retention in Broiler Chickens Fed Maize, Wheat or a Mixture
by Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev, Muhammad Hassan Hammandy, Stephen Charles Mansbridge, Isobel Margaret Whiting and Stephen Paul Rose
Poultry 2024, 3(2), 85-94; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3020008 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 427
Abstract
The study aimed to quantify carcass fat and protein retention, and the efficiency of carcass energy utilization (Kre) resulting from feeding broiler chickens diets containing wheat, maize or mixtures of both as the major cereal ingredient. The apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of the [...] Read more.
The study aimed to quantify carcass fat and protein retention, and the efficiency of carcass energy utilization (Kre) resulting from feeding broiler chickens diets containing wheat, maize or mixtures of both as the major cereal ingredient. The apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of the four cereal samples was determined in adult cockerels. There was a linear (p < 0.001) increase in AME with increasing amounts of maize within the four cereal mixtures, with analyses indicating that the AME of maize was 1.4 MJ/kg greater than that of wheat. A second bioassay with growing chickens was used to determine Kre in each cereal, measured as carcass fat and protein from 7 to 21d age. Increasing proportions of maize resulted in linear increases in carcass fat and energy retained from fat (p < 0.001). However, the carcass protein and energy retained from protein did not follow the same pattern as fat (p = 0.121), but rather decreased numerically (L = 0.032). The Kre tended (p = 0.060) to increase with greater proportion of maize in a linear fashion (L = 0.009). Although AME values of cereals were confirmed to be additive, this could not be confirmed for Kre. This data can be used for optimizing energy utilization models for growing broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Poultry)
19 pages, 752 KiB  
Article
Black Soldier Meal in Feed Could Adversely Affect Organic Broiler Meat Quality When Used for the Total or Half Replacement of Diet Proteins
by Maria Chiara La Mantia, Massimo Calì, Luigi Petrocchi Jasinski, Michela Contò, David Meo Zilio, Gianluca Renzi and Monica Guarino Amato
Poultry 2024, 3(2), 66-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3020007 - 22 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 678
Abstract
Organic poultry sector needs high-quality proteins sources to meet specific requirements. The EU’s organic regulation forbids synthetic amino acids; therefore, soybean, with its balanced essential amino acid content, has become the most used protein source, though much of it is imported from non-EU [...] Read more.
Organic poultry sector needs high-quality proteins sources to meet specific requirements. The EU’s organic regulation forbids synthetic amino acids; therefore, soybean, with its balanced essential amino acid content, has become the most used protein source, though much of it is imported from non-EU countries, with sustainability and crop competition issues; therefore, it should be substituted with a high-protein-value alternative such as insect meal. In this study, 900 Aviagen Savanna broilers were fed with three different organic diets: soybean only (S100), 50% black soldier fly larvae meal (BSL) and 50% soybean (BSL50), and 100% BSL only (BSL100). Broiler performance, welfare, and fatty acids (FA) were analyzed. BSL50 and BSL100 negatively affected growth, while only BSL100 worsened all of the market-related performances. Meat showed a significant increase in saturated FA (SFA) (p < 0.000) and a corresponding decrease in polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), in BSL50 and BSL100, but α-linolenic acid was not affected by BSL50 treatment (p < 0.000). The SFA increase could represent a negative aspect for human health (e.g., cardiovascular diseases), but, as reported by other authors, medium chain SFA, (i.e., lauric acid), may show beneficial effects as well (i.e., antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties). Full article
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