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Coasts, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2023) – 8 articles

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14 pages, 5431 KiB  
Article
Rapid, Landscape-Scale Assessment of Cyclonic Impacts on Mangrove Forests Using MODIS Imagery
Coasts 2023, 3(3), 280-293; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3030017 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 653
Abstract
Cyclones are a key disturbance in mangrove ecosystems, but it is challenging to assess post-storm impacts over large areas, along with the recovery of these systems at broad temporal scales. Given the high frequency of these events in the Sundarbans region, prompt and [...] Read more.
Cyclones are a key disturbance in mangrove ecosystems, but it is challenging to assess post-storm impacts over large areas, along with the recovery of these systems at broad temporal scales. Given the high frequency of these events in the Sundarbans region, prompt and consistent assessment of vegetation conditions is an important research need. Several studies have assessed the impact of an extreme cyclone event in 2007 (Sidr); however, there is little agreement between the extent and severity of the disturbance footprint of the cyclone, and very few studies attempted to assess vegetation recovery. We used a MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series (2001–2010) to calculate monthly plant productivity anomalies in Google Earth Engine. We summarized dry season anomalies to assess post-storm vegetation change and evaluate the recovery time. Approximately 2100 km2, primarily on the east side, were impacted by Sidr. The number of damaged pixels was reduced by 55% the following dry season (2008) and 93% in the dry season of 2009, indicating a near-full recovery 26 months after the event. Our results provide an additional line of evidence to provide a rapid assessment of the post-storm vegetation damage. The simple framework used can provide a comprehensive view of the extent of the damage, including lag effects on vegetation, in just a matter of months after the event. Full article
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17 pages, 9966 KiB  
Article
Prevalence and Distribution of Nematodes from Coastal Sand Dunes in the Iberian Peninsula
Coasts 2023, 3(3), 263-279; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3030016 - 10 Sep 2023
Viewed by 730
Abstract
Nematodes are a large and diversified zoological group with a wide global distribution, being able even to be present in habitats with extreme conditions. Although coastal dunes can be considered as an adverse environment for these animals, numerous species are discovered there. In [...] Read more.
Nematodes are a large and diversified zoological group with a wide global distribution, being able even to be present in habitats with extreme conditions. Although coastal dunes can be considered as an adverse environment for these animals, numerous species are discovered there. In general, these small animals present some morphological characteristics, which provide them a high adaptability to these habitats and the ability to reach a wide distribution. In this study, a total of 222 sample sites of coastal sand dunes have been studied in order to know the nematofauna of these habitats. Thus, 42 coastal dunes from three geographical areas of the Iberian Peninsula coast (Atlantic coast, southern Mediterranean coast, and northern Mediterranean coast) were examined. A total of 120 species of nematodes were found, belonging to eight orders. The results showed the higher prevalence of the species belonging to the order Rhabditida, which were present in 84.2% of the sand dunes studied, most of them belonging to the family Cephalobidae with 42 species, while the order with lower prevalence was the order Enoplida appearing only in one dune (0.9%). The classification of nematofauna by trophic groups showed that bacterial feeders, omnivores, hyphal feeders, and plant feeders shared a high prevalence (83.3%, 40.5%, 34.2%, and 32.8%, respectively), while predators, unicellular eukaryote feeders, and substrate ingesters account for less than 11%. A list of the found species, prevalence, and trophic groups is included. Full article
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23 pages, 3213 KiB  
Article
Seasonal to Multi-Decadal Shoreline Change on a Reef-Fringed Beach
Coasts 2023, 3(3), 240-262; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3030015 - 01 Sep 2023
Viewed by 877
Abstract
This study investigates the shoreline dynamics of a Caribbean reef-lined beach by utilizing a long-term satellite dataset spanning 75 years and a short-term, high-frequency dataset captured by a fixed camera over 3 years. An array of statistical methods, including ARIMA models, are employed [...] Read more.
This study investigates the shoreline dynamics of a Caribbean reef-lined beach by utilizing a long-term satellite dataset spanning 75 years and a short-term, high-frequency dataset captured by a fixed camera over 3 years. An array of statistical methods, including ARIMA models, are employed to examine the impact of storms and potential cyclical influences on the shoreline dynamics. The findings indicate that significant storm events trigger a substantial retreat of the vegetation limit, followed by a slow recovery. Given the current frequency of such major events, complete recovery may take several decades, resulting in a minor influence of cyclones on the long-term erosion trend, which remains moderate. The short-term shoreline evolution is primarily driven by the annual cyclicity of the still water level, which generates an annual oscillation—an insight not previously reported. In the context of climate change, alterations to sea-level rise and cyclone frequency could disrupt the observed dynamic equilibrium at different timescales. Such changes could result in an alteration of existing cyclicities, disturbance of recovery periods, increased long-term shoreline retreat rates, and potentially affect overall coastal resilience over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring Shoreline Variability and Understanding It's Local Impacts)
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13 pages, 3335 KiB  
Article
Abrupt Late Holocene Closure of San Elijo Lagoon, Northern San Diego County, California
Coasts 2023, 3(3), 227-239; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3030014 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 731
Abstract
The San Elijo Lagoon experienced a sudden shift in sedimentation type around 1000 AD, as evidenced by the 14C dating. This shift is marked by a sharp boundary between a lower layer of medium to fine sand and an upper layer of [...] Read more.
The San Elijo Lagoon experienced a sudden shift in sedimentation type around 1000 AD, as evidenced by the 14C dating. This shift is marked by a sharp boundary between a lower layer of medium to fine sand and an upper layer of dark, silty clay that reflects the lagoon closure. The dated sediments also reveal a history of marine conditions in the lagoon basin since about 7400 ± 140 years before the present (ybp), when the sea level was −12.2 meters (m), and the shoreline was 400 m away from the current location. The sea level rose at a rate of 2.84 m per 1000 years until about 4170 ± 100 ybp. After that, the rising sea level slowed and reached the present level about 3100 years ago. However, the lagoon remained closed after about 730 to 1180 ybp, with only fine organic sediment accumulating in the basin, which coincides with a severe drought in the southwest around 1150 AD. A higher sedimentation rate is interpreted from bluff erosion as seen after 520 ± 40 ybp but without enough stream flow to force the reopening of the lagoon. Full article
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18 pages, 3725 KiB  
Review
Optimistic Scenario of 0.50 m Mean Sea Level Rise and Possible Environmental Impacts, Resulting from Tidal Variations, in the City of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro—Brazil
Coasts 2023, 3(3), 209-226; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3030013 - 01 Aug 2023
Viewed by 939
Abstract
As several researches indicate, since the 1950s one observed unprecedented warming of the atmosphere and oceans, resulting from greenhouse gas emissions and changes in land use and occupation, leading to sea level rise and impacts on coastal areas. In the municipality of Niterói—Rio [...] Read more.
As several researches indicate, since the 1950s one observed unprecedented warming of the atmosphere and oceans, resulting from greenhouse gas emissions and changes in land use and occupation, leading to sea level rise and impacts on coastal areas. In the municipality of Niterói—Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where a large urban concentration in coastal areas is observed, a Climate Change Adaptation System was developed, through which mitigation and adaptation strategies are combined, in order to: reduce vulnerabilities; avoid losses and damages; build instruments to allow adaptation of natural, human, productive and infrastructure systems. In this context, this paper aims to measure possible impacts, in the biophysical and socioeconomic spheres, resulting from an eventual 0.50 m rise in mean sea level, which represents an optimistic scenario according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In contrast to similar studies, this work also considered daily and occasional water level variations, represented by the highest astronomical tide and the highest storm surge observed in the studied region. The following data were applied: digital elevation model, 2010 population census data, and real estate information. With the altimetry data, by means of GIS, the census sectors inserted in the affected areas were selected, to obtain data regarding population, number of households, and income. Specialized websites were applied to collect average property values. The simulations revealed that approximately 2950 households and more than 9000 residents could be directly affected, with losses that could exceed R$ 3.60 billion. The Oceanic Region is configured as the most exposed region, susceptible to losses of several ecosystems, economic losses in residential areas and possible destruction of urban infrastructure. Full article
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19 pages, 3906 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Habitat Risks Caused by Human Activities and Integrated Approach to Marine Spatial Planning: The Case of Sriracha District—Sichang Island
Coasts 2023, 3(3), 190-208; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3030012 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
According to the Thailand’s National Strategy (2017-2036) and National Reform Plans, various tools, techniques, or methods are necessary to collect and investigate data for the effective preservation and protection of the country’s natural resources. We aimed to apply various tools and methods for [...] Read more.
According to the Thailand’s National Strategy (2017-2036) and National Reform Plans, various tools, techniques, or methods are necessary to collect and investigate data for the effective preservation and protection of the country’s natural resources. We aimed to apply various tools and methods for integrated coastal management in Thailand. This study used the InVEST models, including the habitat quality (HQ) and habitat risk assessment (HRA) models, to evaluate the natural habitat quality and cumulative human activity risk in the Sriracha district and Sichang Islands, Thailand. The HQ model revealed the presence of abundant ecological services and high quality natural habitats. We observed habitat degradation in the mooring zone, city area, forests, and coral reefs, with moderate risk to distinct habitats. Our findings identified two potential scenarios. Conservation scenarios exhibited a lower HRA ratio compared to current and development scenarios. Overall, the results showed the effectiveness of the InVEST model in evaluating habitat risk under both present and simulated conditions. Our study highlights the importance of informed management plans and policy-making processes to achieve planned coastal management goals. Full article
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15 pages, 349 KiB  
Article
Development and Application of Local Coastal Knowledge: Insights from New Zealand Surfers
Coasts 2023, 3(3), 175-189; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3030011 - 03 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
Through their accumulated experiences with coastal environments, surfers may be uniquely qualified as a source of local knowledge on surf breaks and wider coastal management topics. Despite popular associations between surfers and the environment, critical enquiries are needed to establish the scope and [...] Read more.
Through their accumulated experiences with coastal environments, surfers may be uniquely qualified as a source of local knowledge on surf breaks and wider coastal management topics. Despite popular associations between surfers and the environment, critical enquiries are needed to establish the scope and depth of surfers’ knowledge and the processes that may influence its development. In this study, we expected that relationships between surfers and the coastal environment would be highly variable and dependent upon several outside factors, including individual motivations and biases. This broad hypothesis was tested through an oral history study of 15 New Zealand surfers, which examined the development of coastal environment knowledge through surfing experiences and explored its applications to resource management in New Zealand. Surfers can develop a unique local knowledge of the coast that is often specific to their favourite locations but can also include regional insights obtained through site-scale comparisons. These may include relatively detailed observations that are typically difficult to detect or measure and that are primarily generated through sustained surfing experiences. Socio-cultural factors, including gender stereotypes, localism, equipment bias, and interaction with accessibility, were identified as key influences on individual motivations and knowledge generation contexts. This study argues that surfers’ perspectives are critical to informing management decisions in the coastal environment. Knowledge residing in the surfing community is dependent on individual associations with surf breaks, yet it can be harnessed across meaningful scales to inform coastal management. Moreover, the generation of local knowledge through surfing experiences adds to the societal benefits of protecting surf breaks. Full article
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15 pages, 7431 KiB  
Article
Coastal Dynamics Analysis Based on Orbital Remote Sensing Big Data and Multivariate Statistical Models
Coasts 2023, 3(3), 160-174; https://doi.org/10.3390/coasts3030010 - 29 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1145
Abstract
As the interface between land and water, coastlines are highly dynamic and intricately tied to the sediment budget. These regions have a high functional diversity and require enlightened management to preserve their value for the future. In this study we assess changes to [...] Read more.
As the interface between land and water, coastlines are highly dynamic and intricately tied to the sediment budget. These regions have a high functional diversity and require enlightened management to preserve their value for the future. In this study we assess changes to the São Paulo State (SE Brazil) coastline over the last 36 years. The study innovatively employs big data remote sensing techniques and multivariate statistical models to evaluate and generate erosion/accretion rates (1985–2021) relative to beach orientation and slope. Shoreline change rates have been obtained for sandy beaches at 485 one-kilometer-spaced transects. Our findings capture the complexity and heterogeneity of the analyzed coastline, at a regional and local scale. No association was found between shoreline changes and beach face orientation. Nonetheless, a dependency relationship was found between dissipative beaches with moderate to high accretion. Beaches facing south, with relative stability, were prone to sediment accumulation. Locations with slow accretion, like sandy spits and tombolo-protected beaches, were associated with dissipative beaches with moderate to high accretion. The southeast-oriented beaches are more prone to erosion due to storm waves from the south. Results provide a broad, fast, and relatively low-cost methodology that can be used in any sandy beach context, bringing essential information for coastal management and decision-making related to the use and occupation of the coastal zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Measuring Shoreline Variability and Understanding It's Local Impacts)
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