Poultry Infectious Diseases

A special issue of Poultry (ISSN 2674-1164).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 12792

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Department of Infectious Diseases and Public Health, Jockey Club College of Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
2. School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia
Interests: virology; zoonoses; vaccines; emerging infectious viruses; diagnostic methods; poultry and porcine infectious diseases

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Guest Editor
Department of Infectious Diseases and Public Health, Jockey Club College of Veterinary Medicine and Life Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
Interests: poultry pathology; host-pathogen interaction; diagnostics; Escherichia coli; food safety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Poultry meat and eggs are the most consumed animal-based protein by humans worldwide, while poultry infectious diseases represent a significant constraint to limiting commercial production, and have negative impact on animal welfare and food safety. The landscape of poultry diseases is very dynamic due to changes in husbandry practices, national and international legislations as well as biological complexity of pathogens. Thus, enhancing scientific knowledge to promote poultry health is crucial to meet the growing demands of poultry derived protein.

This Special Issue focuses on poultry infectious diseases, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites under field or experimental conditions. Research articles and literature reviews covering microbiology, immunology, vaccines, pathology, epidemiology, prevention and control, and diagnostic methods of infectious diseases are welcome.

Dr. Priscilla F. Gerber
Dr. Surya Paudel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Poultry is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • poultry
  • infectious diseases
  • virus
  • bacteria
  • fungi
  • parasite
  • immunity
  • vaccines
  • diagnostic tools
  • prevention and control
  • transmission
  • epidemiology

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 1783 KiB  
Article
Effects of Varying Concentrations of Eimeria Challenge on the Intestinal Integrity of Broiler Chickens
by Giovana Camargo de Souza, Giovanna Fernandes Esteves, Franciana Aparecida Volpato, Rovian Miotto, Marcos Antônio Zanella Mores, Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli and Ana Paula Bastos
Poultry 2024, 3(1), 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3010001 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 934
Abstract
The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate several Eimeria challenges and the resulting alterations in intestinal permeability, intestinal morphology, and intestinal lesion scores in broiler chickens. This study included four groups with ten replicate cages per treatment, in which each group [...] Read more.
The objective of the current investigation was to evaluate several Eimeria challenges and the resulting alterations in intestinal permeability, intestinal morphology, and intestinal lesion scores in broiler chickens. This study included four groups with ten replicate cages per treatment, in which each group received a different treatment dosage of Eimeria, characterizing high, medium-high, and medium-low challenges. Five days after the challenge, intestinal lesions and permeability were assessed. The results showed that the increase in Eimeria challenge led to a considerable decrease in the height of intestinal villosities, in the ratio between villosity size and crypt depth, and in goblet cells. Moreover, after the challenge, there was a considerable increase in intestinal permeability. In conclusion, the medium-low, medium-high, and high-challenge models can be utilized for experimental infection. In the context of clinical studies, it has been observed that the administration of medium-high and high-challenge doses has proven to be adequate. However, it is advisable to utilize a medium-low challenge level to develop a subclinical challenge model for forthcoming investigations that aim to evaluate nutritional recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Infectious Diseases)
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15 pages, 8822 KiB  
Article
Attenuation of a Field Strain of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus in Primary Chicken Culture Cells and Adaptation to Secondary Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts
by Victor A. Palomino-Tapia, Guillermo Zavala, Sunny Cheng and Maricarmen Garcia
Poultry 2023, 2(4), 516-530; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2040038 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1144
Abstract
The establishment of commercial infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) live-modified vaccines has relied on serial passaging in chicken embryo (CEO) and tissue culture (TCO) for attenuation. The objective of this study was to attenuate and adapt a virulent CEO-related ILTV field strain (6340) in [...] Read more.
The establishment of commercial infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) live-modified vaccines has relied on serial passaging in chicken embryo (CEO) and tissue culture (TCO) for attenuation. The objective of this study was to attenuate and adapt a virulent CEO-related ILTV field strain (6340) in immortalized cells (LMH), primary chicken embryo kidney cells (CEK), chicken embryo liver cells (CEL), and chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). CEFs were refractory to parent ILTV, LMH cells produced low virus yields (~2.5 log10 TCID50 per mL), while CEK and CEL cells produced higher viral titers (≥log10 6.0 TCID50 per mL). After 52 passages in CELs, the cytopathic effect (CPE) was observed not only in hepatocytes but also in CEL fibroblasts. Once CPE was evident in CEL fibroblasts, 20 further passages in CEFs with viral titers reaching yields of ~4.4–5.5 log10 TCID50 per mL were performed. The attenuation of CEF-adapted viruses was evaluated after intra-tracheal and conjunctival inoculation in 28-day-old broilers by assessing clinical signs at five days post-inoculation (DPI). Virus CEL cells passages 80, 90, and 100, and CEF passages 10 and 20 were significantly attenuated compared to the parental strain. This is the first report of the attenuation of a virulent field CEO-related ILTV strain (RFLP Group V) in CEF cells—a cell type from a different embryonic germ layer (mesoderm) than ILTV target cells—the respiratory epithelium (endoderm). This finding underscores the potential use of CEF adaptation for the development of a live-attenuated ILTV vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Infectious Diseases)
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14 pages, 1795 KiB  
Article
Development and Validation of Competitive ELISA for Detection of H5 Hemagglutinin Antibodies
by Orie Hochman, Wanhong Xu, Ming Yang, Chengbo Yang, Aruna Ambagala, Anna Rogiewicz, Joseph J. Wang and Yohannes Berhane
Poultry 2023, 2(3), 349-362; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2030026 - 7 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) belonging to the goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD)-lineage H5Nx remain a major concern for the global poultry industry, wildlife, and humans. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is the dominant antigenic epitope carrier within IAV, which in turn triggers substantial immunogenic responses in the [...] Read more.
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) belonging to the goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD)-lineage H5Nx remain a major concern for the global poultry industry, wildlife, and humans. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is the dominant antigenic epitope carrier within IAV, which in turn triggers substantial immunogenic responses in the infected host. The current study describes the development and validation of a highly sensitive competitive H5 ELISA (cELISA) based on a novel monoclonal antibody developed in mice immunized with inactivated virus H5N1 (A/Turkey/ON/6213/1966). The cELISA is capable of detecting the H5 antibody response to a wider range of H5-subtype viruses belonging to both North American and Eurasia lineages, including the Gs/GD H5Nx from clade 2.3.4.4b that is currently causing the highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Eurasia, Africa, and Latin and North America. The developed H5 cELISA provides a specific, sensitive, and species-independent serological assay for the rapid detection of H5 antibodies. The assay is more robust and more sensitive than the hemagglutination inhibition assay, which is the “Gold standard”. The assay can be used in serological diagnosis, serosurveillance, and vaccine monitoring of serum samples collected from different species of animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Infectious Diseases)
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13 pages, 3008 KiB  
Article
Isolation and Genotypic Characterization of New Emerging Avian Reovirus Genetic Variants in Egypt
by Ali Zanaty, Zienab Mosaad, Wael M. K. Elfeil, Mona Badr, Vilmos Palya, Momtaz A. Shahein, Mohamed Rady and Michael Hess
Poultry 2023, 2(2), 174-186; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2020015 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2951
Abstract
Avian reovirus (ARV) strains cause a variety of symptoms in chickens, including viral arthritis/tenosynovitis, a disease that has emerged as a significant cause of economic losses in commercial chicken flocks in recent years in various countries, including Egypt. Furthermore, ARV strains are frequently [...] Read more.
Avian reovirus (ARV) strains cause a variety of symptoms in chickens, including viral arthritis/tenosynovitis, a disease that has emerged as a significant cause of economic losses in commercial chicken flocks in recent years in various countries, including Egypt. Furthermore, ARV strains are frequently isolated from birds suffering from malabsorption. In the actual study, seventy-five samples were collected in 2021 and 2022 from broiler and vaccinated broiler breeder flocks at different farms in Giza Province, Egypt, with reovirus-like symptoms such as significant weight fluctuation and arthritis/malabsorption. ARV was screened using real-time PCR, and fifteen positive samples were detected (20%), which were then subjected to embryonated chicken egg (ECE) isolation and molecular characterization (11/15 sample) of a partial segment of the sigma (σ)C gene (S1-gene). Phylogenetically, nine strains were found to belong to genotypic cluster IV, with 82–89% identity with Israeli ARV 2018, and two strains belong to genotypic cluster V with a 78% nucleotide identity with Japan ARV 2021. No correlation between lesions and genotype was found. The strains under study had a low sequence identity (43–55%) when compared with various commercial vaccines belonging to genotypic cluster I (e.g., strain S1133). These findings imply that novel ARV genotypes representing clusters IV and V have recently been introduced to Egyptian poultry farms. A homologous vaccine is suggested; because this variation raises the possibility that commercial vaccines may not offer protection against circulating ARVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Infectious Diseases)
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Review

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29 pages, 2749 KiB  
Review
Diagnosing Infectious Diseases in Poultry Requires a Holistic Approach: A Review
by Dieter Liebhart, Ivana Bilic, Beatrice Grafl, Claudia Hess and Michael Hess
Poultry 2023, 2(2), 252-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2020020 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4610
Abstract
Controlling infectious diseases is vital for poultry health and diagnostic methods are an indispensable feature to resolve disease etiologies and the impact of infectious agents on the host. Although the basic principles of disease diagnostics have not changed, the spectrum of poultry diseases [...] Read more.
Controlling infectious diseases is vital for poultry health and diagnostic methods are an indispensable feature to resolve disease etiologies and the impact of infectious agents on the host. Although the basic principles of disease diagnostics have not changed, the spectrum of poultry diseases constantly expanded, with the identification of new pathogens and improved knowledge on epidemiology and disease pathogenesis. In parallel, new technologies have been devised to identify and characterize infectious agents, but classical methods remain crucial, especially the isolation of pathogens and their further characterization in functional assays and studies. This review aims to highlight certain aspects of diagnosing infectious poultry pathogens, from the farm via the diagnostic laboratory and back, in order to close the circle. By this, the current knowledge will be summarized and future developments will be discussed in the context of applied state-of-the-art techniques. Overall, a common challenge is the increasing demand for infrastructure, skills and expertise. Divided into separate chapters, reflecting different disciplines, daily work implies the need to closely link technologies and human expertise in order to improve bird health, the production economy and to implement future intervention strategies for disease prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Infectious Diseases)
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