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Eng. Proc., 2023, IC4AFSC 2023

International Conference on Industry 4.0 for Agri-food Supply Chains: Addressing Socio-economic and Environmental Challenges in Ukraine

Leicester, UK and Online | 24–25 July 2023

Volume Editors:
Hana Trollman, University of Leicester, UK
Iuliia Samoilyk, Poltava State Agrarian University, Ukraine

Number of Papers: 29

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Cover Story (view full-size image): IC4AFSC 2023—The International Conference on Industry 4.0 for Agri-food Supply Chains: Addressing Socio-economic and Environmental Challenges in Ukraine—brings together researchers and [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

2 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Preface of the International Conference on Industry 4.0 for Agri-food Supply Chains: Addressing Socio-economic and Environmental Challenges in Ukraine (IC4AFSC 2023)
by Hana Trollman and Iuliia Samoilyk
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040024 - 02 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 599
Abstract
The first edition of the International Conference on Industry 4 [...] Full article
1 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
Statement of Peer Review
by Hana Trollman and Iuliia Samoilyk
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040029 - 17 Aug 2023
Viewed by 529
Abstract
In submitting conference proceedings to Engineering Proceedings, the volume editors of the proceedings certify to the publisher that all papers published in this volume have been subjected to peer review administered by the volume editors [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

1 pages, 166 KiB  
Abstract
Revolutionizing Food Safety in Agri-Food Supply Chains: The Impact of Autonomous Mobile Robots on Inspections
by Abhay K. Grover
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040002 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Food safety managers across agri-food supply chains face complex challenges in meeting regulatory requirements, managing consumer expectations, and dealing with a shortage of qualified professionals [...] Full article
2 pages, 169 KiB  
Abstract
Analyzing the Barriers to Implementing Industry 4.0 for Enhanced Traceability in the Agri-Food Supply Chain
by Bishal Dey Sarkar and Isha Sharma
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040003 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 428
Abstract
In recent times, Industry 4 [...] Full article
2 pages, 625 KiB  
Abstract
Food Security via Food Waste Prevention: Categorization of Household Food Waste for Artificial Intelligence-Driven Interventions
by Nurul Islam Mohamed Yusoff, Elliot Woolley and Jan Godsell
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040004 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Global food waste, around 1 [...] Full article
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1 pages, 168 KiB  
Abstract
Assessing Adoption Challenges of Blockchain Technology in Agri-Food Supply Chain
by Neha Gupta, Sumit Gupta and Rahul Gupta
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040005 - 14 Jul 2023
Viewed by 381
Abstract
The Agri-Food Supply Chain (AFSC) faces several barriers in developing economies, hindering the adoption of blockchain technology. However, the adoption of these technologies can transform traditional supply chains by incorporating transparency, traceability, transaction records, and enhanced security. This paper aims to evaluate the [...] Read more.
The Agri-Food Supply Chain (AFSC) faces several barriers in developing economies, hindering the adoption of blockchain technology. However, the adoption of these technologies can transform traditional supply chains by incorporating transparency, traceability, transaction records, and enhanced security. This paper aims to evaluate the barriers impacting the adoption of blockchain in the AFSC and provide insights to improve performance and facilitate their effective implementation in emerging economies. Therefore, a comprehensive literature survey was conducted to identify the barriers, which were further validated through experts’ opinions. The integrated interpretive structural modeling (ISM) and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique were then employed to develop a structural model and determine the cause–effect relationships between the identified barriers. The study revealed several key barriers affecting the adoption of blockchain technology in the AFSC of developing economies. These barriers were analyzed using the ISM and DEMATEL technique, which provided insights into their interdependencies and impact on each other. The results offer a comprehensive understanding of the barriers and their causal relationships. This study provides unique insights for the agri-food sector to improve performance by addressing the identified barriers. The results can guide agri-food managers, blockchain technology service providers, and the government in formulating strategies and policies to effectively adopt blockchain technologies in the AFSC. Full article
2 pages, 162 KiB  
Abstract
The Challenges and Opportunities for the Development of Industry 4.0 and Agri-Food Supply Chain in the Context of Energy Infrastructure Restoration in Ukraine
by Lyudmyla Svystun, Iuliia Samoilyk and Mykola Svystun
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040006 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 306
Abstract
The war in Ukraine is one of the most catastrophic events of the 21st century, and it has been accompanied by significant civilian casualties and the destruction of buildings, structures, and infrastructure [...] Full article
2 pages, 171 KiB  
Abstract
Framework for Assessing Trust in the Use of Blockchain Technology in Agrifood Supply Chains
by Vaibhav Sharma, Anbesh Jamwal and Rajeev Agrawal
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040007 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 448
Abstract
The advent of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies has revolutionized production environments with their application in supply chains, particularly within the agrifood sector. One notable I4.0 technology is blockchain, which holds significant potential for traceability in agrifood supply chains. However, there are concerns regarding [...] Read more.
The advent of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) technologies has revolutionized production environments with their application in supply chains, particularly within the agrifood sector. One notable I4.0 technology is blockchain, which holds significant potential for traceability in agrifood supply chains. However, there are concerns regarding digital trust among the actors involved in adopting this technology. The concept of digital trust, essential for successful implementation, remains underexplored. This research aims to propose a framework for evaluating digital trust in the context of blockchain technology to foster a secure and reliable information sharing environment among all stakeholders within the agrifood supply chain to build confidence in security based on data permissions for user identity. To accomplish this, an extensive literature review was conducted to identify the factors affecting stakeholders’ expectations and trust in using blockchain technology in agrifood supply chains. The literature review will enhance the knowledge about these different factors affecting digital trust under four key dimensions, that are, security/privacy, data control, accountability, and benefit/value. These factors are then ranked using a multi criteria decision-making technique, enabling the development of a framework for industries and government organizations. This framework addresses the use of blockchain technology for traceability in agrifood supply chains while ensuring the trust of actors utilizing this technology. In regions facing war-like situations, such as Ukraine, it becomes crucial to evaluate the factors that can enhance food safety in agrifood supply chains, mitigate food waste and fraud risks, and maintain the supply chain sustainability by exploring alternative food supplies from reliable partners. The situation is the same all over the globe, in which supply chain risks include frauds and lack of transparency. This study outlines the managerial implications and suggests future research directions to develop a model for assessing digital trust. This model aims to foster information sharing among actors, considering aspects, such as willingness, vulnerability acceptance, shared values, security, identifiability, and digital trust. Smart contracts can be added to the model that removes the need for a third party, warranting more trust. The deployment of this model on a private or public blockchain can enhance transparency, traceability, and address food safety concerns within transactions by addressing issues of security and reliability, accountability, and oversight with an inclusive, ethical, and responsible use. Full article
2 pages, 169 KiB  
Abstract
Building Resilience and Overcoming Challenges in War Times: The Role of Lean 4.0 in Agri-Food Supply Chains
by Michelle Grace Tetteh, Sandeep Jagtap and Konstantinos Salonitis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040008 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 534
Abstract
The ongoing conflict and the impact of Russia–Ukraine war pose significant challenges to various sectors, including the agri-food industry [...] Full article
2 pages, 170 KiB  
Abstract
Analyzing Sustainability Assessment Factors Influencing Agriculture Supply Chains in the Age of Industry 4.0
by Harshad Sonar, Nikhil Ghag and Isha Sharma
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040009 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Industry 4 [...] Full article
2 pages, 168 KiB  
Abstract
Revolutionizing Food Production: Integrating Industry 4.0 and Carbon Neutral Strategies for a Sustainable Future
by Noor Imran, Sandeep Jagtap, Mohamed Afy-Shararah and Konstantinos Salonitis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040010 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 546
Abstract
The food industry is actively adopting carbon neutral strategies aligned with the principles of Industry 4 [...] Full article
2 pages, 172 KiB  
Abstract
Safeguarding Food Industry: Understanding Cyberthreats and Ensuring Cybersecurity
by Adel Alqudhaibi, Ashish Krishna, Sandeep Jagtap, Mohamed Afy-Shararah and Konstantinos Salonitis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040011 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 596
Abstract
The food industry stands as one of the most vital manufacturing sectors globally, with an ever-increasing reliance on digitalization and technology-driven processes. However, this advancement comes with an inherent risk of cyberattacks, encompassing data breaches and system disruptions, which can severely impact production [...] Read more.
The food industry stands as one of the most vital manufacturing sectors globally, with an ever-increasing reliance on digitalization and technology-driven processes. However, this advancement comes with an inherent risk of cyberattacks, encompassing data breaches and system disruptions, which can severely impact production and disrupt the entire food supply chain. Consequently, such cyberthreats can lead to consumer fear and mistrust, potentially tarnishing a company’s brand image. Additionally, the sector is becoming the focus of cyberthreat actors owing to the current crisis in Ukraine, revealing the severity of the rippling effects of these disruptions. This research aims to delve into the current perception of cyberthreats within the food industry, emphasizing the importance of cybersecurity and analyzing the measures taken by stakeholders to mitigate the risks associated with cyberattacks. The findings reveal that although the food industry acknowledges the potential threats posed by inadequate cybersecurity measures, these risks are perceived as insignificant due to the unique nature of the industry. Moreover, an extensive literature review highlights that the food industry places great emphasis on adopting innovative information technologies to enhance operational efficiency and cost-effectiveness. However, it remains vulnerable to cyberattacks, necessitating continuous employee education and training to strengthen the security landscape. This holistic approach fosters a seamless, reliable, and sustainable growth environment for the industry. By analyzing the existing challenges and requirements, this study underscores the need for proactive measures to safeguard the food industry against cyberthreats. It emphasizes the significance of implementing robust cybersecurity protocols and cultivating a culture of awareness and preparedness within organizations. Furthermore, the research emphasizes the importance of employee education and training, equipping them with the necessary knowledge and skills to identify and mitigate potential cyber risks. In conclusion, while cognizant of the risks posed by cyberattacks, the food industry must prioritize cybersecurity measures to protect its production and supply chain. Enhancing the security environment through ongoing employee education and training is crucial for fostering consumer trust and enabling seamless growth within the industry. By adopting a proactive approach to cybersecurity, the food industry can ensure the sustainability and reliability of its operations in the face of evolving cyberthreats. Full article
2 pages, 332 KiB  
Abstract
Intelligent Assessment of Reusable Plastic Food Packaging for a Circular Supply Chain
by Mariam Qaiser, Elliot Woolley, James Colwill, Fiona L. Hatton and D. Patrick Webb
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040012 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 358
Abstract
The agri-food supply chain uses plastic food packaging alongside many other types of packaging materials [...] Full article
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2 pages, 161 KiB  
Abstract
The Transformation of the Agri-Food Products Export Channels from Ukraine: New Opportunities and Challenges
by Iuliia Samoilyk and Dmytro Zhaivoron
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040013 - 17 Jul 2023
Viewed by 380
Abstract
The global agri-food market is one of the most important sectors of the economy, providing food for billions of people around the world [...] Full article
2 pages, 172 KiB  
Abstract
Traceable Dairy Supply Chain Implementation in Ukraine for Improved Export Potential
by Chenyiman Lou, Roman Gorobec, Iuliia Samoilyk and Hana Trollman
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040014 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 554
Abstract
This research critically examines how the traceable dairy supply chain can be implemented in Ukraine to foster socio-economic outcomes, such as reduced food safety risk, higher product quality, improved shipping and storage, and greater consumer confidence for improved export potential [...] Full article
2 pages, 170 KiB  
Abstract
Transforming Packaging Inventory Management in the Food Industry: Unleashing the Power of Industry 4.0 for Sustainability and Resilience
by Neha Jadhav, Tom Hollands, Sandeep Jagtap, Mohamed Afy-Shararah and Konstantinos Salonitis
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040016 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 708
Abstract
In recent years, the need for sustainable practices within the food industry has become increasingly important and incorporating Industry 4 [...] Full article
2 pages, 174 KiB  
Abstract
The Role of Ukrainian Innovation Centres in the Development of the Agricultural Sector and Supply Chains
by Nataliia Demianenko, Olena Krasota and Ilona Yasnolob
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040017 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 484
Abstract
The global challenges of 2019–2023 have impacted supply chains [...] Full article
2 pages, 170 KiB  
Abstract
Addressing Unfairness in Fresh Fruit Supply Chains in the United Kingdom with Technology Adoption for Improved Supply Chain Resilience
by Adenike A. Moradeyo, Adegboyega Oyedijo and Hana Trollman
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040018 - 18 Jul 2023
Viewed by 392
Abstract
This research aims to develop a better understanding of how the adoption of Industry 4 [...] Full article
2 pages, 186 KiB  
Abstract
Resilient Food Supply Chains in the Face of the Russo–Ukrainian War: Harnessing the Power of the Internet of Things
by Guillermo Garcia-Garcia, Carlos Parra-López, Sandeep Jagtap and Hana Trollman
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040019 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 743
Abstract
The current war in Ukraine has severely disrupted global food supply chains due to the significant decline in the production of grain commodities, of which Ukraine and Russia are major global suppliers. This creates problems in today’s globalised food systems. In particular, a [...] Read more.
The current war in Ukraine has severely disrupted global food supply chains due to the significant decline in the production of grain commodities, of which Ukraine and Russia are major global suppliers. This creates problems in today’s globalised food systems. In particular, a number of countries are heavily dependent on food imports from Ukraine and/or Russia, particularly some developing nations in regions like the Middle East and North Africa. As a result, alternative suppliers need to increase production and food supply chains need to adapt distribution processes. In these situations, building resilience in food supply chains is critical to react to disruptions. Resilience has become a widely researched topic in the context of food supply chains, leading to the exploration of different strategies. One potential strategy to improve resilience is to integrate digital technologies to optimise food operations. One of the digital technologies at the core of Industry 4.0, and one that is increasingly being used, is the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT refers to systems that connect devices via the Internet, allowing them to collect and share data in real time within a network. The successful use of IoT in industrial systems has already been demonstrated and the food industry has begun to embrace the opportunities this technology offers. This research focuses on the potential of the IoT to support food supply chains by making them more resilient, particularly in the context of the disruptions caused by the war in Ukraine. Using a literature review and data from statistical sources, we explore the challenges posed to food supply chains by the Russo–Ukrainian war, and identify specific vulnerabilities that the IoT can address. We discuss the challenges of implementing this technology, particularly in wartime situations, and its potential to strengthen food supply chain operations through its ability to collect and share accurate data in real time. Full article
2 pages, 182 KiB  
Abstract
Features and Prospects of Industry 4.0 in the Agrarian Sector of Ukraine in Wartime: Economic and Accounting Aspects
by Liudmyla Chip, Natalia Kantsedal, Olena Kopishynska, Yuri Utkin and Olena Taran-Lala
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040020 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 419
Abstract
The agrarian sector of Ukraine is an integral part of the country’s economy [...] Full article
2 pages, 170 KiB  
Abstract
Leveraging Industry 4.0 for Supply Chain Collaboration: Creating Competitive Advantage for Small Farms in the United Kingdom and Ukraine
by Leila Masoomi, Olena Taran-Lala, Charlotte V. L. Smith and Hana Trollman
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040021 - 20 Jul 2023
Viewed by 535
Abstract
The aim of this research is to comparatively analyse the potential for implementing Industry 4 [...] Full article
2 pages, 160 KiB  
Abstract
Innovative Projects in the Industry 4.0 Sphere of Poltava State Agrarian University
by Volodymyr Muravlov, Yurii Utkin, Ihor Sliusar, Olena Kopishynska, Oleksii Goryk, Oleksandr Brykun, Anatolii Semenov, Serhii Bida, Oleksandr Petrash and Ruslan Petrash
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040022 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 364
Abstract
The activity of the “Industry 4 [...] Full article
2 pages, 169 KiB  
Abstract
Industry 4.0 Challenges Facing the Agri-Supply Chain: A Literature Review
by Walid Khalid Al Saad, Moayad Al-Talib and Simon Peter Nadeem
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040025 - 02 Aug 2023
Viewed by 380
Abstract
The world is moving fast, and organizations are facing new risks, uncertainties, and threats within their supply chains [...] Full article
2 pages, 178 KiB  
Abstract
Transformation of the Ukrainian Agri-Food Industry in the Context of Global Digitalization
by Svitlana Tul, Iuliia Samoilyk, Vita Klymenko and Olha Shkurupii
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040026 - 04 Aug 2023
Viewed by 694
Abstract
Nowadays, the agri-food sector is facing fundamental challenges. According to the FAO study, the amount of arable land per capita in the world will decrease from 0.6 hectares per person in 2000 to 0.2 hectares by 2050, while the demand for food will [...] Read more.
Nowadays, the agri-food sector is facing fundamental challenges. According to the FAO study, the amount of arable land per capita in the world will decrease from 0.6 hectares per person in 2000 to 0.2 hectares by 2050, while the demand for food will increase by 70%. With today’s yield growth of 1.5% per year, such changes could result in global food shortages. Therefore, the governments of developed and developing countries should support initiatives for the digitization of agri-food businesses and the introduction of new technologies to increase the volume of food production. Russia’s war against Ukraine is the main cause of the global food crisis, which could bring serious political and economic consequences. The agricultural and food sector of Ukraine is about 10% of GDP. For many years, the Ukrainian agro-industrial complex, before the full-scale invasion of Russia, occupied a leading position among the global exporters. Ukraine supplied 10% of world wheat exports, more than 14% of corn and more than 47% of sunflower oil. A full-scale war has become a real test for the Ukrainian agri-food industry. The invasion entailed the destruction of food production processes and logistics chains. Many sowing areas were mined, equipment and warehouses were destroyed. At the end of 2022, Ukraine exported agricultural products worth USD 23.6 billion. Although the figure for 2022 is 15% less than the record of 2021 (USD 27.9 billion), last year’s value of exports became the second since the independence of Ukraine. Disruptions to Ukrainian exports exacerbated the rise in food prices, which, according to the FAO index, increased by 54% in February 2022. In March 2023, prices fell, but they were still 6.4% higher than in 2022. The purpose of the study is to assess the level of digital transformation of the Ukrainian agri-food industry in order to ensure food security at the national and international levels. Digitalization of the agri-food industry in Ukraine should be considered a source of deep systemic transformations, which involves the use of digital technologies at the business level to optimize business operations, increase company productivity, and improve interaction with suppliers and customers. For agri-food companies, the issue of digitalization concerns not only technological modernization, but also a complete change of business processes: farm management systems, data processing and harvest forecasting, agricultural processing, food quality management, systems for creating added value for products, warehouse management systems, and human resources management. Nowadays, digitalization can accelerate the transformation of the agri-food industry across the entire supply chain, from manufacturing and purchasing processes to distribution, logistics and finance. Innovative technologies that can become breakthrough in the agri-food industry are as follows: bioinformatics; synthetic biology; food design; smart farming; vertical farms; aquaculture; bioinformatics; genetics; alternative sources of protein; technology of conservation and extension of the shelf life of food products. In Ukraine, a number of agri-food enterprises are moving to Industry 4.0. The most innovative companies in Ukraine are the largest exporters “Kernel”, “MHP”, “ASTARTA-KYIV”. “Kernel”, a large producer and exporter of sunflower oil, has been successfully implementing innovations for the agro-industrial complex of Ukraine for many years. The company uses digital technologies at all stages—from growing products to sales. The company’s IT team digitized logistics, trading, and document management. All information about the processes taking place in agri-food production is collected in the “Kernel DigitalAgriBusiness” innovative ecosystem. “MHP”, the largest producer and exporter of chicken in Ukraine, continues to use biogas to produce electricity, industrial steam, and heating. “MHP” biogas projects are a significant contribution to the company’s energy independence and environmental responsibility. “ASTARTA-KYIV”, a vertically integrated agricultural holding, developed a complex system of IT solutions for agribusiness management “AgriChain”, which includes management of the land bank of the agricultural company (AgriChain Land), agricultural production (AgriChain Farm), monitoring of crops (AgriChain Scout), logistics of goods (AgriChain Logistics), warehouse management (AgriChain Barn), business processes (AgriChain Kit). Digital transformations are also being followed in the dairy industry. “Bel Shostka Ukraine” company is engaged in the digital transformation of the milk harvesting process. According to our research, breakthrough innovations are predominantly implemented by large Ukrainian agri-food companies, since they have significant financial resources for R&D, while SMEs are concentrating their efforts on the digitalization of business operations and implementation of energy efficient technologies. Full article
2 pages, 172 KiB  
Abstract
Agriculture through Industry 4.0: Management, Challenges, and Opportunities in Hostile Environment: The Case of Iraq
by Sanar Muhyaddin
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040027 - 14 Aug 2023
Viewed by 446
Abstract
This paper reviews the future trends, the present situation and the prospects facing the application of Industry 4.0 technologies (e.g., Drones, texting technologies, GPS, etc.) in Iraq’s agricultural sector in general and small agribusiness industries in particular. Iraq struggles with chronic structural and [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the future trends, the present situation and the prospects facing the application of Industry 4.0 technologies (e.g., Drones, texting technologies, GPS, etc.) in Iraq’s agricultural sector in general and small agribusiness industries in particular. Iraq struggles with chronic structural and emerging challenges that have hindered its food production over the years. In 2019, Iraq’s population had increased to around 39 million people, compared to 23.5 million Iraqis in 2000. This shift amounts to a 66% increase in population in 20 years. Food supply, whether locally produced or imported, has been struggling to catch up with the population growth, and Iraq has become increasingly dependent on food imports to meet domestic demand. Between 1985 and 2017, food imports increased from USD 2 billion to USD 11 billion, growing from 19 to 21% of total imports. Iraq’s economy has been highly dependent on the oil sector; with declining oil prices, politicians and international communities have emphasised that modern and smart agriculture that applies Industry 4.0 technology can increase productivity and be a source of job creation, income generation and self-reliance. Nonetheless, evidence obtained via this exploratory study using unstructured interviews (3 out 33) via an interpretive approach and conducting thematic analysis of the interviews with farmers and agri-entrepreneurs indicate that there is a long journey ahead before Iraq can rely on agriculture and new technologies, instead of oil, for its economy and to improve its food system. Moreover, Iraq’s political turmoil and uncertainty, the cyclical conflict and wars, and the corruption and mismanagement of state resources exacerbate this problem. Indeed, farmers face many challenges, such as a lack of infrastructure and security, the dominance of state-owned enterprises, and financing issues, with many farm owners struggling to access finance since there is no clear banking or credit system. On top of that issue, the diminishing of tacit knowledge among the farmers and the labour shortage issue in the agricultural sector hinders application of smart technology, as the majority of workers remaining in the market are unskilled labour. This study contributed to the literature on the application of smart technologies in agriculture and its socioeconomic effects. The exploratory nature of this study identifies areas for future research. Additionally, the arguments presented in this research highlight the challenges farmers and agri-entrepreneurs face in adopting new technologies and the tactics that they use to survive in a hostile environment like Iraq. It will also offer suggestions to help policymakers and international communities focus on intervention to help farmers and agri-entrepreneurs in Iraq to improve their performance. Full article
2 pages, 160 KiB  
Abstract
Understanding the Geopolitical and Socio-Economic Factors Affecting the Food Supply Chain in Ukraine: An Exploratory Study
by Al-Amin Abba Dabo, Olalekan Adisa, Rahul S Mor and Dilshad Sarwar
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040028 - 15 Aug 2023
Viewed by 641
Abstract
This paper presents an ongoing study that explores the influence of geopolitical and socio-economic factors on the Ukrainian food supply chain and its implications for food security. Focusing on specific sectors within Ukraine, our research aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the [...] Read more.
This paper presents an ongoing study that explores the influence of geopolitical and socio-economic factors on the Ukrainian food supply chain and its implications for food security. Focusing on specific sectors within Ukraine, our research aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the intricate dynamics between geopolitics, socio-economic conditions, and the functioning of the food supply chain. To collect data, we have employed focus groups as the primary methodology, engaging key stakeholders from various sectors, including farmers, distributors, retailers, policymakers, and consumers. These focus group discussions enable us to delve into their perspectives, experiences, and challenges in relation to the influence of geopolitical and socio-economic factors on the Ukrainian food supply chain. Preliminary literature review reveals several noteworthy insights, including the impact of trade policies and regional conflicts on the availability and accessibility of specific food products in targeted regions of Ukraine. Building upon these initial findings, our ongoing study aims to propose strategies to enhance the resilience and efficiency of Ukraine’s food supply chain. By tailoring policies to address the specific needs of different regions and socio-economic groups, we anticipate mitigating the adverse effects of geopolitical dynamics on the food system. Moreover, fostering collaboration among stakeholders will be crucial in navigating the complexities and challenges inherent in managing the Ukrainian food supply chain. Full article

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

5 pages, 225 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Being Resilient in Challenging Times in Food Supply Chains
by Louise Manning
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040001 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
Resilience has been described in many ways and in this paper is considered as the ability of an organization or wider food supply chain to not just ‘bounce back’ to a steady state, but to ‘bounce forward’ or ‘bounce without breaking’ to a [...] Read more.
Resilience has been described in many ways and in this paper is considered as the ability of an organization or wider food supply chain to not just ‘bounce back’ to a steady state, but to ‘bounce forward’ or ‘bounce without breaking’ to a new sense of becoming that is continually reshaped by the evolving environment. This keynote-positioned conceptual paper reflects aspects of resilience that will be considered during the conference. Resilience as a concept can be framed in the context of food supply chains in terms of the triad of natural systems resilience, organizational resilience, and personal resilience. The main focus of this paper is on organizational resilience and developing the capacity to buffer shocks and to adapt to changing supply chain drivers and demands as the world in which the organization operates becomes more uncertain. One infrastructural approach to improving adaptive capacity, as a result resilience, is the integration of digital technologies and smart systems into food supply chains, what is often described as Industry 4.0. Full article
4 pages, 189 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
Application of Modern Enterprise Resource Planning Systems for Agri-Food Supply Chains as a Strategy for Reaching the Level of Industry 4.0 for Non-Manufacturing Organizations
by Olena Kopishynska, Yurii Utkin, Ihor Sliusar, Volodymyr Muravlov, Khanlar Makhmudov and Liudmyla Chip
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040015 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
The Ukrainian Industry 4.0 strategy envisages the positioning of Ukraine as a high-tech, post-industrial country, integrated into global technological chains of value creation and producing unique engineering services and high-quality products. In particular, for the needs of the territorial communities of Ukraine in [...] Read more.
The Ukrainian Industry 4.0 strategy envisages the positioning of Ukraine as a high-tech, post-industrial country, integrated into global technological chains of value creation and producing unique engineering services and high-quality products. In particular, for the needs of the territorial communities of Ukraine in the conditions of war, the uninterrupted operation of agro-food supply chains and ensuring the ecological safety of these territories has become especially important. This paper explores the possibilities of creating a unified digital information space in a modern cloud-based enterprise resource planning (ERP) system to improve the management of all subjects in the territorial community and facilitate the transition to the Industry 4.0 technology landscape. Full article
5 pages, 806 KiB  
Proceeding Paper
A Vision of the Food System, 2045 CE: Materiality Methods Can Define What Is Resilient and Critical
by Wayne Martindale and Tom Æ Hollands
Eng. Proc. 2023, 40(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/engproc2023040023 - 01 Aug 2023
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Abstract
This keynote and future paper summarises the methods that are being utilised to define the requirements of national populations’ natural resource demands for the consumption of food and beverage products so that strategies may be more effectively developed to deal with crises. The [...] Read more.
This keynote and future paper summarises the methods that are being utilised to define the requirements of national populations’ natural resource demands for the consumption of food and beverage products so that strategies may be more effectively developed to deal with crises. The methods are presented as part of a material analysis of the UK food supply system, and they are used to demonstrate sustainable practices in food manufacturing. Our current conclusions show that the limiting factors in the food system must be focussed on human-centred activities that interact with material flows, which are often overlooked in sustainability assessments. This is critical if we intend to tackle issues of security, resilience, and sustainability incisively. Full article
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