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Biomimetics, Volume 9, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 52 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumor that accounts for 15% of childhood cancer deaths. Research has demonstrated that all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibits cell growth and promotes differentiation. The substantial chemical and photo instability of ATRA is a significant aspect of its therapeutic value. One known method of shielding retinoids against destabilizing events is to encapsulate them in nanocarriers, such as liposomes. In this study, free ATRA and anionic-liposome-encapsulated ATRA were compared for their effects on human neuroblastoma cell growth and differentiation. The new anionic liposomal formulation improved ATRA’s differentiation efficiency, as evidenced by an increase in neurite-bearing cells. This work, which creates and tests a novel nanocarrier, is an example of the first stage in developing new therapeutic settings. View this paper
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30 pages, 15359 KiB  
Review
Advancement in Cancer Vasculogenesis Modeling through 3D Bioprinting Technology
by Arvind Kumar Shukla, Sik Yoon, Sae-Ock Oh, Dongjun Lee, Minjun Ahn and Byoung Soo Kim
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050306 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Cancer vasculogenesis is a pivotal focus of cancer research and treatment given its critical role in tumor development, metastasis, and the formation of vasculogenic microenvironments. Traditional approaches to investigating cancer vasculogenesis face significant challenges in accurately modeling intricate microenvironments. Recent advancements in three-dimensional [...] Read more.
Cancer vasculogenesis is a pivotal focus of cancer research and treatment given its critical role in tumor development, metastasis, and the formation of vasculogenic microenvironments. Traditional approaches to investigating cancer vasculogenesis face significant challenges in accurately modeling intricate microenvironments. Recent advancements in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology present promising solutions to these challenges. This review provides an overview of cancer vasculogenesis and underscores the importance of precise modeling. It juxtaposes traditional techniques with 3D bioprinting technologies, elucidating the advantages of the latter in developing cancer vasculogenesis models. Furthermore, it explores applications in pathological investigations, preclinical medication screening for personalized treatment and cancer diagnostics, and envisages future prospects for 3D bioprinted cancer vasculogenesis models. Despite notable advancements, current 3D bioprinting techniques for cancer vasculogenesis modeling have several limitations. Nonetheless, by overcoming these challenges and with technological advances, 3D bioprinting exhibits immense potential for revolutionizing the understanding of cancer vasculogenesis and augmenting treatment modalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic 3D/4D Printing)
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9 pages, 4914 KiB  
Case Report
Biomechanical Multipurpose Miniscrew Strategy for Simultaneous Distalization in Class II Patients—The BiGa System
by Gabriele Di Carlo, Guglielmo Biondi, Ivan Gazzola and Matteo Saccucci
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050305 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 426
Abstract
An efficient treatment plan using a temporary anchorage device should be built following the principle of reducing the number of tads to obtain a multiple biomechanical advantage. The following case report concerns the Biga system, a strategy that supports orthodontists during class II [...] Read more.
An efficient treatment plan using a temporary anchorage device should be built following the principle of reducing the number of tads to obtain a multiple biomechanical advantage. The following case report concerns the Biga system, a strategy that supports orthodontists during class II corrections and vertical control through treatment. A 12-year-old girl with a high angle of skeletal class II was selected. A novel biomechanical strategy was effectively applied using two tads on the upper arch to obtain sequential distalization of the upper teeth and to correct the lower arch spee curve using third-class elastics. Eventually, on the same tads, a double cantilever was applied to control the overbite and intrusion during incisors’ retraction. The Biga system is an easy biomechanical strategy that ensures the three-dimensional control of treatment mechanics in class II patients. Full article
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20 pages, 1771 KiB  
Article
Survival Prediction of Patients after Heart Attack and Breast Cancer Surgery with a Hybrid Model Built with Particle Swarm Optimization, Stacked AutoEncoders, and the Softmax Classifier
by Mehmet Akif Bülbül and Mehmet Fatih Işık
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050304 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
The prediction of patient survival is crucial for guiding the treatment process in healthcare. Healthcare professionals rely on analyzing patients’ clinical characteristics and findings to determine treatment plans, making accurate predictions essential for efficient resource utilization and optimal patient support during recovery. In [...] Read more.
The prediction of patient survival is crucial for guiding the treatment process in healthcare. Healthcare professionals rely on analyzing patients’ clinical characteristics and findings to determine treatment plans, making accurate predictions essential for efficient resource utilization and optimal patient support during recovery. In this study, a hybrid architecture combining Stacked AutoEncoders, Particle Swarm Optimization, and the Softmax Classifier was developed for predicting patient survival. The architecture was evaluated using the Haberman’s Survival dataset and the Echocardiogram dataset from UCI. The results were compared with several Machine Learning methods, including Decision Trees, K-Nearest Neighbors, Support Vector Machines, Neural Networks, Gradient Boosting, and Gradient Bagging applied to the same datasets. The findings indicate that the proposed architecture outperforms other Machine Learning methods in predicting patient survival for both datasets and surpasses the results reported in the literature for the Haberman’s Survival dataset. In the light of the findings obtained, the models obtained with the proposed architecture can be used as a decision support system in determining patient care and applied methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Approaches in Healthcare—Innovations Inspired by Nature)
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29 pages, 4080 KiB  
Article
Development of a New Aggregation Method to Remove Nanoplastics from the Ocean: Proof of Concept Using Mussel Exposure Tests
by Antonio Cid-Samamed, Catarina S. E. Nunes, Cristina Lomas Martínez and Mário S. Diniz
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050303 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 464
Abstract
The overproduction and mismanagement of plastics has led to the accumulation of these materials in the environment, particularly in the marine ecosystem. Once in the environment, plastics break down and can acquire microscopic or even nanoscopic sizes. Given their sizes, microplastics (MPs) and [...] Read more.
The overproduction and mismanagement of plastics has led to the accumulation of these materials in the environment, particularly in the marine ecosystem. Once in the environment, plastics break down and can acquire microscopic or even nanoscopic sizes. Given their sizes, microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) are hard to detect and remove from the aquatic environment, eventually interacting with marine organisms. This research mainly aimed to achieve the aggregation of micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) to ease their removal from the marine environment. To this end, the size and stability of polystyrene (PS) MNPs were measured in synthetic seawater with the different components of the technology (ionic liquid and chitosan). The MPs were purchased in their plain form, while the NPs displayed amines on their surface (PS NP-NH2). The results showed that this technology promoted a significant aggregation of the PS NP-NH2, whereas, for the PS MPs, no conclusive results were found, indicating that the surface charge plays an essential role in the MNP aggregation process. Moreover, to investigate the toxicological potential of MNPs, a mussel species (M. galloprovincialis) was exposed to different concentrations of MPs and NPs, separately, with and without the technology. In this context, mussels were sampled after 7, 14, and 21 days of exposure, and the gills and digestive glands were collected for analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers and histological observations. In general, the results indicate that MNPs trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mussels and induce oxidative stress, making gills the most affected organ. Yet, when the technology was applied in moderate concentrations, NPs showed adverse effects in mussels. The histological analysis showed no evidence of MNPs in the gill’s tissues. Full article
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22 pages, 5251 KiB  
Article
Whale Optimization for Cloud–Edge-Offloading Decision-Making for Smart Grid Services
by Gabriel Ioan Arcas, Tudor Cioara and Ionut Anghel
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050302 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 684
Abstract
As IoT metering devices become increasingly prevalent, the smart energy grid encounters challenges associated with the transmission of large volumes of data affecting the latency of control services and the secure delivery of energy. Offloading computational work towards the edge is a viable [...] Read more.
As IoT metering devices become increasingly prevalent, the smart energy grid encounters challenges associated with the transmission of large volumes of data affecting the latency of control services and the secure delivery of energy. Offloading computational work towards the edge is a viable option; however, effectively coordinating service execution on edge nodes presents significant challenges due to the vast search space making it difficult to identify optimal decisions within a limited timeframe. In this research paper, we utilize the whale optimization algorithm to decide and select the optimal edge nodes for executing services’ computational tasks. We employ a directed acyclic graph to model dependencies among computational nodes, data network links, smart grid energy assets, and energy network organization, thereby facilitating more efficient navigation within the decision space to identify the optimal solution. The offloading decision variables are represented as a binary vector, which is evaluated using a fitness function considering round-trip time and the correlation between edge-task computational resources. To effectively explore offloading strategies and prevent convergence to suboptimal solutions, we adapt the feedback mechanisms, an inertia weight coefficient, and a nonlinear convergence factor. The evaluation results are promising, demonstrating that the proposed solution can effectively consider both energy and data network constraints while enduring faster decision-making for optimization, with notable improvements in response time and a low average execution time of approximately 0.03 s per iteration. Additionally, on complex computational infrastructures modeled, our solution shows strong features in terms of diversity, fitness evolution, and execution time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetics and Bioinspired Artificial Intelligence Applications)
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16 pages, 70501 KiB  
Article
Pectoral Fin Propulsion Performance Analysis of Robotic Fish with Multiple Degrees of Freedom Based on Burst-and-Coast Swimming Behavior Stroke Ratio
by Zonggang Li, Bin Li, Haoyu Li and Guangqing Xia
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050301 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 334
Abstract
The pectoral fin propulsion of a bionic robotic fish always consists of two phases: propulsion and recovery. The robotic fish moves in a burst-and-coast swimming manner. This study aims to analyze a pair of bionic robotic fish with rigid pectoral fin propulsion with [...] Read more.
The pectoral fin propulsion of a bionic robotic fish always consists of two phases: propulsion and recovery. The robotic fish moves in a burst-and-coast swimming manner. This study aims to analyze a pair of bionic robotic fish with rigid pectoral fin propulsion with three degrees of freedom and optimize the elliptical propulsion curve with the minimum recovery stroke resistance using computational fluid dynamics methods. Then, the time allocated to the propulsion and recovery phases is investigated to maximize the propulsion performance of the bionic robotic fish. The numerical simulation results show that when the time ratio of the propulsion and recovery phases is 0.5:1, the resistance during the movement of the robotic fish is effectively reduced, and the drag-reducing effect is pronounced. According to a further analysis of pressure clouds and vortex structures, the pressure difference between the upstream and downstream fins of the pectoral fin varies with different stroke ratios. The increase in recovery phase time helps to prevent premature damage to the vortex ring structure generated during the propulsion process and improves propulsion efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Underwater Robots: 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 1502 KiB  
Article
Modeling the Electrical Activity of the Heart via Transfer Functions and Genetic Algorithms
by Omar Rodríguez-Abreo, Mayra Cruz-Fernandez, Carlos Fuentes-Silva, Mario A. Quiroz-Juárez and José L. Aragón
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050300 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Although healthcare and medical technology have advanced significantly over the past few decades, heart disease continues to be a major cause of mortality globally. Electrocardiography (ECG) is one of the most widely used tools for the detection of heart diseases. This study presents [...] Read more.
Although healthcare and medical technology have advanced significantly over the past few decades, heart disease continues to be a major cause of mortality globally. Electrocardiography (ECG) is one of the most widely used tools for the detection of heart diseases. This study presents a mathematical model based on transfer functions that allows for the exploration and optimization of heart dynamics in Laplace space using a genetic algorithm (GA). The transfer function parameters were fine-tuned using the GA, with clinical ECG records serving as reference signals. The proposed model, which is based on polynomials and delays, approximates a real ECG with a root-mean-square error of 4.7% and an R2 value of 0.72. The model achieves the periodic nature of an ECG signal by using a single periodic impulse input. Its simplicity makes it possible to adjust waveform parameters with a predetermined understanding of their effects, which can be used to generate both arrhythmic patterns and healthy signals. This is a notable advantage over other models that are burdened by a large number of differential equations and many parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithms 2024)
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7 pages, 2144 KiB  
Case Report
Anterior Esthetic Restorations with the Stratified Stamp Technique: A Case Report
by Camillo D’Arcangelo, Matteo Buonvivere and Francesco De Angelis
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050299 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 403
Abstract
Anterior teeth restoration represents a challenge for dentists, who often rely on the dental technician’s wax-up. The proposed Stratified Stamp Technique (SST) allows for clinically reproducing the wax-up in a quick and easy way. A patient with fractures and discoloration on the upper [...] Read more.
Anterior teeth restoration represents a challenge for dentists, who often rely on the dental technician’s wax-up. The proposed Stratified Stamp Technique (SST) allows for clinically reproducing the wax-up in a quick and easy way. A patient with fractures and discoloration on the upper central incisors was treated with resin-based composite direct restorations. Using SST, a 1 mm thick thermoformed polyethylene-terephthalate-glycol (PETG) template, based on the technician’s wax-up, was produced. Enamel Selective Area Reduction (SAR) was performed to guarantee adequate space for the restorations, and the fracture margins were rounded and finished. Traditional layering procedures according to the five color dimensions of teeth were performed, except for the final labial layer, which was realized with warm composite loaded inside the template and polymerized through it, in order to ensure accurate tooth morphology reproduction. SST offers a reliable method for transferring technician’s wax-up morphology to direct composite restorations in anterior teeth. Compared with other methods, SST allows for better isolation with a rubber dam and permits traditional layering with multiple composite shades, thus leading to satisfactory esthetic outcomes. Full article
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28 pages, 3369 KiB  
Article
Solving Engineering Optimization Problems Based on Multi-Strategy Particle Swarm Optimization Hybrid Dandelion Optimization Algorithm
by Wenjie Tang, Li Cao, Yaodan Chen, Binhe Chen and Yinggao Yue
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050298 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 407
Abstract
In recent years, swarm intelligence optimization methods have been increasingly applied in many fields such as mechanical design, microgrid scheduling, drone technology, neural network training, and multi-objective optimization. In this paper, a multi-strategy particle swarm optimization hybrid dandelion optimization algorithm (PSODO) is proposed, [...] Read more.
In recent years, swarm intelligence optimization methods have been increasingly applied in many fields such as mechanical design, microgrid scheduling, drone technology, neural network training, and multi-objective optimization. In this paper, a multi-strategy particle swarm optimization hybrid dandelion optimization algorithm (PSODO) is proposed, which is based on the problems of slow optimization speed and being easily susceptible to falling into local extremum in the optimization ability of the dandelion optimization algorithm. This hybrid algorithm makes the whole algorithm more diverse by introducing the strong global search ability of particle swarm optimization and the unique individual update rules of the dandelion algorithm (i.e., rising, falling and landing). The ascending and descending stages of dandelion also help to introduce more changes and explorations into the search space, thus better balancing the global and local search. The experimental results show that compared with other algorithms, the proposed PSODO algorithm greatly improves the global optimal value search ability, convergence speed and optimization speed. The effectiveness and feasibility of the PSODO algorithm are verified by solving 22 benchmark functions and three engineering design problems with different complexities in CEC 2005 and comparing it with other optimization algorithms. Full article
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58 pages, 35660 KiB  
Review
Update on Chitin and Chitosan from Insects: Sources, Production, Characterization, and Biomedical Applications
by Zhenying Mei, Pavel Kuzhir and Guilhem Godeau
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050297 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Insects, renowned for their abundant and renewable biomass, stand at the forefront of biomimicry-inspired research and offer promising alternatives for chitin and chitosan production considering mounting environmental concerns and the inherent limitations of conventional sources. This comprehensive review provides a meticulous exploration of [...] Read more.
Insects, renowned for their abundant and renewable biomass, stand at the forefront of biomimicry-inspired research and offer promising alternatives for chitin and chitosan production considering mounting environmental concerns and the inherent limitations of conventional sources. This comprehensive review provides a meticulous exploration of the current state of insect-derived chitin and chitosan, focusing on their sources, production methods, characterization, physical and chemical properties, and emerging biomedical applications. Abundant insect sources of chitin and chitosan, from the Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Dictyoptera, Odonata, and Ephemeroptera orders, were comprehensively summarized. A variety of characterization techniques, including spectroscopy, chromatography, and microscopy, were used to reveal their physical and chemical properties like molecular weight, degree of deacetylation, and crystallinity, laying a solid foundation for their wide application, especially for the biomimetic design process. The examination of insect-derived chitin and chitosan extends into a wide realm of biomedical applications, highlighting their unique advantages in wound healing, tissue engineering, drug delivery, and antimicrobial therapies. Their intrinsic biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties position them as promising candidates for innovative solutions in diverse medical interventions. Full article
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16 pages, 2456 KiB  
Article
A Biologically Inspired Movement Recognition System with Spiking Neural Networks for Ambient Assisted Living Applications
by Athanasios Passias, Karolos-Alexandros Tsakalos, Ioannis Kansizoglou, Archontissa Maria Kanavaki, Athanasios Gkrekidis, Dimitrios Menychtas, Nikolaos Aggelousis, Maria Michalopoulou, Antonios Gasteratos and Georgios Ch. Sirakoulis
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050296 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 643
Abstract
This study presents a novel solution for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications that utilizes spiking neural networks (SNNs) and reconfigurable neuromorphic processors. As demographic shifts result in an increased need for eldercare, due to a large elderly population that favors independence, there is [...] Read more.
This study presents a novel solution for ambient assisted living (AAL) applications that utilizes spiking neural networks (SNNs) and reconfigurable neuromorphic processors. As demographic shifts result in an increased need for eldercare, due to a large elderly population that favors independence, there is a pressing need for efficient solutions. Traditional deep neural networks (DNNs) are typically energy-intensive and computationally demanding. In contrast, this study turns to SNNs, which are more energy-efficient and mimic biological neural processes, offering a viable alternative to DNNs. We propose asynchronous cellular automaton-based neurons (ACANs), which stand out for their hardware-efficient design and ability to reproduce complex neural behaviors. By utilizing the remote supervised method (ReSuMe), this study improves spike train learning efficiency in SNNs. We apply this to movement recognition in an elderly population, using motion capture data. Our results highlight a high classification accuracy of 83.4%, demonstrating the approach’s efficacy in precise movement activity classification. This method’s significant advantage lies in its potential for real-time, energy-efficient processing in AAL environments. Our findings not only demonstrate SNNs’ superiority over conventional DNNs in computational efficiency but also pave the way for practical neuromorphic computing applications in eldercare. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biologically Inspired Vision and Image Processing)
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11 pages, 987 KiB  
Review
The Emerging Role of Silk Fibroin for the Development of Novel Drug Delivery Systems
by Mauro Pollini and Federica Paladini
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050295 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 510
Abstract
In order to reduce the toxicological impact on healthy cells and to improve the therapeutic response, many drug delivery systems have been fabricated and analysed, involving the use of different natural and synthetic materials at macro-, micro- and nanoscales. Among the natural materials [...] Read more.
In order to reduce the toxicological impact on healthy cells and to improve the therapeutic response, many drug delivery systems have been fabricated and analysed, involving the use of different natural and synthetic materials at macro-, micro- and nanoscales. Among the natural materials which have demonstrated a huge potential for the development of effective drug delivery systems, silk fibroin has emerged for its excellent biological properties and for the possibility to be processed in a wide range of forms, which can be compliant with multiple active molecules and pharmaceutical ingredients for the treatment of various diseases. This review aims at presenting silk fibroin as an interesting biopolymer for applications in drug delivery systems, exploring the results obtained in recent works in terms of technological progress and effectiveness in vitro and in vivo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silk-Based Bioinspired Materials: Design and Applications)
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12 pages, 2037 KiB  
Review
Clinical Application of Unidirectional Porous Hydroxyapatite to Bone Tumor Surgery and Other Orthopedic Surgery
by Toshiyuki Kunisada, Eiji Nakata, Tomohiro Fujiwara, Toshiaki Hata, Kohei Sato, Haruyoshi Katayama, Ayana Kondo and Toshifumi Ozaki
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050294 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite (UDPHAp) was developed as a remarkable scaffold characterized by a distinct structure with unidirectional pores oriented in the horizontal direction and connected through interposes. We evaluated the radiographic changes, clinical outcomes, and complications following UDPHAp implantation for the treatment of [...] Read more.
Unidirectional porous hydroxyapatite (UDPHAp) was developed as a remarkable scaffold characterized by a distinct structure with unidirectional pores oriented in the horizontal direction and connected through interposes. We evaluated the radiographic changes, clinical outcomes, and complications following UDPHAp implantation for the treatment of bone tumors. Excellent bone formation within and around the implant was observed in all patients treated with intralesional resection and UDPHAp implantation for benign bone tumors. The absorption of UDPHAp and remodeling of the bone marrow space was observed in 45% of the patients at a mean of 17 months postoperatively and was significantly more common in younger patients. Preoperative cortical thinning was completely regenerated in 84% of patients at a mean of 10 months postoperatively. No complications related to the implanted UDPHAp were observed. In a pediatric patient with bone sarcoma, when the defect after fibular resection was filled with UDPHAp implants, radiography showed complete resorption of the implant and clear formation of cortex and marrow in the resected part of the fibula. The patient could walk well without crutches and participate in sports activities. UDPHAp is a useful bone graft substitute for the treatment of benign bone tumors, and the use of this material has a low complication rate. We also review and discuss the potential of UDPHAp as a bone graft substitute in the clinical setting of orthopedic surgery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bioceramics for Bone Regeneration)
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22 pages, 12569 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Energy Harvesting Efficiency of Flapping Wings with Leading-Edge Magnus Effect Cylinder
by Huaqiang Zhang, Bing Zhu and Weidong Chen
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050293 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 621
Abstract
According to the Magnus principle, a rotating cylinder experiences a lateral force perpendicular to the incoming flow direction. This phenomenon can be harnessed to boost the lift of an airfoil by positioning a rotating cylinder at the leading edge. In this study, we [...] Read more.
According to the Magnus principle, a rotating cylinder experiences a lateral force perpendicular to the incoming flow direction. This phenomenon can be harnessed to boost the lift of an airfoil by positioning a rotating cylinder at the leading edge. In this study, we simulate flapping-wing motion using the sliding mesh technique in a heaving coordinate system to investigate the energy harvesting capabilities of Magnus effect flapping wings (MEFWs) featuring a leading-edge rotating cylinder. Through analysis of the flow field vortex structure and pressure distribution, we explore how control parameters such as gap width, rotational speed ratio, and phase difference of the leading-edge rotating cylinder impact the energy harvesting characteristics of the flapping wing. The results demonstrate that MEFWs effectively mitigate the formation of leading-edge vortices during wing motion. Consequently, this enhances both lift generation and energy harvesting capability. MEFWs with smaller gap widths are less prone to induce the detachment of leading-edge vortices during motion, ensuring a higher peak lift force and an increase in the energy harvesting efficiency. Moreover, higher rotational speed ratios and phase differences, synchronized with wing motion, can prevent leading-edge vortex generation during wing motion. All three control parameters contribute to enhancing the energy harvesting capability of MEFWs within a certain range. At the examined Reynolds number, the optimal parameter values are determined to be a = 0.0005, R = 3, and ϕ0 = 0°. Full article
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28 pages, 1514 KiB  
Article
Intelligent Learning-Based Methods for Determining the Ideal Team Size in Agile Practices
by Rodrigo Olivares, Rene Noel, Sebastián M. Guzmán, Diego Miranda and Roberto Munoz
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050292 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 684
Abstract
One of the significant challenges in scaling agile software development is organizing software development teams to ensure effective communication among members while equipping them with the capabilities to deliver business value independently. A formal approach to address this challenge involves modeling it as [...] Read more.
One of the significant challenges in scaling agile software development is organizing software development teams to ensure effective communication among members while equipping them with the capabilities to deliver business value independently. A formal approach to address this challenge involves modeling it as an optimization problem: given a professional staff, how can they be organized to optimize the number of communication channels, considering both intra-team and inter-team channels? In this article, we propose applying a set of bio-inspired algorithms to solve this problem. We introduce an enhancement that incorporates ensemble learning into the resolution process to achieve nearly optimal results. Ensemble learning integrates multiple machine-learning strategies with diverse characteristics to boost optimizer performance. Furthermore, the studied metaheuristics offer an excellent opportunity to explore their linear convergence, contingent on the exploration and exploitation phases. The results produce more precise definitions for team sizes, aligning with industry standards. Our approach demonstrates superior performance compared to the traditional versions of these algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithms 2024)
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30 pages, 3568 KiB  
Article
Multi-Strategy Improved Dung Beetle Optimization Algorithm and Its Applications
by Mingjun Ye , Heng Zhou, Haoyu Yang, Bin Hu and Xiong Wang
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050291 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 702
Abstract
The dung beetle optimization (DBO) algorithm, a swarm intelligence-based metaheuristic, is renowned for its robust optimization capability and fast convergence speed. However, it also suffers from low population diversity, susceptibility to local optima solutions, and unsatisfactory convergence speed when facing complex optimization problems. [...] Read more.
The dung beetle optimization (DBO) algorithm, a swarm intelligence-based metaheuristic, is renowned for its robust optimization capability and fast convergence speed. However, it also suffers from low population diversity, susceptibility to local optima solutions, and unsatisfactory convergence speed when facing complex optimization problems. In response, this paper proposes the multi-strategy improved dung beetle optimization algorithm (MDBO). The core improvements include using Latin hypercube sampling for better population initialization and the introduction of a novel differential variation strategy, termed “Mean Differential Variation”, to enhance the algorithm’s ability to evade local optima. Moreover, a strategy combining lens imaging reverse learning and dimension-by-dimension optimization was proposed and applied to the current optimal solution. Through comprehensive performance testing on standard benchmark functions from CEC2017 and CEC2020, MDBO demonstrates superior performance in terms of optimization accuracy, stability, and convergence speed compared with other classical metaheuristic optimization algorithms. Additionally, the efficacy of MDBO in addressing complex real-world engineering problems is validated through three representative engineering application scenarios namely extension/compression spring design problems, reducer design problems, and welded beam design problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithms 2024)
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22 pages, 7381 KiB  
Article
Can Plants Perceive Human Gestures? Using AI to Track Eurythmic Human–Plant Interaction
by Alvaro Francisco Gil, Moritz Weinbeer and Peter A. Gloor
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050290 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 576
Abstract
This paper explores if plants are capable of responding to human movement by changes in their electrical signals. Toward that goal, we conducted a series of experiments, where humans over a period of 6 months were performing different types of eurythmic gestures in [...] Read more.
This paper explores if plants are capable of responding to human movement by changes in their electrical signals. Toward that goal, we conducted a series of experiments, where humans over a period of 6 months were performing different types of eurythmic gestures in the proximity of garden plants, namely salad, basil, and tomatoes. To measure plant perception, we used the plant SpikerBox, which is a device that measures changes in the voltage differentials of plants between roots and leaves. Using machine learning, we found that the voltage differentials over time of the plant predict if (a) eurythmy has been performed, and (b) which kind of eurythmy gestures has been performed. We also find that the signals are different based on the species of the plant. In other words, the perception of a salad, tomato, or basil might differ just as perception of different species of animals differ. This opens new ways of studying plant ecosystems while also paving the way to use plants as biosensors for analyzing human movement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetics in Intelligent Sensor)
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14 pages, 2557 KiB  
Article
A Microphysiological Model to Mimic the Placental Remodeling during Early Stage of Pregnancy under Hypoxia-Induced Trophoblast Invasion
by Seorin Jeong, Ahmed Fuwad, Sunhee Yoon, Tae-Joon Jeon and Sun Min Kim
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050289 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Placental trophoblast invasion is critical for establishing the maternal–fetal interface, yet the mechanisms driving trophoblast-induced maternal arterial remodeling remain elusive. To address this gap, we developed a three-dimensional microfluidic placenta-on-chip model that mimics early pregnancy placentation in a hypoxic environment. By studying human [...] Read more.
Placental trophoblast invasion is critical for establishing the maternal–fetal interface, yet the mechanisms driving trophoblast-induced maternal arterial remodeling remain elusive. To address this gap, we developed a three-dimensional microfluidic placenta-on-chip model that mimics early pregnancy placentation in a hypoxic environment. By studying human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under oxygen-deprived conditions upon trophoblast invasion, we observed significant HUVEC artery remodeling, suggesting the critical role of hypoxia in placentation. In particular, we found that trophoblasts secrete matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) proteins under hypoxic conditions, which contribute to arterial remodeling by the degradation of extracellular matrix components. This MMP-mediated remodeling is critical for facilitating trophoblast invasion and proper establishment of the maternal–fetal interface. In addition, our platform allows real-time monitoring of HUVEC vessel contraction during trophoblast interaction, providing valuable insights into the dynamic interplay between trophoblasts and maternal vasculature. Collectively, our findings highlight the importance of MMP-mediated arterial remodeling in placental development and underscore the potential of our platform to study pregnancy-related complications and evaluate therapeutic interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organ-on-a-Chip Platforms for Drug Delivery Systems)
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21 pages, 8949 KiB  
Article
Structural Design and Control Research of Multi-Segmented Biomimetic Millipede Robot
by Hao Yin, Ruiqi Shi and Jiang Liu
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050288 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 692
Abstract
Due to their advantages of good stability, adaptability, and flexibility, multi-legged robots are increasingly important in fields such as rescue, military, and healthcare. This study focuses on the millipede, a multi-segmented organism, and designs a novel multi-segment biomimetic robot based on an in-depth [...] Read more.
Due to their advantages of good stability, adaptability, and flexibility, multi-legged robots are increasingly important in fields such as rescue, military, and healthcare. This study focuses on the millipede, a multi-segmented organism, and designs a novel multi-segment biomimetic robot based on an in-depth investigation of the millipede’s biological characteristics and locomotion mechanisms. Key leg joints of millipede locomotion are targeted, and a mathematical model of the biomimetic robot’s leg joint structure is established for kinematic analysis. Furthermore, a central pattern generator (CPG) control strategy is studied for multi-jointed biomimetic millipede robots. Inspired by the millipede’s neural system, a simplified single-loop CPG network model is constructed, reducing the number of oscillators from 48 to 16. Experimental trials are conducted using a prototype to test walking in a wave-like gait, walking with a leg removed, and walking on complex terrain. The results demonstrate that under CPG waveform input conditions, the robot can walk stably, and the impact of a leg failure on overall locomotion is acceptable, with minimal speed loss observed when walking on complex terrain. The research on the structure and motion control algorithms of multi-jointed biomimetic robots lays a technical foundation, expanding their potential applications in exploring unknown environments, rescue missions, agriculture, and other fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Locomotion and Manipulation of Legged Robot: 2nd Edition)
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16 pages, 8072 KiB  
Article
A Sheet-Shaped Transforming Robot That Can Be Thrown from the Air
by Naoki Iida and Mitsuharu Matsumoto
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050287 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 842
Abstract
In this paper, we describe a sheet-shaped throwable transforming robot. Sheet-type robots can change their shape to perform tasks according to the situation. Therefore, they are expected to be useful in places with many restrictions, such as disaster sites. However, most of them [...] Read more.
In this paper, we describe a sheet-shaped throwable transforming robot. Sheet-type robots can change their shape to perform tasks according to the situation. Therefore, they are expected to be useful in places with many restrictions, such as disaster sites. However, most of them can only move slowly on the ground. Therefore, in order to actually deliver the robot to the disaster site, it must be carried manually. To solve this problem, we are developing a sheet-shaped robot that can be thrown from the sky. Previously developed prototypes could only move in the forward direction, and the transition from falling to walking was complicated and uncertain. In this paper, we report on a new prototype that improves on these shortcomings. Full article
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12 pages, 523 KiB  
Review
Redefining Surgical Materials: Applications of Silk Fibroin in Osteofixation and Fracture Repair
by Jose A. Foppiani, Iulianna C. Taritsa, Lacey Foster, Armaan Patel, Angelica Hernandez Alvarez, Daniela Lee, Gavin J. Lin, Theodore C. Lee, Dominika Gavlasova, Maria J. Escobar-Domingo, David L. Kaplan and Samuel J. Lin
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050286 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Silk and silk derivatives have emerged as a possible alternative in surgical device development, offering mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and environmental sustainability. Through a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines, this study evaluated silk fibroin’s application across pre-clinical and clinical settings, focusing on its role [...] Read more.
Silk and silk derivatives have emerged as a possible alternative in surgical device development, offering mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and environmental sustainability. Through a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines, this study evaluated silk fibroin’s application across pre-clinical and clinical settings, focusing on its role as screws and plates for osteofixation. A comprehensive search yielded 245 studies, with 33 subjected to full-text review and 15 ultimately included for qualitative analysis. The findings underscore silk fibroin’s superior properties, including its tunable degradation rates and ability to be functionalized with therapeutic agents. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated its efficacy in enhancing bone healing, offering improved outcomes in osteofixation, particularly for craniofacial defects. Silk fibroin’s remarkable attributes in biodegradation and drug release capabilities underscore its potential to enhance patient care. Ultimately, silk fibroin’s integration into surgical practices promises a revolution in patient outcomes and environmental sustainability. Its versatility, coupled with the continuous progress in fabrication techniques, signals a promising horizon for its widespread acceptance in the medical field, potentially establishing a new benchmark in surgical treatment. Further research is expected to solidify the transition of silk products from basic science to patient care, paving the way for widespread use in various surgical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Silk-Based Bioinspired Materials: Design and Applications)
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18 pages, 3241 KiB  
Review
Crystal-Inspired Cellular Metamaterials and Triply Periodic Minimal Surfaces
by Maxim Arsentev, Eduard Topalov, Sergey Balabanov, Evgenii Sysoev, Igor Shulga, Marsel Akhmatnabiev, Maxim Sychov, Ekaterina Skorb and Michael Nosonovsky
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050285 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMSs) are found in many natural objects including butterfly wings, sea urchins, and biological membranes. They simultaneously have zero mean curvature at every point and a crystallographic group symmetry. A metamaterial can be created from such periodic surfaces or [...] Read more.
Triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMSs) are found in many natural objects including butterfly wings, sea urchins, and biological membranes. They simultaneously have zero mean curvature at every point and a crystallographic group symmetry. A metamaterial can be created from such periodic surfaces or used as a reinforcement of a composite material. While a TPMS as a mathematical object has been known since 1865, only novel additive manufacturing (AM) technology made it possible to fabricate cellular materials with complex TPMS shapes. Cellular TPMS-based metamaterials have remarkable properties related to wetting/liquid penetration, shock absorption, and the absence of stress concentrators. Recent studies showed that TPMSs are also found in natural crystals when electron surfaces are considered. Artificial crystal-inspired metamaterials mimic such crystals including zeolites and schwarzites. These metamaterials are used for shock, acoustic waves, and vibration absorption, and as structural materials, heat exchangers, and for other applications. The choice of the crystalline cell of a material, as well as its microstructure, plays a decisive role in its properties. The new area of crystal-inspired materials has many common features with traditional biomimetics with models being borrowed from nature and adjusted for engineering applications. Full article
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18 pages, 6343 KiB  
Article
Combination of a Synthetic Bioceramic Associated with a Polydioxanone-Based Membrane as an Alternative to Autogenous Bone Grafting
by Paula Buzo Frigério, Juliana de Moura, Letícia Pitol-Palin, Naara Gabriela Monteiro, Carlos Fernando Mourão, Jamil Awad Shibli and Roberta Okamoto
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050284 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 513
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repair process in rat calvaria filled with synthetic biphasic bioceramics (Plenum® Osshp-70:30, HA:βTCP) or autogenous bone, covered with a polydioxanone membrane (PDO). A total of 48 rats were divided into two groups ( [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repair process in rat calvaria filled with synthetic biphasic bioceramics (Plenum® Osshp-70:30, HA:βTCP) or autogenous bone, covered with a polydioxanone membrane (PDO). A total of 48 rats were divided into two groups (n = 24): particulate autogenous bone + Plenum® Guide (AUTOPT+PG) or Plenum® Osshp + Plenum® Guide (PO+PG). A defect was created in the calvaria, filled with the grafts, and covered with a PDO membrane, and euthanasia took place at 7, 30, and 60 days. Micro-CT showed no statistical difference between the groups, but there was an increase in bone volume (56.26%), the number of trabeculae (2.76 mm), and intersection surface (26.76 mm2) and a decrease in total porosity (43.79%) in the PO+PG group, as well as higher values for the daily mineral apposition rate (7.16 µm/day). Histometric analysis presented material replacement and increased bone formation at 30 days compared to 7 days in both groups. Immunostaining showed a similar pattern between the groups, with an increase in proteins related to bone remodeling and formation. In conclusion, Plenum® Osshp + Plenum® Guide showed similar and sometimes superior results when compared to autogenous bone, making it a competent option as a bone substitute. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bioceramics for Bone Regeneration)
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33 pages, 3236 KiB  
Article
A Novel Approach to Combinatorial Problems: Binary Growth Optimizer Algorithm
by Dante Leiva, Benjamín Ramos-Tapia, Broderick Crawford, Ricardo Soto and Felipe Cisternas-Caneo
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050283 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 564
Abstract
The set-covering problem aims to find the smallest possible set of subsets that cover all the elements of a larger set. The difficulty of solving the set-covering problem increases as the number of elements and sets grows, making it a complex problem for [...] Read more.
The set-covering problem aims to find the smallest possible set of subsets that cover all the elements of a larger set. The difficulty of solving the set-covering problem increases as the number of elements and sets grows, making it a complex problem for which traditional integer programming solutions may become inefficient in real-life instances. Given this complexity, various metaheuristics have been successfully applied to solve the set-covering problem and related issues. This study introduces, implements, and analyzes a novel metaheuristic inspired by the well-established Growth Optimizer algorithm. Drawing insights from human behavioral patterns, this approach has shown promise in optimizing complex problems in continuous domains, where experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and competitiveness of the metaheuristic compared to other strategies. The Growth Optimizer algorithm is modified and adapted to the realm of binary optimization for solving the set-covering problem, resulting in the creation of the Binary Growth Optimizer algorithm. Upon the implementation and analysis of its outcomes, the findings illustrate its capability to achieve competitive and efficient solutions in terms of resolution time and result quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithms 2024)
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12 pages, 4155 KiB  
Article
Clap-and-Fling Mechanism of Climbing-Flight Coccinella Septempunctata
by Lili Yang, Huichao Deng, Kai Hu and Xilun Ding
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050282 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Previous studies on the clap–fling mechanism have predominantly focused on the initial downward and forward phases of flight in miniature insects, either during hovering or forward flight. However, this study presents the first comprehensive kinematic data of Coccinella septempunctata during climbing flight. It [...] Read more.
Previous studies on the clap–fling mechanism have predominantly focused on the initial downward and forward phases of flight in miniature insects, either during hovering or forward flight. However, this study presents the first comprehensive kinematic data of Coccinella septempunctata during climbing flight. It reveals, for the first time, that a clap-and-fling mechanism occurs during the initial upward and backward phase of the hind wings’ motion. This discovery addresses the previously limited understanding of the clap-and-fling mechanism by demonstrating that, during the clap motion, the leading edges of beetle’s wings come into proximity to form a figure-eight shape before rotating around their trailing edge to open into a “V” shape. By employing numerical solutions to solve Navier–Stokes (N-S) equations, we simulated both single hind wings’ and double hind wings’ aerodynamic conditions. Our findings demonstrate that this fling mechanism not only significantly enhances the lift coefficient by approximately 9.65% but also reduces the drag coefficient by about 1.7%, indicating an extension of the applicability range of this clap-and-fling mechanism beyond minute insect flight. Consequently, these insights into insect flight mechanics deepen our understanding of their biological characteristics and inspire advancements in robotics and biomimetics. Full article
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14 pages, 3681 KiB  
Article
A Microactuator Array Based on Ionic Electroactive Artificial Muscles for Cell Mechanical Stimulation
by Jing Gu, Zixing Zhou, Yang Xie, Xiaobin Zhu, Guoyou Huang and Zuoqi Zhang
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050281 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 652
Abstract
Mechanical stimulation is prevalent within organisms, and appropriate regulation of such stimulation can significantly enhance cellular functions. Consequently, the in vitro construction and simulation of mechanical stimulation have emerged as a research hotspot in biomechanics. In recent years, a class of artificial muscles [...] Read more.
Mechanical stimulation is prevalent within organisms, and appropriate regulation of such stimulation can significantly enhance cellular functions. Consequently, the in vitro construction and simulation of mechanical stimulation have emerged as a research hotspot in biomechanics. In recent years, a class of artificial muscles named electroactive polymers (EAPs), especially ionic EAPs, have shown promising applications in biomechanics. While several techniques utilizing ionic EAPs for cell mechanical stimulation have been reported, further research is needed to advance and enhance their practical applications. Here, we prepared a microactuator array based on ionic EAP artificial muscles for cell mechanical stimulation. As a preliminary effort, we created a 5 × 5 microactuator array on a supporting membrane by employing laser cutting. We evaluated the electro-actuation performance of the microactuators through experimental testing and numerical simulations, affirming the potential use of the microactuator array for cell mechanical stimulation. The devised approach could inspire innovative design concepts in the development of miniaturized intelligent electronic devices, not only in biomechanics and biomimetics but also in other related fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomechanics and Biomimetics in Engineering Design)
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39 pages, 12717 KiB  
Article
Improved Multi-Strategy Sand Cat Swarm Optimization for Solving Global Optimization
by Kuan Zhang, Yirui He, Yuhang Wang and Changjian Sun
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050280 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 602
Abstract
The sand cat swarm optimization algorithm (SCSO) is a novel metaheuristic algorithm that has been proposed in recent years. The algorithm optimizes the search ability of individuals by mimicking the hunting behavior of sand cat groups in nature, thereby achieving robust optimization performance. [...] Read more.
The sand cat swarm optimization algorithm (SCSO) is a novel metaheuristic algorithm that has been proposed in recent years. The algorithm optimizes the search ability of individuals by mimicking the hunting behavior of sand cat groups in nature, thereby achieving robust optimization performance. It is characterized by few control parameters and simple operation. However, due to the lack of population diversity, SCSO is less efficient in solving complex problems and is prone to fall into local optimization. To address these shortcomings and refine the algorithm’s efficacy, an improved multi-strategy sand cat optimization algorithm (IMSCSO) is proposed in this paper. In IMSCSO, a roulette fitness–distance balancing strategy is used to select codes to replace random agents in the exploration phase and enhance the convergence performance of the algorithm. To bolster population diversity, a novel population perturbation strategy is introduced, aiming to facilitate the algorithm’s escape from local optima. Finally, a best–worst perturbation strategy is developed. The approach not only maintains diversity throughout the optimization process but also enhances the algorithm’s exploitation capabilities. To evaluate the performance of the proposed IMSCSO, we conducted experiments in the CEC 2017 test suite and compared IMSCSO with seven other algorithms. The results show that the IMSCSO proposed in this paper has better optimization performance. Full article
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8 pages, 216 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in Biomimetic Scaffolds for Hard Tissue Surgery
by Ryszard Uklejewski and Mariusz Winiecki
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050279 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Hard tissues are living mineralized tissues that possess a high degree of hardness and are found in organs such as bones and teeth (enamel, dentin, and cementum) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Scaffolds for Hard Tissue Surgery)
36 pages, 6676 KiB  
Review
Biomimetic Materials for Skin Tissue Regeneration and Electronic Skin
by Sol Youn, Mi-Ran Ki, Mohamed A. A. Abdelhamid and Seung-Pil Pack
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050278 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 794
Abstract
Biomimetic materials have become a promising alternative in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to address critical challenges in wound healing and skin regeneration. Skin-mimetic materials have enormous potential to improve wound healing outcomes and enable innovative diagnostic and sensor applications. [...] Read more.
Biomimetic materials have become a promising alternative in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine to address critical challenges in wound healing and skin regeneration. Skin-mimetic materials have enormous potential to improve wound healing outcomes and enable innovative diagnostic and sensor applications. Human skin, with its complex structure and diverse functions, serves as an excellent model for designing biomaterials. Creating effective wound coverings requires mimicking the unique extracellular matrix composition, mechanical properties, and biochemical cues. Additionally, integrating electronic functionality into these materials presents exciting possibilities for real-time monitoring, diagnostics, and personalized healthcare. This review examines biomimetic skin materials and their role in regenerative wound healing, as well as their integration with electronic skin technologies. It discusses recent advances, challenges, and future directions in this rapidly evolving field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimicry and Functional Materials: 3rd Edition)
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18 pages, 7742 KiB  
Article
Research on Economic Load Dispatch Problem of Microgrid Based on an Improved Pelican Optimization Algorithm
by Yi Zhang and Haoxue Li
Biomimetics 2024, 9(5), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomimetics9050277 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 670
Abstract
This paper presents an improved pelican optimization algorithm (IPOA) to solve the economic load dispatch problem. The vertical crossover operator in the crisscross optimization algorithm is integrated to expand the diversity of the population in the local search phase. The optimal individual is [...] Read more.
This paper presents an improved pelican optimization algorithm (IPOA) to solve the economic load dispatch problem. The vertical crossover operator in the crisscross optimization algorithm is integrated to expand the diversity of the population in the local search phase. The optimal individual is also introduced to enhance its ability to guide the whole population and add disturbance factors to enhance its ability to jump out of the local optimal. The dimensional variation strategy is adopted to improve the optimal individual and speed up the algorithm’s convergence. The results of the IPOA showed that coal consumption was reduced by 0.0292%, 2.7273%, and 3.6739%, respectively, when tested on 10, 40, and 80-dimensional thermal power plant units compared to POA. The IPOA can significantly reduce the fuel cost of power plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimicry for Optimization, Control, and Automation: 2nd Edition)
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