Feature Papers of Poultry

A special issue of Poultry (ISSN 2674-1164).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 14557

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Laboratory of Nutrition, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: animal nutrition; health; antioxidants; feed additives; aromatic and medicinal plants; alternative feedstuffs with bioactive compounds
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Guest Editor
Clinic for Poultry and Fish Medicine, Department for Farm Animals and Veterinary Public Health, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna, Austria
Interests: avian adenoviruses; poultry diseases; vaccinology; advanced diagnostics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This is a Special Issue of top-quality papers published in Open Access form from top researchers describing new approaches or new cutting-edge developments in the field of poultry science. The scope of this special issue includes, but is not limited to: poultry health and production; poultry pathology; poultry immunology; poultry behaviour and welfare; poultry nutrition; poultry breeding and reproduction; poultry genetic and genomic; poultry husbandry and management; poultry processing and products. We welcome submissions from the Editorial Board Members and from outstanding scholars invited by the Editorial Board and the Editorial Office.

You are welcome to send short proposals for submissions of Feature Papers to our Editorial Office (poultry@mdpi.com) for evaluation.

Dr. Ilias Giannenas
Prof. Dr. Michael Hess
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Poultry is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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10 pages, 264 KiB  
Article
Efficiency of Utilization of Metabolizable Energy for Carcass Energy Retention in Broiler Chickens Fed Maize, Wheat or a Mixture
by Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev, Muhammad Hassan Hammandy, Stephen Charles Mansbridge, Isobel Margaret Whiting and Stephen Paul Rose
Poultry 2024, 3(2), 85-94; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry3020008 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 473
Abstract
The study aimed to quantify carcass fat and protein retention, and the efficiency of carcass energy utilization (Kre) resulting from feeding broiler chickens diets containing wheat, maize or mixtures of both as the major cereal ingredient. The apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of the [...] Read more.
The study aimed to quantify carcass fat and protein retention, and the efficiency of carcass energy utilization (Kre) resulting from feeding broiler chickens diets containing wheat, maize or mixtures of both as the major cereal ingredient. The apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of the four cereal samples was determined in adult cockerels. There was a linear (p < 0.001) increase in AME with increasing amounts of maize within the four cereal mixtures, with analyses indicating that the AME of maize was 1.4 MJ/kg greater than that of wheat. A second bioassay with growing chickens was used to determine Kre in each cereal, measured as carcass fat and protein from 7 to 21d age. Increasing proportions of maize resulted in linear increases in carcass fat and energy retained from fat (p < 0.001). However, the carcass protein and energy retained from protein did not follow the same pattern as fat (p = 0.121), but rather decreased numerically (L = 0.032). The Kre tended (p = 0.060) to increase with greater proportion of maize in a linear fashion (L = 0.009). Although AME values of cereals were confirmed to be additive, this could not be confirmed for Kre. This data can be used for optimizing energy utilization models for growing broilers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Poultry)
12 pages, 291 KiB  
Article
Defatted Black Soldier Fly Larvae Meal as an Alternative to Soybean Meal for Broiler Chickens
by Sashka Chobanova, Nikolay Karkelanov, Stephen Charles Mansbridge, Isobel Margaret Whiting, Antonija Simic, Stephen Paul Rose and Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev
Poultry 2023, 2(3), 430-441; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2030032 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1909
Abstract
The production of soybean meal (SBM) has a substantial impact on the environment and reducing its inclusion in poultry diets by using alternative protein sources, such as insect meal, is an important challenge for nutritionists. This study aimed to compare the productive performance [...] Read more.
The production of soybean meal (SBM) has a substantial impact on the environment and reducing its inclusion in poultry diets by using alternative protein sources, such as insect meal, is an important challenge for nutritionists. This study aimed to compare the productive performance of broiler chickens fed one of two isonitrogenic (195 g/kg CP) and isocaloric (12.91 MJ/kg) diets. The first diet contained SBM as the main protein source, whereas SBM was completely replaced by defatted meal from Black Soldier Fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.; BSFL) in the second diet. Compared to the BSFL diet, the final body weight (BW) and weight gain (WG) of birds fed the SBM diet was ~17% greater and feed was utilised 19% more efficiently (p < 0.05). The differences in WG and FCR were supported by improved energy metabolism metrics, fat digestibility and digestibility of acid detergent fibres (ADFD) (p < 0.05). The present study shows that a complete replacement of dietary SBM with BSFL meal must be achieved with care, ensuring that all other factors (e.g., insect processing technology, feed additive supplementation, non-protein nitrogen accounting, mineral balance, fatty acid profile, amino acid supplementation) have been considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Poultry)
12 pages, 326 KiB  
Article
Impact of Stocking Densities on the Microbiota of the Cloaca, Eggshell, and Egg Content of White Egg Layers in Colony Cages
by Benjamin N. Alig, Kenneth E. Anderson, Ramon D. Malheiros, Justin H. Lowery and Lin L. Walker
Poultry 2023, 2(3), 418-429; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2030031 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
Food safety is a major concern for commercial poultry producers and consumers. Currently, there is also pressure from retailers and legislators to increase the space per hen in cages. Five different density treatments consisting of six (208 in2/bird), nine (139 in [...] Read more.
Food safety is a major concern for commercial poultry producers and consumers. Currently, there is also pressure from retailers and legislators to increase the space per hen in cages. Five different density treatments consisting of six (208 in2/bird), nine (139 in2/bird), twelve (104 in2/bird), fifteen (83 in2/bird), and eighteen birds (69 in2/bird) per cage were examined in colony cage environments. Microbiological tests were performed at 39, 55, and 68 weeks of age. The populations of total aerobic bacteria; E. coli/coliform; Enterobacteriaceae; and yeasts and molds from an eggshell rinse, egg content, and cloacal swabs were enumerated. The prevalence of Salmonella spp. in these samples was also monitored. Overall, no bacteria were detected in any of the egg content, and there were no differences (p > 0.05) between treatments for the shell rinse. Stocking density did not influence the eggshell microbiota of the hens. Hens housed at 104 in2 per hen showed higher levels of total aerobic bacterial counts from the cloaca compared to hens at 208 in2 and 69 in2 per hen. Hens housed at 139 in2 per hen had the highest level of cloacal molds. This research demonstrates that stocking density does not influence eggshell microbiota or Salmonella contamination of the eggshell or cloaca, thereby indicating that allowing more space per hen will not positively or negatively affect the prevalence or concentration of foodborne pathogen-associated bacteria in or on the eggs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Poultry)
11 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
The Benefits of Exogenous Xylanase in Wheat–Soy Based Broiler Chicken Diets, Consisting of Different Soluble Non-Starch Polysaccharides Content
by Vasil Radoslavov Pirgozliev, Stephen Charles Mansbridge, Isobel Margaret Whiting, Jalil Mahmwd Abdulla, Stephen Paul Rose, Kristina Kljak, Amy Johnson, Falko Drijfhout and Atanas Georgiev Atanasov
Poultry 2023, 2(2), 123-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2020012 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Four wheat-based diets with either a low soluble content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs, 13 g/kg); low viscosity, LV) or a high content of NSPs (33.5 g/kg; high viscosity, HV), with and without exogenous xylanase (XYL), were fed to male Ross 308 broiler chickens [...] Read more.
Four wheat-based diets with either a low soluble content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs, 13 g/kg); low viscosity, LV) or a high content of NSPs (33.5 g/kg; high viscosity, HV), with and without exogenous xylanase (XYL), were fed to male Ross 308 broiler chickens from 7 to 21 days age. The enzyme was supplemented at 100 FXU/kg diet, and its preparation was based on endo-1,4-beta-xylanase produced by Aspergillus oryzae. Each diet was fed to eight pens, with five birds in each pen, following randomisation. Chicks fed XYL had an improved feed efficiency, hepatic coenzyme Q10, caecal butyric acid concentration, nitrogen digestibility (p < 0.05) and increased dietary ME (p < 0.001). Compared to HV, birds fed LV diets had reduced weight of proventriculus, gizzard and the pancreas and higher blood glutathione peroxidase and dietary ME (p < 0.05), but no differences were observed on nutrient digestibility and growth performance variables. This also suggests that birds may tolerate a greater dietary NSPs content; thus, further benefits may be obtained by the application of XYL in low energy wheat-based diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Poultry)
16 pages, 2045 KiB  
Article
Two-Window Approach to Monitor and Assess Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses in Poultry
by Gisela F. Erf, Hyeonmin R. Kong, Daniel M. Falcon and Kristen A. Byrne
Poultry 2023, 2(1), 82-97; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2010009 - 25 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1399
Abstract
As previously reported, inflammatory activity initiated by intradermal injection of multiple growing feather (GF)-pulps of a chicken with lipopolysaccharide, and the subsequent periodic sampling of GFs and blood, enables the longitudinal evaluation of in vivo tissue- and systemic-inflammatory activities by ex vivo laboratory [...] Read more.
As previously reported, inflammatory activity initiated by intradermal injection of multiple growing feather (GF)-pulps of a chicken with lipopolysaccharide, and the subsequent periodic sampling of GFs and blood, enables the longitudinal evaluation of in vivo tissue- and systemic-inflammatory activities by ex vivo laboratory analyses. To demonstrate the suitability of this two-window approach to monitor and assess vaccine responses, two groups of chickens were immunized by intramuscular injection of mouse IgG (mIgG), mIgG in alum adjuvant (Alum&mIgG), or PBS-vehicle (Group I and II at 7- and 7- and 11-weeks, respectively). Plasma levels of mIgG-specific antibodies were monitored by ELISA for 28 days post-primary- and secondary-immunizations. To examine the cellular responses, 20 GF-pulps per bird were injected with mIgG on Day-10 or Day-5 post-primary- or -secondary-immunization, respectively. Two GFs were collected before- and at various times (0.25 to 7 days) post-injection for leukocyte population- and cytokine mRNA expression-analyses. The observed primary- and secondary-antibody response profiles were as expected for a T-dependent antigen. Leukocyte- and cytokine-profiles established in GF-pulps revealed temporal, qualitative, and quantitative differences in local naïve, primary, and secondary leukocyte-effector responses to antigen. This study demonstrates the unique opportunity in the avian model to monitor both cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses using minimally invasive techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Poultry)
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19 pages, 2783 KiB  
Article
Individual and Combined Effects of a Direct-Fed Microbial and Calcium Butyrate on Growth Performance, Intestinal Histology and Gut Microbiota of Broiler Chickens
by Bishnu Adhikari, Alyson G. Myers, Chuanmin Ruan, Young Min Kwon and Samuel J. Rochell
Poultry 2023, 2(1), 63-81; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2010008 - 22 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1726
Abstract
This study evaluated the effects of a Bacillus direct-fed microbial and microencapsulated calcium butyrate fed individually and in combination, as compared to an antibiotic growth promoter, on growth performance, processing characteristics, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota of Ross 708 broilers reared from 0 [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the effects of a Bacillus direct-fed microbial and microencapsulated calcium butyrate fed individually and in combination, as compared to an antibiotic growth promoter, on growth performance, processing characteristics, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota of Ross 708 broilers reared from 0 to 47 d post-hatch. Dietary treatments included: (1) a negative control with no antimicrobial (NC), (2) a positive control diet containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (PC), (3) a diet containing a Bacillus direct-fed microbial (CS), (4) a diet containing microencapsulated calcium butyrate (BP), and (5) a diet containing both CS and BP. Treatments were replicated with 10 pens of 20 birds each. From 0 to 15 d post-hatch, the FCR of broilers fed the PC, CS, BP, and CS + BP diets were lower (p < 0.05) than those fed the NC diet, but treatment effects (p > 0.05) were not observed on subsequent performance. BP supplementation improved (p < 0.05) total breast meat weight and yield at processing. Intestinal histology was not influenced (p > 0.05) by the treatment. Analysis of the jejunal microbiota collected at 15 d post-hatch revealed that the genus SMB53 was significantly lower for the CS group, and Sporanaerobacter was lower in the CS and CS + BP groups compared with the NC (p < 0.05). The jejunal microbiota from broilers in the CS + BP group had higher (p < 0.05) alpha and beta diversities compared with broilers fed the NC and CS diets. The results reflected synergistic effects between CS and BP in modulating the jejunal microbiota at 15 d that may have been related to enhanced feed efficiency (i.e., lower FCR) observed during this period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Poultry)
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11 pages, 1436 KiB  
Article
Impact on Hatchability and Broiler Performance after Use of Hydrogen Peroxide Nebulization versus Formaldehyde Fumigation as Pre-Incubation Hatching Egg Disinfectants in Field Trial
by Michael Pees, Gerzon Motola, Sarah Brüggemann-Schwarze, Josef Bachmeier, Hafez Mohamed Hafez and Wiebke Tebrün
Poultry 2023, 2(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2010001 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
Hatching egg disinfection, as part of the quality assurance system, is a standard procedure in commercial hatcheries. Formaldehyde was and is broadly used but bears high risks for the personnel. In preliminary studies, the spray application of hydrogen peroxide was successfully tested and [...] Read more.
Hatching egg disinfection, as part of the quality assurance system, is a standard procedure in commercial hatcheries. Formaldehyde was and is broadly used but bears high risks for the personnel. In preliminary studies, the spray application of hydrogen peroxide was successfully tested and was chosen to compare its efficacy and impact on hatchability, as well as performance during fattening, and at slaughter, to formaldehyde under field conditions. The trial was set up with hatching eggs from two breeder flocks, running parallelly in three groups (H2O2, formaldehyde and non-disinfected control) at four different flock ages (at 38, 39, 56, 57 weeks). No significant differences were noticed in the hatchery, whereas in the rearing period higher 7-day- and total mortalities occurred during trials 1 and 2 in all non-disinfected groups and one formaldehyde-treated group, making an antibiotic treatment necessary. At slaughter, the findings in all groups were comparable. Trials 3 and 4 passed without significant differences between all groups, leading to the conclusion that hatching egg disinfection lowers the risk of infection-related losses. Meanwhile, formaldehyde fumigation and the spraying of hydrogen peroxide produced similar results in all stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Poultry)
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Review

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17 pages, 671 KiB  
Review
Mitigating the Adverse Effects of Lead and Cadmium Heavy Metals-Induced Oxidative Stress by Phytogenic Compounds in Poultry
by Rohollah Ebrahimi, Mahdi Ebrahimi and Majid Shakeri
Poultry 2023, 2(2), 235-251; https://doi.org/10.3390/poultry2020019 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2432
Abstract
Environmental pollution has increased over the past few decades, posing serious risks to all biological systems, including the poultry sector. Oxidative stress in chickens caused by dietary, environmental, and pathological variables influences how well chickens perform as well as the quality of meat [...] Read more.
Environmental pollution has increased over the past few decades, posing serious risks to all biological systems, including the poultry sector. Oxidative stress in chickens caused by dietary, environmental, and pathological variables influences how well chickens perform as well as the quality of meat and eggs. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are two examples of heavy metals that are harmful for chicken health. They can cause oxidative stress by increasing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and blocking antioxidants from protecting cells from increased amounts of free radicals. The oxidative state of heavy metals, their interactions with endogenous antioxidants, and chemical processes all affect how hazardous they are to the body. Today, scientists have investigated and applied a variety of nutritional tactics to lessen the harmful effects of oxidative stress on animal health brought on by heavy metals. Researchers have recently become interested in the chemicals because of their chelating and growth-stimulating functions, as well as the antioxidant qualities of useful plant components. The deleterious consequences of oxidative stress induced by two heavy metals on chickens is discussed in this review, along with phytogenic use as a potential intervention strategy to lessen these effects and maintain the redox equilibrium in poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Poultry)
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