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Geriatrics, Volume 7, Issue 3 (June 2022) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): We analysed Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) performances on a large sample of community-dwelling older adults from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) at two waves, four years apart. We combined a thresholding method to identify poorer SART performances (“bad performance” if the individual trial number of mistakes was ≥4), and a fuzzy clusters algorithm to partition the sample into three subgroups, based on the evolution of SART performance after four years. In particular, in this relatively healthy cohort of older adults, we identified a small number of participants whose mobility and cognitive functions significantly declined after four years. These techniques could help clinicians to better identify and manage the small proportion of community-dwelling older adults who are at significant risk of functional and cognitive decline and loss of independence. View this paper
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11 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Factors Influencing the Data Communication Equipment Competence in Korean Older People
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030070 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1616
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to identify the most vulnerable group among older Korean adults regarding information literacy. Once that was identified, the study aimed to provide basic data for developing strategies to improve information literacy by investigating the factors that influence [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to identify the most vulnerable group among older Korean adults regarding information literacy. Once that was identified, the study aimed to provide basic data for developing strategies to improve information literacy by investigating the factors that influence the ability to utilize the Data Communication Equipment (DCE). The subjects included 10,073 older adults from the 10,299 participants of the 2017 Korean National Survey of Older Adults. The mean age of the older people was 74.06 years from a range of 65 to 106 years old. This study excluded the 216 individuals who did not complete the survey. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 18.0 program. A univariate analysis was performed to identify the most vulnerable group with regard to DCE competence. To investigate the factors that influence DCE competence, a logistic regression analysis was performed on the significant variables in the univariate analysis, while the nominal variables were treated as dummies. Senior citizens in Korea were less able to utilize DCE when they had higher ages, lower education levels, were women, lived alone, lower incomes, decreased sensory function, decreased cognitive function, negative value of learning, no lifelong learning, and smaller social networks. The factors influencing DCE competence in older adults were as follows: age, education level, income level, health status, cognitive function, social networks, lifelong learning, and the value of learning. For DCE competence in older adults to be effectively improved, adequate support must be provided to the vulnerable group. Furthermore, support for personalized DCE utilization seems essential and should consider a person’s age, education level, income, health status, cognitive function, social networks, lifelong learning and the value of learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Ageism, the Black Sheep of the Decade of Healthy Ageing)
10 pages, 459 KiB  
Article
Path Model Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Older Thais Living in Rural Areas
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030069 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Depressive symptoms are complex and are often more severe in older people. However, there is limited research exploring the causal relationships between depression and its associated factors in the geriatric population, particularly in Thailand. We aimed to evaluate the direction of these complex [...] Read more.
Depressive symptoms are complex and are often more severe in older people. However, there is limited research exploring the causal relationships between depression and its associated factors in the geriatric population, particularly in Thailand. We aimed to evaluate the direction of these complex relationships in the Thai population. A cross-sectional design was conducted on 312 Thai community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or above who registered for primary care services. The participants were recruited from July 2019 to January 2020, and they responded to standard assessments. The relationships between pain, the number of medications, frailty, locomotive syndrome, and depressive symptoms were investigated using path analysis. The results showed that most participants were women and had multiple diseases, mild pain, frailty, and grade I–II locomotive syndrome. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 16%. The model showed significant positive direct and indirect paths from locomotive syndrome to depressive symptoms (β = 0.296, p < 0.01; β = 0.099, p < 0.01, respectively). There was a significant positive direct path from frailty to depressive symptoms (β = 0.219, p < 0.01) and a significant positive indirect path from pain to depressive symptoms (β = 0.096, p < 0.01). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychology)
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8 pages, 822 KiB  
Communication
Elevated All-Cause Mortality among Overweight Older People: AI Predicts a High Normal Weight Is Optimal
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030068 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
It has been proposed that being overweight may provide an advantage with respect to mortality in older people, although this has not been investigated fully. Therefore, to confirm that and elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated mortality in older people using explainable artificial [...] Read more.
It has been proposed that being overweight may provide an advantage with respect to mortality in older people, although this has not been investigated fully. Therefore, to confirm that and elucidate the underlying mechanism, we investigated mortality in older people using explainable artificial intelligence (AI) with the gradient-boosting algorithm XGboost. Baseline body mass indexes (BMIs) of 5699 people (79.3 ± 3.9 years) were evaluated to determine the relationship with all-cause mortality over eight years. In the unadjusted model, the first negative (protective) BMI range for mortality was 25.9–28.4 kg/m2. However, in the adjusted cross-validation model, this range was 22.7–23.6 kg/m2; the second and third negative BMI ranges were then 25.8–28.2 and 24.6–25.8 kg/m2, respectively. Conversely, the first advancing BMI range was 12.8–18.7 kg/m2, which did not vary across conditions with high feature importance. Actual and predicted mortality rates in participants aged <90 years showed a negative-linear or L-shaped relationship with BMI, whereas predicted mortality rates in men aged ≥90 years showed a blunt U-shaped relationship. In conclusion, AI predicted that being overweight may not be an optimal condition with regard to all-cause mortality in older adults. Instead, it may be that a high normal weight is optimal, though this may vary according to the age and sex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
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17 pages, 855 KiB  
Article
Exploring Meal Provision and Mealtime Challenges for Aged Care Residents Consuming Texture-Modified Diets: A Mixed Methods Study
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030067 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3041
Abstract
Dysphagia has become more prevalent with age. Thus, the demand for texture-modified diets (TMDs) has increased. While the nutritional perspectives have been studied, the provision of TMDs and mealtime practice has received less attention. This study aimed to explore the TMD provision and [...] Read more.
Dysphagia has become more prevalent with age. Thus, the demand for texture-modified diets (TMDs) has increased. While the nutritional perspectives have been studied, the provision of TMDs and mealtime practice has received less attention. This study aimed to explore the TMD provision and mealtime challenges of residents requiring TMDs in aged care facilities. The study was conducted across five aged care facilities using a mixed methods design involving 14 TMD menu audits by a foodservice dietitian, 15 mealtime observations, and semi-structured interviews with residents and staff (n = 18). TMD menus failed to meet all nutrition requirements and foodservice and clinical standards based on the dietitian NZ foodservice and nutrition audit tool. A content analysis offered three main themes: (1) Foodservice production. Inconsistent quality and meal portions were observed. The variety, choice, and portion size of TMDs required improvement based on the residents’ preferences; (2) Serving procedures. There was a lack of standardisation of meal distribution and feeding assistance; and (3) Dining environment. The dining room set-up varied across facilities, and residents expressed different preferences towards the dining environment. There is a need to improve staff awareness of mealtime consistency and optimise feeding assistance. The dining environment should be individualised to accommodate residents’ psychosocial needs. Standardised policies and continuous training can facilitate quality mealtime implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Psycho-Social Impact of Dysphagia)
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15 pages, 604 KiB  
Article
Caring for Homebound Veterans during COVID-19 in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Foster Home Program
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030066 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2848
Abstract
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic made older, homebound adults with multiple chronic conditions increasingly vulnerable to contracting the virus. The United States (US) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Foster Home (MFH) program cares for such medically complex veterans residing in the [...] Read more.
The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic made older, homebound adults with multiple chronic conditions increasingly vulnerable to contracting the virus. The United States (US) Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Foster Home (MFH) program cares for such medically complex veterans residing in the private homes of non-VA caregivers rather than institutional care settings like nursing homes. In this qualitative descriptive study, we assessed adaptations to delivering safe and effective health care during the early stages of the pandemic for veterans living in rural MFHs. From December 2020 to February 2021, we interviewed 37 VA MFH care providers by phone at 16 rural MFH programs across the US, including caregivers, program coordinators, and VA health care providers. Using both inductive and deductive approaches to thematic analysis, we identified themes reflecting adaptations to caring for rural MFH veterans, including care providers rapidly increased communication and education to MFH caregivers while prioritizing veteran safety. Telehealth visits also increased, MFH veterans were prioritized for in-home COVID-19 vaccinations, and strategies were applied to mitigate the social isolation of veterans and caregivers. The study findings illustrate the importance of clear, regular communication and intentional care coordination to ensure high-quality care for vulnerable, homebound populations during crises like the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Responding to the Pandemic: Geriatric Care Models)
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11 pages, 387 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Perioperative and Predisposing Risk Factors on the Development of Postoperative Delirium and a Possible Gender Difference
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030065 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
(1) Background: Postoperative delirium (POD) is an undesirable event especially for older patients after surgery. Perioperative risks for POD development are multiple, but gender differences are still poorly considered. In this observational study, predisposing and precipitating risk factors of POD and the possible [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Postoperative delirium (POD) is an undesirable event especially for older patients after surgery. Perioperative risks for POD development are multiple, but gender differences are still poorly considered. In this observational study, predisposing and precipitating risk factors of POD and the possible gender influence are distinguished. (2) Methods: This observational prospective trial enrolled 1097 patients in a tertiary hospital from September 2018 until October 2019. POD was considered positive, if one of the tests Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CAM-ICU) or Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), 4 ‘A’s Test (4AT) or Delirium Observation Screening (DOS) scale was positive on one of five assessment days. (3) Results: POD incidence was 23.5% and the mean age of study population was 72.3 ± 7.3 years. The multiple logistic regression model showed a significant impact of age (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.74; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.37–2.22), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) (OR 1.67; 95% CI: 1.25–2.26), surgery risk (OR 2.10; 95% CI: 1.52–2.95) and surgery duration (OR 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07–1.28), ventilation time (OR 1.64; 95% CI: 1.27–2.24), as well as the male sex (OR 1.74; 95% CI: 1.37–2.22) on POD risk. (4) Conclusions: Perioperative and predisposing risk factors had an impact on the development of POD. The influence of male sex should be considered in future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing the Care of Delirium and Comorbid Dementia)
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9 pages, 545 KiB  
Article
Impact of Hydrotherapy on Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in an Elderly Population
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030064 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
Oxidative stress is defined as the imbalance between reactive species and antioxidant agents. One of the effects of oxidative stress is the normal process of cellular aging that stems from the accumulation of tissue damage. Epidemiological studies show that regular physical exercise prevents [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress is defined as the imbalance between reactive species and antioxidant agents. One of the effects of oxidative stress is the normal process of cellular aging that stems from the accumulation of tissue damage. Epidemiological studies show that regular physical exercise prevents the injuries caused by aging. The objective was to evaluate whether the practice of hydrotherapy, in an elderly population, positively influenced the activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase that act by reducing reactive species in the body. The study involved 37 participants aged ≥ 60 years, of both sexes, divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group performed 15 hydrotherapy sessions. Enzyme activity was evaluated in two moments: T0-before the first session, and T1-after the last session, with blood collections conducted in both. In T1, there was a significant increase vs. T0 of glutathione peroxidase activity (57.72 ± 19.99 vs. 48.14 ± 17.22 U/g Hb) and glutathione reductase activity (100.18 ± 30.85 vs. 78.44 ± 21.26 U/L). Both sexes tended to show higher values at T1. We concluded that hydrotherapy proved to be a positive stimulus for the enzymatic antioxidant activity of the elderly, suggesting that a regular and moderate practice of physical exercise induces better and higher quality of life. Full article
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10 pages, 1198 KiB  
Article
Nurses’ Death Anxiety and Ageism towards Older Adults Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Moderating Role of Symbolic Immortality
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030063 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2597
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all aspects of individuals’ lives and behaviors, including the behaviors of nurses. Specifically, the pandemic has impacted the way that nurses treat older adults and has led to the spread of ageism among nurses. This [...] Read more.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all aspects of individuals’ lives and behaviors, including the behaviors of nurses. Specifically, the pandemic has impacted the way that nurses treat older adults and has led to the spread of ageism among nurses. This study was conducted using self-report tools on 163 nurses to examine the problem of ageism amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The results suggest that critical care nurses have higher levels of death anxiety and ageism in comparison to medical/surgical nurses. After controlling for the work department, low levels of symbolic immortality were associated with high levels of ageism and death anxiety among nurses. These results might provide an insight into the development of a psychological intervention to reduce nurses’ death anxiety and ageism toward older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Ageism, the Black Sheep of the Decade of Healthy Ageing)
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8 pages, 434 KiB  
Article
Effects of Wearing Face Masks on Cardiorespiratory Parameters at Rest and after Performing the Six-Minute Walk Test in Older Adults
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030062 - 07 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2264
Abstract
The effects of wearing cloth masks and surgical masks were investigated on respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and perceived exertion at rest and after performing a six-minute walk test (6MWT) in older adults. Forty older adults were recruited and randomized [...] Read more.
The effects of wearing cloth masks and surgical masks were investigated on respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and perceived exertion at rest and after performing a six-minute walk test (6MWT) in older adults. Forty older adults were recruited and randomized into six groups including wearing no mask, cloth masks and surgical masks, at rest and during the 6MWT. At rest, all subjects sat quietly wearing no mask, a cloth mask or a surgical mask. All subjects performed a 6MWT by walking as fast as possible without running while wearing no mask, a cloth mask or a surgical mask. Respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and perceived exertion were assessed before and after the rest and the 6MWT. Results showed that cloth masks and surgical masks did not impact cardiorespiratory parameters at rest or after performing a 6MWT, while an increase in perceived exertion was apparent in the groups wearing surgical masks and cloth masks after performing the 6MWT (p < 0.01). Cloth masks and surgical masks did not have an impact on cardiorespiratory fitness at rest and after performing the 6MWT in older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
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15 pages, 316 KiB  
Review
Cognitive Decline in Older People with Multiple Sclerosis—A Narrative Review of the Literature
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030061 - 05 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
Several important questions regarding cognitive aging and dementia in older people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are the focus of this narrative review: Do older PwMS have worse cognitive decline compared to older people without MS? Can older PwMS develop dementia or other neurodegenerative [...] Read more.
Several important questions regarding cognitive aging and dementia in older people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) are the focus of this narrative review: Do older PwMS have worse cognitive decline compared to older people without MS? Can older PwMS develop dementia or other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that may be accelerated due to MS? Are there any potential biomarkers that can help to determine the etiology of cognitive decline in older PwMS? What are the neural and cellular bases of cognitive aging and neurodegeneration in MS? Current evidence suggests that cognitive impairment in MS is distinguishable from that due to other neurodegenerative diseases, although older PwMS may present with accelerated cognitive decline. While dementia is prevalent in PwMS, there is currently no consensus on defining it. Cerebrospinal fluid and imaging biomarkers have the potential to identify disease processes linked to MS and other comorbidities—such as AD and vascular disease—in older PwMS, although more research is required. In conclusion, one should be aware that multiple underlying pathologies can coexist in older PwMS and cause cognitive decline. Future basic and clinical research will need to consider these complex factors to better understand the underlying pathophysiology, and to improve diagnostic accuracy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and Other Dementias)
10 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
“I Think Deprescribing as a Whole Is a Gap!”: A Qualitative Study of Student Pharmacist Perceptions about Deprescribing
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030060 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
Introduction: Older adults often manage multiple medications simultaneously, contributing to significant pill burden. Pill burden is a major concern for both patients and providers alike, and student pharmacists may play a role in decreasing that burden. Few studies exist evaluating student pharmacists’ roles [...] Read more.
Introduction: Older adults often manage multiple medications simultaneously, contributing to significant pill burden. Pill burden is a major concern for both patients and providers alike, and student pharmacists may play a role in decreasing that burden. Few studies exist evaluating student pharmacists’ roles in and perceptions of deprescribing in the healthcare team. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore student pharmacist perceptions regarding deprescribing in their pharmacy curricula. Methods: This study used a focus group discussion (FGD) methodology to facilitate discussion on deprescribing among student pharmacists. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) informed the conceptualization of this study, data collection, and thematic analysis. Student pharmacists enrolled in three different colleges of pharmacy across various geographical regions of the U.S. were recruited to participate in the study. Data collection occurred in the Fall of 2021, and recruitment proceeded until thematic saturation was achieved. The audio recordings were transcribed verbatim, and the transcripts were uploaded into Dedoose®, a qualitative software that facilitated the data analysis. The inductive codes were grouped into categories based on similarities that resulted in the themes. Results: Three colleges, totaling 1366 student pharmacists across different geographic regions of the U.S., were invited to participate in this study (UTHSC, N = 682; UNE, N = 158, University of Arizona, N = 526). Twenty-six student pharmacists participated in four FGDs. Of 26 participants, fourteen self-identified as male and two declined to state their gender identity. The mean age was 24 years old, with participants ranging from 21 to 37 years old. Thematic analysis revealed two major themes: (1) student pharmacists indicated that they possessed limited information about the deprescribing process, which is best illustrated by the following quote: “I think deprescribing as a whole is a gap!”; and (2) student pharmacists recommended increasing emphasis on deprescribing in pharmacy curricula. Conclusions: Student pharmacists identified few educational experiences on deprescribing in their curriculum while demonstrating a strong desire for more emphasis on deprescribing in the pharmacy curricula. This study highlights an opportunity to improve the integration of deprescribing education into pharmacy curricula, and colleges of pharmacy should evaluate whether, where, and to what extent the incorporation of this topic into their curricula is appropriate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adherence and Polymedication in Older Adults)
9 pages, 423 KiB  
Article
Potential Targets for Deprescribing in Medically Complex Older Adults with Suspected Cognitive Impairment
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030059 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Deprescribing may be particularly beneficial in patients with medical complexity and suspected cognitive impairment (CI). We describe central nervous system (CNS) medication use and side effects in this population and explore the relationship between anticholinergic burden and sleep. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis [...] Read more.
Deprescribing may be particularly beneficial in patients with medical complexity and suspected cognitive impairment (CI). We describe central nervous system (CNS) medication use and side effects in this population and explore the relationship between anticholinergic burden and sleep. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a pilot randomized-controlled trial in older adult veterans with medical complexity (Care Assessment Need score > 90), and suspected CI (Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score 20–31). CNS medication classes included antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, H2-receptor antagonists, hypnotics, opioids, and skeletal muscle relaxants. We also coded anticholinergic-active medications according to their Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) score. Other measures included self-reported medication side effects and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). ACB association with sleep (PSQI) was examined using adjusted linear regression. In this sample (N = 40), the mean number of prescribed CNS medications was 2.2 (SD 1.5), 65% experienced ≥ 1 side effect, and 50% had an ACB score ≥ 3 (high anticholinergic exposure). The ACB score ≥ 3 compared to ACB < 3 was not significantly associated with PSQI scores (avg diff in score = −0.1, 95% CI −2.1, 1.8). Although results did not demonstrate a clear relationship with worsened sleep, significant side effects and anticholinergic burden support the deprescribing need in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychology)
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13 pages, 1968 KiB  
Article
Increased Knowledge of Adult-Onset Dystonia Amongst Medical Students via Brief Video Education: A Systematic Review and Cohort Study
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030058 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Most doctors have limited knowledge of dystonia, a movement disorder that can affect people of all ages; this contributes to diagnostic delay and poor quality of life. We investigated whether a brief educational intervention could improve knowledge of dystonia amongst medical students. We [...] Read more.
Most doctors have limited knowledge of dystonia, a movement disorder that can affect people of all ages; this contributes to diagnostic delay and poor quality of life. We investigated whether a brief educational intervention could improve knowledge of dystonia amongst medical students. We conducted a systematic review on undergraduate knowledge of dystonia and created an eight-minute video on the condition. We invited medical students at the University of Leeds, UK, to answer 15 multiple choice questions before and immediately after watching the video, and again one month later. Only one previous study specifically assessed medical students’ knowledge of dystonia whilst five others tested their knowledge of movement disorders, or neurology generally, with some questions on dystonia. Of the University of Leeds medical students, 87 (100%), 77 (89%) and 40 (46%) completed the baseline, immediate-recall and delayed-recall questionnaires, respectively. The mean score for students who completed all three questionnaires increased from 7.7 (out of 15) to 12.5 on the immediate-recall questionnaire (p < 0.001), and to 10.1 on the delayed-recall questionnaire (p < 0.001). At baseline, 76% of students rated their confidence in recognising dystonia as low. After watching the video, 78% rated their confidence as a high, and none rated it low. A brief video improved their knowledge substantially, with sustained effects. This method could be incorporated into medical curricula to reduce diagnostic delays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Movement Disorders in Older Adults)
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12 pages, 449 KiB  
Article
Meaning of Respect for Older People in Family Relationships
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030057 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4284
Abstract
Background: Older people have various physical and mental health needs and often receive help from their family members to perform their daily life activities. This research aimed to explore the meaning of respect for older people in family relationships. Methods: A qualitative study [...] Read more.
Background: Older people have various physical and mental health needs and often receive help from their family members to perform their daily life activities. This research aimed to explore the meaning of respect for older people in family relationships. Methods: A qualitative study using a content analysis approach was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were performed with sixteen older people and four family members. Results: Three main categories were developed: “respect for personal interests”, “kind and sincere respect” and “respect for autonomy”. Understanding of the meaning of respect for older people was influenced by special expectations from family members in terms of meeting personal needs, consideration of preferences and interests and empowerment and support to help preserve older people’s independence and autonomy. Conclusions: Family members should be informed and educated with regard to their expected roles in family relationships, and should consider respect as an important factor affecting older people’s well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Public Health)
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18 pages, 2556 KiB  
Article
Disrupted Value-Directed Strategic Processing in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Behavioral and Neural Correlates
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030056 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 2074
Abstract
Value-directed strategic processing involves attending to higher-value information while inhibiting lower-value information. This preferential processing is relatively preserved in cognitively normal older adults but is impaired in individuals with dementia. No studies have investigated whether value-directed strategic processing is disrupted in earlier stages [...] Read more.
Value-directed strategic processing involves attending to higher-value information while inhibiting lower-value information. This preferential processing is relatively preserved in cognitively normal older adults but is impaired in individuals with dementia. No studies have investigated whether value-directed strategic processing is disrupted in earlier stages of cognitive decline, namely, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The current study examined behavioral and EEG differences in value-directed strategic processing between 18 individuals with MCI and 18 cognitively normal older controls using a value-directed list learning task. Behaviorally, individuals with MCI recalled fewer total and high-value words compared to controls, but no group differences were observed in low-value word recall. Neurally, individuals with MCI had reduced theta synchronization relative to controls between 100 and 200 ms post-stimulus. Greater alpha desynchronization was observed for high- versus low-value words between 300 and 400 ms in controls but not in the MCI group. The groups showed some processing similarities, with greater theta synchronization for low-value words between 700 and 800 ms and greater alpha desynchronization for high-value words between 500 and 1100 ms. Overall, value-directed strategic processing was compromised in individuals with MCI on both behavioral and neural measures relative to controls. These findings add to the growing body of literature on differences between typical cognitive aging and MCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and Other Dementias)
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5 pages, 196 KiB  
Editorial
Ageing and Disability According to the Perspective of Clinical Psychology of Disability
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030055 - 10 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
The progressive ageing of the global population is an important anthropological and social phenomenon, and it is due to the overall increasing of life expectancy and the overall increasing of health and living conditions, even if with various trends and speeds in various [...] Read more.
The progressive ageing of the global population is an important anthropological and social phenomenon, and it is due to the overall increasing of life expectancy and the overall increasing of health and living conditions, even if with various trends and speeds in various countries all over the world [...] Full article
10 pages, 578 KiB  
Article
Comparing Auditory and Visual Distractions for Reducing Pain Severity and Pain Anxiety in Older Outpatients with Burn: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030054 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2435
Abstract
Pain and anxiety are major issues among older patients with burn injuries. Complementary medicine and non-pharmacological methods can relieve pain and anxiety in older people, but comparison of the effects of these methods needs further research. This study aimed to compare the effects [...] Read more.
Pain and anxiety are major issues among older patients with burn injuries. Complementary medicine and non-pharmacological methods can relieve pain and anxiety in older people, but comparison of the effects of these methods needs further research. This study aimed to compare the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pain severity and pain anxiety in older outpatients referred to a burn clinic for dressing change. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, older men were randomly assigned to three groups as auditory distraction, visual distraction, and control (n = 45 in each group). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Burn Specific Pain Anxiety Scale (BSPAS) were used to asses pain severity and pain anxiety before and immediately after the interventions, and after wound dressing. Reduction in pain severity and pain anxiety after visual distraction was reported. Auditory distraction only reduced pain anxiety. Therefore, visual distraction had a better effect on alleviating pain anxiety compared with auditory distraction. Visual distraction is suggested to be used during dressing changes for older outpatients with burn injuries in outpatient clinics in order to reduce their burn-related suffering and improve their collaboration with the therapeutic regimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychology)
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8 pages, 237 KiB  
Brief Report
Hair Cortisol Concentration, Perceived Stress, Mental Well-Being, and Cardiovascular Health in African American Older Adults: A Pilot Study
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030053 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1961
Abstract
(1) Background: African Americans experience high rates of psychological stress and hypertension, which increases their risk of cardiovascular disease with age. Easy-to-collect psychological and biological stress data are valuable to investigations of this association. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC), as a proxy biomarker of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: African Americans experience high rates of psychological stress and hypertension, which increases their risk of cardiovascular disease with age. Easy-to-collect psychological and biological stress data are valuable to investigations of this association. Hair cortisol concentration (HCC), as a proxy biomarker of chronic stress exposure, provides such advantages in contrast to collection of multiple daily samples of saliva. Objective: To examine the relationships among HCC, perceived stress, mental well-being, and cardiovascular health (systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP)). (2) Methods: Cross-sectional secondary data (N = 25) were used from a mind–body intervention study in hypertensive African Americans ages 65 and older. Data included HCC, a four-item perceived stress scale, SF-36 mental components summary, and SBP/DBP. SBP + 2 (DBP)/3 was used to calculate MAP. (3) Results: The relationship between mental well-being and perceived stress (r = −0.497, p ≤ 0.01) and mental well-being and DBP (r = −0.458, p = 0.02) were significant. HCC change was not significant. In a regression model, every unit increase in well-being predicted a 0.42 decrease in DBP (β = −0.42, 95% CI (−0.69–0.15)) and a 1.10 unit decrease in MAP (β = −1.10, 95% CI (−1.99–0.20)). (4) Conclusions: This study contributes to the knowledge of physiologic data regarding the relationship between MAP and well-being. Findings from this study may aid in the development of interventions that address mental well-being and cardiovascular health in African American older adults with hypertension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geriatric Cardiovascular Comorbidities)
11 pages, 1162 KiB  
Case Report
Progressive Unspecified Motor Speech Disorder: A Longitudinal Single Case Study of an Older Subject
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030052 - 24 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Introduction: In a few cases, neurodegenerative diseases debut with a speech disorder whose differential diagnosis can be difficult. Case Report: We describe the case of a right-handed woman with a progressive speech impairment, which debuted when she was 80 years old. We report [...] Read more.
Introduction: In a few cases, neurodegenerative diseases debut with a speech disorder whose differential diagnosis can be difficult. Case Report: We describe the case of a right-handed woman with a progressive speech impairment, which debuted when she was 80 years old. We report the results of neurological, neuropsychological, and imaging assessments with positron emission tomography (PET) over a period of nine years. Metabolic PET with 18F-FDG was performed at the age of 81 and repeated two years later due to the worsening of symptoms; amyloid PET with 18F-flutemetamol was performed at the age of 86. All PET results were quantitatively analyzed. A speech impairment remained the isolated neurological symptom for a long time, together with a mood disorder. Early FDG-PET showed hypometabolism in the left superior and inferior frontal areas, in the left superior temporal area, and in the right superior frontal area. Two years later, the hypometabolic area was more extensive. Amyloid PET was qualitatively and quantitatively normal. Nine years after the first symptoms, the speech production progressively worsened until complete anarthria, in association with writing impairment onset and signs of behavioral impairments. No signs of motor involvement were found. Conclusions: A progressive articulatory disorder without an evolution of motor disorders may be a distinct neurological degenerative entity, mainly affecting speech production for very a long time and with a specific early metabolic pattern in brain FDG-PET in the language production area. Monitoring patients with FDG-PET could predict the disease evolution years before a clinical deterioration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Neurology)
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32 pages, 4304 KiB  
Article
Longitudinal Study on Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART): Clustering Approach for Mobility and Cognitive Decline
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030051 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3994
Abstract
The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) is a computer-based go/no-go task to measure neurocognitive function in older adults. However, simplified average features of this complex dataset lead to loss of primary information and fail to express associations between test performance and clinically [...] Read more.
The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) is a computer-based go/no-go task to measure neurocognitive function in older adults. However, simplified average features of this complex dataset lead to loss of primary information and fail to express associations between test performance and clinically meaningful outcomes. Here, we combine a novel method to visualise individual trial (raw) information obtained from the SART test in a large population-based study of ageing in Ireland and an automatic clustering technique. We employed a thresholding method, based on the individual trial number of mistakes, to identify poorer SART performances and a fuzzy clusters algorithm to partition the dataset into 3 subgroups, based on the evolution of SART performance after 4 years. Raw SART data were available for 3468 participants aged 50 years and over at baseline. The previously reported SART visualisation-derived feature ‘bad performance’, indicating the number of SART trials with at least 4 mistakes, and its evolution over time, combined with the fuzzy c-mean (FCM) algorithm, individuated 3 clusters corresponding to 3 degrees of physiological dysregulation. The biggest cluster (94% of the cohort) was constituted by healthy participants, a smaller cluster (5% of the cohort) by participants who showed improvement in cognitive and psychological status, and the smallest cluster (1% of the cohort) by participants whose mobility and cognitive functions dramatically declined after 4 years. We were able to identify in a cohort of relatively high-functioning community-dwelling adults a very small group of participants who showed clinically significant decline. The selected smallest subset manifested not only mobility deterioration, but also cognitive decline, the latter being usually hard to detect in population-based studies. The employed techniques could identify at-risk participants with more specificity than current methods, and help clinicians better identify and manage the small proportion of community-dwelling older adults who are at significant risk of functional decline and loss of independence. Full article
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10 pages, 475 KiB  
Article
Predictors of Functional Improvement, Length of Stay, and Discharge Destination in the Context of an Assess and Restore Program in Hospitalized Older Adults
Geriatrics 2022, 7(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics7030050 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
Assess and restore programs such as Humber’s Elderly Assess and Restore Team (HEART) provide short-term restorative care to prevent functional decline in hospitalized older adults. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to determine which HEART participant characteristics are predictive of functional [...] Read more.
Assess and restore programs such as Humber’s Elderly Assess and Restore Team (HEART) provide short-term restorative care to prevent functional decline in hospitalized older adults. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to determine which HEART participant characteristics are predictive of functional improvement, decreased length of stay, return to home, and decreased readmission to hospital. Electronic health records were retrospectively examined to gather predictor data. Differences in functional status, excessive length of stay, discharge destination, and hospital readmissions were compared in 547 HEART patients and 547 matched eligible non-participants using ANOVAs, Mann–Whitney, and chi-square tests. The greatest functional improvements (percent Barthel change) were seen in those requiring a one-person assist (M = 39.56) and using a walker (M = 46.07). Difference in excessive length of stay between HEART and non-HEART participants was greatest in those who used a walker (Mdn = 3.80), required a one-person assist (Mdn = 2.00), had a high falls risk (Mdn = 1.80), and had either a lower urinary tract infection (Mdn = 2.25) or pneumonia (Mdn = 1.70). Predictor variables did not affect readmission to the hospital nor return to home. Predictive characteristics should be considered when enrolling patients to assess and restore programs for optimal clinical outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Rehabilitation)
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