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Poultry, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 6 articles

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9 pages, 252 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Effects of Feeding a Concentrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Product on the Performance and Stress Susceptibility of Broiler Chickens
by Zachary Heinsohn, Austin Brown, Eric Sobotik, Gabrielle House, Austin Stiewert, William Evan Chaney, Vivek Kuttappan and Gregory S. Archer
Poultry 2024, 3(1), 57-65; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3010006 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 589
Abstract
This study evaluated the effect of a concentrated yeast fermentation product on the performance and stress response of broiler chickens. Day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: Control (CON) or concentrated yeast fermentation product (CSCFP, [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effect of a concentrated yeast fermentation product on the performance and stress response of broiler chickens. Day-old Cobb 500 male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments: Control (CON) or concentrated yeast fermentation product (CSCFP, 0.625 kg/MT). On d18, simultaneous feed withdrawal and heat stress challenges were performed for 12 h. Blood was analyzed for plasma corticosterone (CORT) and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (HL) on d19 and d42. Performance parameters were collected throughout the trial: body weight (BW), feed consumption (FC), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). On d19, the CSCFP birds had lower (p ≤ 0.05) CORT (5320.3 ng/mL) and HL (0.14) than the CON birds (9049.6 ng/mL and 0.21). On d42, the CSCFP birds had lower (p ≤ 0.05) CORT (1623.8 ng/mL) and HL (0.74) than the CON birds (2920.2 ng/mL and 1.05). No differences were observed in mortality (p > 0.05). The CON birds had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) FCR than CSCFP throughout all phases. The CON birds consumed more feed than the CSCFP birds throughout all phases (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, CYFP reduced stress and improved feed conversion when compared to CON, making it a viable feed additive to improve welfare and production. Full article
10 pages, 308 KiB  
Article
Rapid DNA Detection of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Heidelberg from Poultry Samples
by Joana Bittencourt Mathias, Margarida Neves Souza, Diéssy Kipper, André Salvador Kazantzi Fonseca, Vagner Ricardo Lunge and Nilo Ikuta
Poultry 2024, 3(1), 47-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3010005 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 897
Abstract
The Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg), and their monophasic variants (S. 1,4,[5],12:i:-, S. 1,4,[5],12:r:- and S. 1,4,[5],12:-:1,2) are highly disseminated in poultry farming and can contaminate chicken meat, eggs, and other foods of avian origin. A time-consuming [...] Read more.
The Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg), and their monophasic variants (S. 1,4,[5],12:i:-, S. 1,4,[5],12:r:- and S. 1,4,[5],12:-:1,2) are highly disseminated in poultry farming and can contaminate chicken meat, eggs, and other foods of avian origin. A time-consuming bacteriological and serological analysis is usually required to identify serovars by traditional methods. Incomplete and inconclusive serological results are frequent in routine analysis, mainly due to the occurrence of bacterial isolates presenting similar antigenic profiles. Molecular biology assays have been developed to improve the detection of specific Salmonella serovars and strains. This study aimed to develop a multiplex real-time PCR (SHTAmp) for the rapid DNA detection of S. Typhimurium, S. Heidelberg, and their monophasic variants from poultry samples. The methodology was used in the analysis of 147 field isolates from Brazilian poultry flocks previously evaluated with serological analysis. The results demonstrated that it was able to specifically and rapidly detect 21 S. Typhimurium and 57 S. Heidelberg isolates with complete antigenic formulae. Furthermore, SHTAmp was able to differentiate nine S. Typhimurium and 44 S. Heidelberg isolates with incomplete serological formulae (monophasic and aphasic variants). The complete methodology was also successfully used to detect these bacteria directly from 34 poultry samples after pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water (BPW). In conclusion, SHTAmp is a fast and accurate method to detect the two frequent and concerning serovars S. Typhimurium and S. Heidelberg directly from poultry samples. Full article
11 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Egg Quality and Performance in Late-Lay Hens Fed Different Combinations of Copper, Manganese, and Zinc Complexed with Sulfate or Amino Acid Ion
by Jill R. Domel, Gabrielle M. House, Eric B. Sobotik and Gregory S. Archer
Poultry 2024, 3(1), 36-46; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3010004 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Dietary inclusion of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) can improve egg shell quality through changing the membrane structure. This study aimed to compare the responses of egg shell to different mineral sources. In this study, 60-week-old laying hens (n = 378) [...] Read more.
Dietary inclusion of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) can improve egg shell quality through changing the membrane structure. This study aimed to compare the responses of egg shell to different mineral sources. In this study, 60-week-old laying hens (n = 378) were assigned to one of seven treatments with 18 replicates each in an RCBD. Treatments included the following: control (basal + sulfated minerals (CuSO4, MnSO4, and ZnSO4)), and basal + amino acid complexed (AAC) minerals (AAC Cu, AAC Mn, AAC Zn, AAC Cu + Mn, AAC Mn + Zn, AAC Zn + Cu). Trace minerals were added to a basal diet containing 20 ppm MnSO4 and 20 ppm ZnSO4 to achieve overall target concentrations of 20 ppm Cu, 60 ppm Mn, and 60 ppm Zn. The hens were fed the treatment diet for 15 weeks, and egg production and egg quality were assessed during weeks 5, 10, and 15 of the experiment. Egg shells, egg contents, and excreta were analyzed for Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, and P during weeks 10 and 15. No treatment differences (p > 0.05) were observed for production or egg quality. Differences between excreta mineral content were observed. The mineral content of egg shells and egg contents did not differ (p > 0.05) at any time point. The mineral source did not affect egg mineral deposition and egg quality measures (p > 0.05). Some AAC trace minerals enhanced retention of zinc, calcium, and manganese, although AAC Cu increased Cu excretion. Taken together, feeding AAC trace minerals does not significantly affect egg production or egg quality during the late-lay period. More research is needed to demonstrate whether Cu excretion is increased when feeding AAC Cu due to increased bioavailability or other factors. Full article
10 pages, 407 KiB  
Article
Effect of a Bacillus subtilis plus Yeast Cell Wall Synbiotic on Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Ceca of Layer Pullets
by Miloud Araba, George Girgis, Hannah McBride and Troy Lohrmann
Poultry 2024, 3(1), 26-35; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3010003 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major contamination concern in eggs and risk for Salmonellosis in humans. Strains of Bacillus subtilis and yeast cell wall can be used as substitutes for antibiotic substances in feed against Salmonella in poultry. The objective of this study [...] Read more.
Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a major contamination concern in eggs and risk for Salmonellosis in humans. Strains of Bacillus subtilis and yeast cell wall can be used as substitutes for antibiotic substances in feed against Salmonella in poultry. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of BacPack® (Quality Technology International, Inc., Elgin, IL, USA) Q1+1 (BPQ11), a feed additive combination of a Bacillus subtilis strain and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall, on SE cecal colonization in Lohmann LSL pullets. A control group (CON) and a test group (BPQ) were each randomly assigned 100-day-old chicks. CON was fed a corn–soybean meal-based vegetarian mash diet, and BPQ was fed the control diet supplemented with BPQ11 for the duration of the study. At 8 days of age, chicks were orally challenged with a nalidixic acid-resistant SE strain at a dose of 6.3 × 107 colony forming units (CFUs) per bird. At 7, 11, 15, and 19 days post-challenge (DPC), 25 birds per group were euthanized, and their cecal contents were collected and analyzed for SE. SE counts were 6.88, 7.98, 7.79, and 7.50 in CON and 7.18, 7.31, 6.35, and 6.30 log10 CFU/g in BPQ at 7, 11, 15, and 19 DPC, respectively. SE did not differ between CON and BPQ at 7 DPC; however, BPQ had lower (p < 0.0001) SE at 11 (−0.67), 15 (−1.45), and 19 (−1.20 log10 CFU/g) DPC. Results indicate that synbiotic BPQ11 may be a useful dietary pre-harvest tool for SE management in layer birds. Full article
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11 pages, 2509 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Bacterial Load on Broiler Carcasses Using Low-Volume Fluidic Nozzles in Combination with 60 °C Water at 450 Psi Pressure
by Douglas E. Cosby, Michael D. McIntyre, Josh DeVoll, Aaron Jordan, Johnna K. Garrish, Mark E. Berrang and Elizabeth McMillan
Poultry 2024, 3(1), 15-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3010002 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 704
Abstract
With the changing regulations in poultry processing, increased pressure is placed on integrators to reduce the number of human enteropathogenic bacteria on the final carcass and/or parts. Reducing the total number of bacteria on broiler carcasses before entering the evisceration side of the [...] Read more.
With the changing regulations in poultry processing, increased pressure is placed on integrators to reduce the number of human enteropathogenic bacteria on the final carcass and/or parts. Reducing the total number of bacteria on broiler carcasses before entering the evisceration side of the processing plant is projected to reduce the number of bacteria on the carcasses after chilling. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a prototype wash cabinet using low volume, fluidic nozzles in combination with high pressure (450 psi) and hot water (60 °C) to remove bacteria from pre-scald, post-scald, or post picked carcasses. Carcasses (n = 5) from each location were obtained from a commercial processing plant, placed into individual sterile sample bags, placed into an insulated container, and transported to the U.S. National Poultry Research Center Pilot Plant within 30 min of collection. Carcasses were hung in standard shackles and sampled pre-wash with pre-moistened, cellulose swabs. All carcasses were washed in the prototype wash cabinet with 60 °C water at 450 psi at a line speed of 52 birds/minute on 15.24 cm centered shackles. Post-wash breast sponge samples were collected identical to pre-wash swabs. Buffered peptone water (BPW) was added, sponges stomached and serially diluted before plating onto total aerobic count (TAC), Enterobacteriaceae (ENT) and Escherichia. coli (EC) Petrifilm® cards. All PetriFilm® cards were incubated at 37 °C for 24 ± 2 h. After incubation, bacterial counts were recorded and converted to log10 CFU/swab. Samples were processed for Campylobacter species using the Tempo® CAM protocol. Four replications were conducted on separate dates. Paired t-tests were used to compare numbers recovered from breast swabs collected before and after the wash cabinet, significance reported at p < 0.05. Pre-scald samples had significant reductions of 2.50, 2.01, and 1.73 log10 colony-forming units/carcass (CFU/carcass) for TAC, Ent, and EC Petrifilm®, respectively, and a 2.21 CFU/mL reduction of Campylobacter species using Tempo® CAM. Post-scald, there were significant reductions of 2.09, 1.23, and 0.90 CFU/carcass for TA, Ent, and EC Petrifilm®, respectively, and a 1.14 CFU/mL reduction of Campylobacter species using Tempo® CAM. Post-pick, significant reductions of 0.73, 1.53, and 0.99 CFU/carcass for TA, Ent, and EC Petrifilm®, respectively, and a 0.86 CFU/carcass reduction of Campylobacter species using Tempo® CAM were reported. These data indicate that hot water at high pressure can reduce total bacterial load on carcasses and reduce pathogenic bacteria on carcasses prior to evisceration. Full article
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14 pages, 1783 KiB  
Article
Effects of Varying Concentrations of Eimeria Challenge on the Intestinal Integrity of Broiler Chickens
by Giovana Camargo de Souza, Giovanna Fernandes Esteves, Franciana Aparecida Volpato, Rovian Miotto, Marcos Antônio Zanella Mores, Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli and Ana Paula Bastos
Poultry 2024, 3(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3010001 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 836
Abstract
The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate several Eimeria challenges and the resulting alterations in intestinal permeability, intestinal morphology, and intestinal lesion scores in broiler chickens. This study included four groups with ten replicate cages per treatment, in which each group [...] Read more.
The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate several Eimeria challenges and the resulting alterations in intestinal permeability, intestinal morphology, and intestinal lesion scores in broiler chickens. This study included four groups with ten replicate cages per treatment, in which each group received a different treatment dosage of Eimeria, characterizing high, medium-high, and medium-low challenges. Five days after the challenge, intestinal lesions and permeability were assessed. The results showed that the increase in Eimeria challenge led to a considerable decrease in the height of intestinal villosities, in the ratio between villosity size and crypt depth, and in goblet cells. Moreover, after the challenge, there was a considerable increase in intestinal permeability. In conclusion, the medium-low, medium-high, and high-challenge models can be utilized for experimental infection. In the context of clinical studies, it has been observed that the administration of medium-high and high-challenge doses has proven to be adequate. However, it is advisable to utilize a medium-low challenge level to develop a subclinical challenge model for forthcoming investigations that aim to evaluate nutritional recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Infectious Diseases)
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