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Biomechanics, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 12 articles

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10 pages, 1776 KiB  
Article
Quantification of the Dependence of the Measurement Error on the Quantization of the A/D Converter for Center of Pressure Measurements
by Jan Jens Koltermann and Martin Gerber
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 309-318; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020024 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1673
Abstract
In this scientific study, the question of the influence of the quantization error on the CoP measurement is be clarified. For this purpose, the quantization error is investigated in two scenarios, first with the technical/physical reproduction of the CoP, and then with test [...] Read more.
In this scientific study, the question of the influence of the quantization error on the CoP measurement is be clarified. For this purpose, the quantization error is investigated in two scenarios, first with the technical/physical reproduction of the CoP, and then with test persons. From the results, a model is derived with which a technical and economic optimum between resolution and error can be generated for an individual case. The study was carried out with 170 healthy volunteers, aged 20–30 years. The test persons stood in a bipedal position for 15 s on a Kislter force plate (type 9260AA). In the investigation, it was shown that, for the measurement of center of pressure (CoP), signals to mostly 16-bit analog/digital converters are suitable but not, per se, the most economical variant. With the introduction of a quality criterion, a reasonable design for the planned test case can be made. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Movement Analysis)
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8 pages, 969 KiB  
Article
Measurement of Suture Pullout Forces of the Pancreatic Duct and Capsule
by Alex T. Gong, Sophia L. Bidinger, Aleah M. DeSchmidt, Joaquin E. Batista, Agnes Y. Song, Alyssa L. Schul, Everet Y. Wang, Jack E. Norfleet, Martin E. Palavecino and Robert M. Sweet
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 301-308; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020023 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1612
Abstract
A thorough biomechanical understanding of human organs is of increasing importance for designing and improving a wide range of medical technologies from simulators to medical devices. Despite the crucial need for data, little procedure-specific biomechanical testing on human tissue has been published. Specifically, [...] Read more.
A thorough biomechanical understanding of human organs is of increasing importance for designing and improving a wide range of medical technologies from simulators to medical devices. Despite the crucial need for data, little procedure-specific biomechanical testing on human tissue has been published. Specifically, pancreatic duct anastomosis, which has high rates of complications related to pancreatic duct leakage and patency, could benefit from improved assistive technologies. This study aims to help characterize the biomechanics of this critical step of the procedure by measuring the suture pullout force (SPOF) of the pancreatic duct and capsule. 216 tests were performed on 33 fresh, unfixed donated human pancreases. A previously reported uniaxial testing frame, was used to measure the SPOF of the pancreases. The mean pancreatic duct SPOF was 2.62 ± 1.11 N and the mean pancreatic capsule SPOF was 1.99 ± 1.33 N. To our knowledge, this is the first reported human pancreatic duct and capsule suture pullout measurement. These data can be used to inform a wide variety of biomedical technologies with primary interest in high-fidelity training simulators. Full article
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20 pages, 2575 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Risk Factors of Injury-Related Single-Leg Movements in Male Elite Youth Soccer Players
by Mathias Kolodziej, Steffen Willwacher, Kevin Nolte, Marcus Schmidt and Thomas Jaitner
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 281-300; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020022 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3658
Abstract
Altered movement patterns during single-leg movements in soccer increase the risk of lower-extremity non-contact injuries. The identification of biomechanical parameters associated with lower-extremity injuries can enrich knowledge of injury risks and facilitate injury prevention. Fifty-six elite youth soccer players performed a single-leg drop [...] Read more.
Altered movement patterns during single-leg movements in soccer increase the risk of lower-extremity non-contact injuries. The identification of biomechanical parameters associated with lower-extremity injuries can enrich knowledge of injury risks and facilitate injury prevention. Fifty-six elite youth soccer players performed a single-leg drop landing task and an unanticipated side-step cutting task. Three-dimensional ankle, knee and hip kinematic and kinetic data were obtained, and non-contact lower-extremity injuries were documented throughout the season. Risk profiling was assessed using a multivariate approach utilising a decision tree model (classification and regression tree method). The decision tree model indicated peak knee frontal plane angle, peak vertical ground reaction force, ankle frontal plane moment and knee transverse plane angle at initial contact (in this hierarchical order) for the single-leg landing task as important biomechanical parameters to discriminate between injured and non-injured players. Hip sagittal plane angle at initial contact, peak ankle transverse plane angle and hip sagittal plane moment (in this hierarchical order) were indicated as risk factors for the unanticipated cutting task. Ankle, knee and hip kinematics, as well as ankle and hip kinetics, during single-leg high-risk movements can provide a good indication of injury risk in elite youth soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Biomechanics)
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17 pages, 1764 KiB  
Article
Modeling Joint Stiffness Change by Pelvic Tightening Based on Pelvic Alignment
by Michihiro Yoshida, Takayuki Tanaka and Yoshio Tsuchiya
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 264-280; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020021 - 22 May 2022
Viewed by 3857
Abstract
This paper aims to develop a regression model that explains the relationship between changes in lumbar joint stiffness and pelvic alignment (posture or shape of the bones of the pelvis and lumbar spine) due to pelvic tightening. The proposed model is based on [...] Read more.
This paper aims to develop a regression model that explains the relationship between changes in lumbar joint stiffness and pelvic alignment (posture or shape of the bones of the pelvis and lumbar spine) due to pelvic tightening. The proposed model is based on the hypothesis that lumbar joint stiffness increases with changes in pelvic alignment. The proposed model is based on experimentally measured stiffness values and pelvic alignment data sets. The stiffness of the lumbar joint was estimated by motion analysis using a motion-capture system. Ninety-six volunteers participated in the experiment to estimate stiffness values, and the validity of using lumbar joint stiffness as the output of the model was examined. The pelvic alignment was measured through X-ray images. Pelvic alignment was measured using radiographic images, and 25 volunteers participated. The Results section states that the amount of change in the posture of the sacrum relative to the pelvis and the curvature of the lumbar spine contributes to the change in lumbar joint stiffness. Future work will include FEM analysis to validate the overall hypothesis and the validity of applying the model to a group other than those who participated in the development of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Movement Analysis)
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9 pages, 2287 KiB  
Article
Reliability of the Fluoroscopic Assessment of Load-Induced Glenohumeral Translation during a 30° Shoulder Abduction Test
by Eleonora Croci, Marina Künzler, Sean Börlin, Franziska Eckers, Corina Nüesch, Daniel Baumgartner, Andreas Marc Müller and Annegret Mündermann
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 255-263; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020020 - 19 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Rotator cuff tears are often linked to superior translational instability, but a thorough understanding of glenohumeral motion is lacking. This study aimed to assess the reliability of fluoroscopically measured glenohumeral translation during a shoulder abduction test. Ten patients with rotator cuff tears participated [...] Read more.
Rotator cuff tears are often linked to superior translational instability, but a thorough understanding of glenohumeral motion is lacking. This study aimed to assess the reliability of fluoroscopically measured glenohumeral translation during a shoulder abduction test. Ten patients with rotator cuff tears participated in this study. Fluoroscopic images were acquired during 30° abduction and adduction in the scapular plane with and without handheld weights of 2 kg and 4 kg. Images were labelled by two raters, and inferior–superior glenohumeral translation was calculated. During abduction, glenohumeral translation (mean (standard deviation)) ranged from 3.3 (2.2) mm for 0 kg to 4.1 (1.8) mm for 4 kg, and from 2.3 (1.5) mm for 0 kg to 3.8 (2.2) mm for 4 kg for the asymptomatic and symptomatic sides, respectively. For the translation range, moderate to good interrater (intra-class correlation coefficient ICC [95% confidence interval (CI)]; abduction: 0.803 [0.691; 0.877]; adduction: 0.705 [0.551; 0.813]) and intrarater reliabilities (ICC [95% CI]; abduction: 0.817 [0.712; 0.887]; adduction: 0.688 [0.529; 0.801]) were found. Differences in the translation range between the repeated measurements were not statistically significant (mean difference, interrater: abduction, −0.1 mm, p = 0.686; adduction, −0.1 mm, p = 0.466; intrarater: abduction 0.0 mm, p = 0.888; adduction, 0.2 mm, p = 0.275). This method is suitable for measuring inferior–superior glenohumeral translation in the scapular plane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture Biomechanics)
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20 pages, 7673 KiB  
Article
Remote Gait Analysis as a Proxy for Traditional Gait Laboratories: Utilizing Smartphones for Subject-Driven Gait Assessment across Differing Terrains
by Arjan Kahlon, Ashwini Sansare and Ahad Behboodi
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 235-254; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020019 - 17 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3661
Abstract
Gait analysis has applications in medical diagnosis, biometrics, and development of therapeutic rehabilitation interventions (such as orthotics, prosthetics, and exoskeletons). While offering accurate measurements, gait laboratories are expensive, not scalable, and not easily accessible. In a pandemic-afflicted world, where telemedicine is crucial, there [...] Read more.
Gait analysis has applications in medical diagnosis, biometrics, and development of therapeutic rehabilitation interventions (such as orthotics, prosthetics, and exoskeletons). While offering accurate measurements, gait laboratories are expensive, not scalable, and not easily accessible. In a pandemic-afflicted world, where telemedicine is crucial, there is need for subject-driven data remote collection. This study proposed a remote and purely subject-driven procedure for reproducible and scalable collection of real-life gait data. To evaluate the feasibility of our proposed procedure, the spatiotemporal parameters of gait were compared across two real-life terrains using a smartphone application on a focus population of healthy middle-aged individuals. Previous research validated smartphone motion sensors as accurate instruments for gait analysis, but required highly supervised, controlled environments on smaller sample sizes, thereby limiting application in real-life gait analysis. To this end, a custom-designed mobile application was developed to record lower extremity angular velocities on 69 healthy middle-aged adults; factoring in a subject-driven data submission error rate (DSER) of 17.4%, there were 57 usable data sets for analysis. Comparisons of spatiotemporal gait parameters across primary outcome measures on grass versus asphalt revealed significant measurable increases in gait duration (stride time), valley depth (max swing phase), and peak-to-valley (max stance phase to max swing phase). These results demonstrated the feasibility of using smartphones for a remote and fully subject-driven gait data collection. Additionally, our data analysis showed that even in short trials, a physical environmental load has a substantial and measurable effect on the gait of the understudied middle-aged population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture Biomechanics)
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22 pages, 3967 KiB  
Article
Segmental and Intersegmental Coordination Characteristics of a Cognitive Movement Control Test: Quantifying Loss of Movement Choices
by Lincoln Blandford, Emily Cushion and Ryan Mahaffey
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 213-234; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020018 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 2320
Abstract
Cognitive movement control tests are hypothesized to reveal reduced coordination variability, a feature of motor behaviour linked to clinical presentations. Exploration of this proposition via kinematic analysis of test pass and fail conditions is yet to be conducted. Kinematics (3D) were collected as [...] Read more.
Cognitive movement control tests are hypothesized to reveal reduced coordination variability, a feature of motor behaviour linked to clinical presentations. Exploration of this proposition via kinematic analysis of test pass and fail conditions is yet to be conducted. Kinematics (3D) were collected as 28 participants were qualitatively rated during nine trials of a cognitive movement control test. Ten female and two male participants passing the test were matched to twelve participants who failed (three males, nine females). Sagittal plane pelvis and knee angles were determined. Peak pelvic deviation and knee flexion maxima/minima were compared between groups. Classification tree analysis explored relationships between test failure and pelvis–knee intersegmental coordination strategy classifications derived from novel and traditional vector coding techniques. Coordination variability waveforms were assessed via SPM. Age, BMI, and knee flexion values did not differ between the groups (p > 0.05); however, participants rated as failing the test displayed greater pelvic deviation (p < 0.05). Classification tree analysis revealed a greater use of pelvic dominant intersegmental coordination strategies from both vector coding techniques (p < 0.001) by fail-group participants. The fail-group also displayed lower coordination variability for novel (p < 0.05), but not traditional (p > 0.05) vector coding technique waveforms, supporting the premise that the testing protocol may act as a qualitative approach to inform on features of motor behavior linked to clinical presentations. Full article
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8 pages, 1233 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Different Footwear Insole Stiffness on Center of Pressure and Ankle Kinematics during Walking: A Case Report
by Li Jin
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 205-212; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020017 - 01 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2383
Abstract
During locomotion, the foot–ankle system plays an important role for forward progression of the body. The center of pressure (COP) is regarded as the point of the ground reaction force (GRF) vector acting on the foot surface during the stance phase. COP movement [...] Read more.
During locomotion, the foot–ankle system plays an important role for forward progression of the body. The center of pressure (COP) is regarded as the point of the ground reaction force (GRF) vector acting on the foot surface during the stance phase. COP movement trajectory and velocity reflect the stance phase forward progression of the foot segment and the ankle joint motion characteristics. This study aimed to investigate different levels of footwear insole stiffness on COP forward velocity, GRF and ankle joint angles during walking stance phase. Two healthy subjects (one female, one male; age 26.5 ± 6.4 years, height 168.5 ± 2.1 cm, weight 64.9 ± 5.4 kg) participated in this study. Subjects were asked to walk along a 10 m walkway at two different speeds: self–selected normal (SSN) and self–selected fast (SSF). Within each walking speed, subjects were required to walk under two different insole stiffness conditions: (1) normal shoe insole (NSI) from the testing shoe (Nike Free RN Flyknit 2017) used in this study; (2) 1.6 mm thick carbon fiber insole (CFI) fitted within the testing shoe. Stiffer insole (CFI) significantly decreased peak ankle internal rotation angle (p = 0.001) and sagittal plane angle ROM (p = 0.022); additionally, CFI significantly increased peak ankle eversion angle compared to the NSI condition (p = 0.028). In conclusion, increasing footwear insole stiffness would alter stance phase ankle joint motion at SSF walking speed. Additionally, stiffer insoles may tend to decrease COP peak velocity at the initial heel strike and the terminal stance phase. Future research should investigate the combined effects of various insole properties on lower extremity system kinematic and kinetic patterns in various locomotion activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Human Movement Analysis)
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16 pages, 3017 KiB  
Article
Fluid–Structure Interaction Modeling of Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms in SimVascular
by Rodrigo Valente, André Mourato, Moisés Brito, José Xavier, António Tomás and Stéphane Avril
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 189-204; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020016 - 01 May 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (ATAA) is a permanent dilatation of the aorta which is usually related to tissue degeneration, hemodynamic conditions, lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors. As the mechanical conditions can become critical in a dilated aorta, a patient-specific computational model can be [...] Read more.
Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (ATAA) is a permanent dilatation of the aorta which is usually related to tissue degeneration, hemodynamic conditions, lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors. As the mechanical conditions can become critical in a dilated aorta, a patient-specific computational model can be very useful to assist clinical decisions in the management of ATAAs. In this article, we model the biomechanical conditions of ATAA by performing Fluid–Structure Interaction (FSI) simulations in the SimVascular open-source software package. The patient-specific geometric model is reconstructed from Computed Tomography scan (CT). The numerical implementation takes into account patient-specific outlet conditions and a temporal flow variation at the model inlet. We performed a mesh convergence analysis on a new mesh reconstruction method in SimVascular and showed that it can significantly reduce the computational cost without impacting the accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tissue and Vascular Biomechanics)
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15 pages, 3234 KiB  
Article
Feasibility of a Full-Field Measurements-Based Protocol for the Biomechanical Study of a Lumbar Belt: A Case Study
by Rébecca Bonnaire, Woo Suck Han, Reynald Convert, Paul Calmels and Jérôme Molimard
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 174-188; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020015 - 14 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1706
Abstract
Low back pain represents a major economic and societal challenge due to its high prevalence. Lumbar orthoses are one of the recommended treatments. Even if previous results showed their clinical effects, the detailed mode of action is still poorly known, making the device [...] Read more.
Low back pain represents a major economic and societal challenge due to its high prevalence. Lumbar orthoses are one of the recommended treatments. Even if previous results showed their clinical effects, the detailed mode of action is still poorly known, making the device design difficult. A renewed instrumentation and experimental protocol should bring better insight into the lumbar brace–trunk mechanical interaction. This instrumentation should give detailed information on the basic physical or geometrical parameters: the pressure applied on the trunk, the body shape and the strain in the belt. The principal objective of this study was to propose and validate a new measurement protocol, based on pressure mapping systems and full-field shape and strain measurement. The feasibility of the protocol was tested along with its validity and repeatability. The influence of various parameters, which could cause changes in the measurements, was tested with six different belt configurations on one subject. Measurements were also performed to study the impact of posture on pressure and strain. Both pressure and strain appeared to be asymmetric from left to right. The pressure applied by the lumbar belt on the back varies with breathing and with posture. This study showed that full-field measurements were necessary to render the high variability of pressure or strain around the trunk, under recommendations of their use to guarantee a satisfying repeatability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Injury Biomechanics and Rehabilitation)
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16 pages, 3494 KiB  
Article
Influence of Wall Compliance on the Flow Patterns in a Patient-Specific Brachio-Cephalic Arterio-Venous Fistula
by Neda Alam and David Newport
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 158-173; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020014 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Patients with end stage renal disease require some form of vascular access for treatment, with Arterio-Venous Fistulas (avf) being the preferred form available due to better patency rates. However, they continue to present complications after creation, leading to early or late [...] Read more.
Patients with end stage renal disease require some form of vascular access for treatment, with Arterio-Venous Fistulas (avf) being the preferred form available due to better patency rates. However, they continue to present complications after creation, leading to early or late failure. While many studies are examining the flow in patient-specific fistulas, they often neglect the influence of vessel compliance on its hemodynamics. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of wall compliance on the complex hemodynamics of a patient-specific brachio-cephalic avf and how it differs from a rigid fistula. Particle Image Velocimetry (piv) was used to capture the flow pattern within the fistula for both steady (Re = 1817) and pulsatile (Reav=1817, Remax=2232) flow conditions. The results were compared to rigid model measurements performed under the same Reynolds number. The streamline plots and coefficient of variation results did not differ significantly between the models; however, the non-dimensional velocity and directional variability results did vary between the two fistulas. A difference of approximately 8% was seen between the two models for both steady and pulsatile flow. The findings of this study suggest that to determine the bulk flow, a rigid model is adequate, but to capture the finer details of the flow, a compliant model is necessary. Full article
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20 pages, 6201 KiB  
Article
Virgin Passive Colon Biomechanics and a Literature Review of Active Contraction Constitutive Models
by Aroj Bhattarai, Andreas Johannes Horbach, Manfred Staat, Wojciech Kowalczyk and Thanh Ngoc Tran
Biomechanics 2022, 2(2), 138-157; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomechanics2020013 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to present our findings on the biomechanical aspects of the virgin passive anisotropic hyperelasticity of the porcine colon based on equibiaxial tensile experiments. Firstly, the characterization of the intestine tissues is discussed for a nearly incompressible hyperelastic [...] Read more.
The objective of this paper is to present our findings on the biomechanical aspects of the virgin passive anisotropic hyperelasticity of the porcine colon based on equibiaxial tensile experiments. Firstly, the characterization of the intestine tissues is discussed for a nearly incompressible hyperelastic fiber-reinforced Holzapfel–Gasser–Ogden constitutive model in virgin passive loading conditions. The stability of the evaluated material parameters is checked for the polyconvexity of the adopted strain energy function using positive eigenvalue constraints of the Hessian matrix with MATLAB. The constitutive material description of the intestine with two collagen fibers in the submucosal and muscular layer each has been implemented in the FORTRAN platform of the commercial finite element software LS-DYNA, and two equibiaxial tensile simulations are presented to validate the results with the optical strain images obtained from the experiments. Furthermore, this paper also reviews the existing models of the active smooth muscle cells, but these models have not been computationally studied here. The review part shows that the constitutive models originally developed for the active contraction of skeletal muscle based on Hill’s three-element model, Murphy’s four-state cross-bridge chemical kinetic model and Huxley’s sliding-filament hypothesis, which are mainly used for arteries, are appropriate for numerical contraction numerical analysis of the large intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Biomechanics)
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