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Geriatrics, Volume 9, Issue 3 (June 2024) – 15 articles

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11 pages, 409 KiB  
Article
Factors Associated with Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Subgroup Analysis from a Telemergency Service
by Elena Casabona, Federica Riva-Rovedda, Angela Castello, Daniele Sciarrotta, Paola Di Giulio and Valerio Dimonte
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030069 (registering DOI) - 29 May 2024
Viewed by 1
Abstract
According to the number of falls, fallers can be single (only one fall) or recurrent (two or more falls), with different risk profiles for loss of independence and frailty. The presence of risk factors in community-dwelling single- and recurrent fallers using a wearable [...] Read more.
According to the number of falls, fallers can be single (only one fall) or recurrent (two or more falls), with different risk profiles for loss of independence and frailty. The presence of risk factors in community-dwelling single- and recurrent fallers using a wearable fall-detection device, such as the Personal Emergency Response System (PERS), as part of a telemergency service, is still unknown. This article evaluates how using a PERS, within a telemergency service, helps identify risk profiles and assessment of any differences between non-fallers and fallers in community-dwelling older adults. A sub-group analysis was performed, dividing users into non-fallers (n = 226) and fallers (≥1 fall; n = 89); single-fallers (n = 66) and recurrent fallers (n = 23). Median age was higher in fallers (87.7 years vs. 86), whereas recurrent fallers were less independent, had fewer comorbidities, and had more low-extremity disabilities. The use of the PERS for medical problems (Adjusted OR = 0.31), excluding falls, support calls (Adjusted OR = 0.26), and service demands (Adjusted OR = 0.30), was significantly associated with a fall risk reduction. The findings suggest that the integration within a telemergency service may impact on fall-risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
10 pages, 467 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Subjective Grip Strength and Physical Functioning among Community-Dwelling Older Women
by Kohei Iwamoto, Yuki Kikuchi, Hideki Nakano, Tsuyoshi Katsurasako, Kohei Mori, Kayoko Shiraiwa, Jun Horie and Shin Murata
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030068 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 273
Abstract
This study investigated the relationship between subjective grip strength and physical function in community-dwelling older women. Subjective grip strength was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical function and body composition were compared between groups with strong and weak subjective grip strength. Additionally, the [...] Read more.
This study investigated the relationship between subjective grip strength and physical function in community-dwelling older women. Subjective grip strength was assessed using a questionnaire, and physical function and body composition were compared between groups with strong and weak subjective grip strength. Additionally, the two groups were compared in those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and those with normal cognitive function, respectively. The results showed significant differences in grip strength (p < 0.001), 30 s chair–stand (CS-30) test (p = 0.039), timed up-and-go (TUG) test (p = 0.027), maximal gait speed (p = 0.029), and skeletal muscle mass (p < 0.001). Older adults with normal cognitive function showed significant differences in grip strength (p < 0.001), quadriceps muscle strength (p < 0.009), one-leg standing time (p = 0.041), CS-30 (p = 0.002), TUG (p = 0.014), gait speed (p = 0.006), and skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.003). Older adults with low subjective grip strength had lower physical function and skeletal muscle mass. However, no items showed significant differences between groups among older adults with MCI. Thus, subjective grip strength is an indicator of an overall decline in physical function and a reduction in skeletal muscle mass in older adults, and cognitive function should be considered when assessing subjective grip strength in older adults. Full article
12 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Development of the Self-Assessment Self-Disclosure Questionnaire to Examine the Association between Self-Disclosure and Frailty among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Japan
by Kazuki Yokoyama, Hikaru Ihira, Yuriko Matsuzaki-Kihara, Atsushi Mizumoto, Hideyuki Tashiro, Kiyotaka Shimada, Kosuke Yama, Ryo Miyajima, Takeshi Sasaki, Naoki Kozuka and Nozomu Ikeda
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030067 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 202
Abstract
Self-disclosure is the attitude of communicating one’s experiences and condition to others and is an indicator of mental health and an open personality. Frailty, characterized by reduced physical and psychological resistance, predicts the incidence of dependency and mortality. Although low self-disclosure may be [...] Read more.
Self-disclosure is the attitude of communicating one’s experiences and condition to others and is an indicator of mental health and an open personality. Frailty, characterized by reduced physical and psychological resistance, predicts the incidence of dependency and mortality. Although low self-disclosure may be associated with frailty, there is no scale to measure older adults’ self-disclosure. This cross-sectional study assessed the validity of a self-assessment self-disclosure questionnaire and examined the association between the content of self-disclosures to friends and acquaintances and frailty among community-dwelling older adults. A total of 237 adults aged ≥65 in Japan were surveyed using a mailed self-administered questionnaire in 2021. The self-disclosure scale consisted of 10 items and showed adequate validity. Participants were classified into a robust group (n = 117, women 57.3%) and a frailty group (n = 120, women 73.3%) using the Kihon Checklist. After adjusting for covariates, multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models revealed frailty was associated with lower self-disclosure of recent positive events, motivation and strengths (indicating strong points) in life, relationships with family and relatives, experiences of work and social activities, and financial status. The proposed questionnaire must still be further tested in other populations, but our initial results may contribute to preventing frailty and improving mental health among community-dwelling older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychology)
18 pages, 526 KiB  
Review
Telerehabilitation by Videoconferencing for Balance and Gait in People with Parkinson’s Disease: A Scoping Review
by Carla Silva-Batista, Filipe Oliveira de Almeida, Jennifer L. Wilhelm, Fay B. Horak, Martina Mancini and Laurie A. King
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030066 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Although supervised and real-time telerehabilitation by videoconferencing is now becoming common for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), its efficacy for balance and gait is still unclear. This paper uses a scoping approach to review the current evidence on the effects of telerehabilitation by [...] Read more.
Although supervised and real-time telerehabilitation by videoconferencing is now becoming common for people with Parkinson’s disease (PD), its efficacy for balance and gait is still unclear. This paper uses a scoping approach to review the current evidence on the effects of telerehabilitation by videoconferencing on balance and gait for patients with PD. We also explored whether studies have used wearable technology during telerehabilitation to assess and treat balance and gait via videoconferencing. Literature searches were conducted using PubMed, ISI’s Web of Knowledge, Cochrane’s Library, and Embase. The data were extracted for study design, treatment, and outcomes. Fourteen studies were included in this review. Of these, seven studies investigated the effects of telerehabilitation (e.g., tele-yoga and adapted physiotherapy exercises) on balance and gait measures (e.g., self-reported balance, balance scale, walking speed, mobility, and motor symptoms) using videoconferencing in both assessment and treatment. The telerehabilitation programs by videoconferencing were feasible and safe for people with PD; however, the efficacy still needs to be determined, as only four studies had a parallel group. In addition, no study used wearable technology. Robust evidence of the effects of telerehabilitation by videoconferencing on balance and gait for patients with PD was not found, suggesting that future powered, prospective, and robust clinical trials are needed. Full article
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12 pages, 234 KiB  
Article
Impact of Pain on Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA)
by Ambrish Singh, Sreelatha Akkala, Minakshi Nayak, Anirudh Kotlo, Naresh Poondla, Syed Raza, Jim Stankovich and Benny Antony
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030065 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Pain, particularly musculoskeletal (MSK) and multi-site pain, significantly impacts activities of daily living (ADL) in the elderly, leading to a decline in overall quality of life (QoL). This study, comprising 7490 participants, (mean age: 69 ± 10; females: 57%) from the sixth wave [...] Read more.
Pain, particularly musculoskeletal (MSK) and multi-site pain, significantly impacts activities of daily living (ADL) in the elderly, leading to a decline in overall quality of life (QoL). This study, comprising 7490 participants, (mean age: 69 ± 10; females: 57%) from the sixth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), aimed to assess the association between self-reported pain and ADL impairment among the elderly population. Notably, 62% of participants reported experiencing pain, with back pain being the most prevalent (36%) and stomachache the least (0.39%). A majority (61%) of individuals reported MSK-related pain. Additionally, 20% reported pain at one site and 0.03% experienced pain at 12 sites. ADL impairment was observed in 376 (5.0%) participants. Compared to those without pain, participants reporting moderate and severe pain had higher odds of ADL impairment [2.31 (95% CI, 1.66–3.21) and 2.98 (95% CI, 1.95–4.53), respectively]. Pain experienced in the shoulder, arm, wrist, back, hip, leg, and ankle had a significant association with ADL impairment, with ORs ranging from 2.66 (95% CI, 1.80–3.93; hip pain) to 1.36 (95% CI 1.07–1.72; back pain). Furthermore, multi-site pain was associated with higher ADL impairment [1–6 sites: OR: 1.49 (95% CI, 1.11–2.01); 7–12 sites: OR: 7.16 (95% CI, 3.60–14.26)]. These findings underscore the importance of addressing MSK and multi-site pain through targeted interventions, potentially enhancing ADL and contributing to an improved QoL among the elderly population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Rheumatology)
16 pages, 502 KiB  
Review
Treating Depression in Dementia Patients: A Risk or Remedy—A Narrative Review
by Sadia Sultan
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030064 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 513
Abstract
Background: The diagnosis of depression in dementia patients leads to an increase in the burden of the disease. To treat depression in this patient group, antidepressants are frequently used; however, there is not any proof of their therapeutic effectiveness, and their use may [...] Read more.
Background: The diagnosis of depression in dementia patients leads to an increase in the burden of the disease. To treat depression in this patient group, antidepressants are frequently used; however, there is not any proof of their therapeutic effectiveness, and their use may be potentially harmful. This narrative review aims to summarize the existing evidence regarding the role of antidepressants in treating depression in dementia patients. Main text: A search was conducted in the PubMed, Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), and Cochrane databases for randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses wherein antidepressants were given to dementia sufferers to address depression. Fifteen randomized controlled trials and seven meta-analyses were identified. Most well-designed blinded placebo-controlled trials reported a lack of effectiveness of antidepressants in treating depression in dementia patients. Among the seven metanalyses, two reported good efficacy of Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). However, two major Cochrane reviews reported little or no effectiveness and increased side effects of antidepressants in dementia patients. Conclusion: There is robust evidence regarding the lack of efficacy of antidepressants in treating depression in dementia patients. However, further well-designed Randomized controlled trials (RCTs,) using scales with good validity and reliability to diagnose depression in dementia patients, sufficient sample sizes, and detailed adverse effect profiles may help determine the rationale for their use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychology)
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10 pages, 271 KiB  
Article
Validation of the Internal Coherence Scale (ICS) in Healthy Geriatric Individuals and Patients Suffering from Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Cancer
by Annette Mehl, Anne-Kathrin Klaus, Marcus Reif, Daniela Rodrigues Recchia, Roland Zerm, Thomas Ostermann, Benno Brinkhaus and Matthias Kröz
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030063 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 608
Abstract
Background: With increased life expectancy, the coexistence of functional impairment and multimorbidity can negatively impact life quality and coherence in geriatric individuals. The self-report 10-item Internal Coherence (ICS) measures how individuals cope with and make sense of disease-specific life challenges. The aim of [...] Read more.
Background: With increased life expectancy, the coexistence of functional impairment and multimorbidity can negatively impact life quality and coherence in geriatric individuals. The self-report 10-item Internal Coherence (ICS) measures how individuals cope with and make sense of disease-specific life challenges. The aim of this study was to validate the ICS in a sample of geriatric individuals. Methods and Procedure: In a cross-sectional study, geriatric individuals with and without chronic diseases were recruited. A factor analysis with principal component extraction (PCA) and a structural equation model (SEM) was conducted to assess the ICS factor structure in a geriatric sample. To measure convergent validity, the following scales were used: Short Health Survey (SF-12), Karnofsky Performance Index (KPI), Trait autonomic regulation (Trait aR), Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results: A sample of n = 104 (70–96 years of age) patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (n = 22), cancer diseases (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 51) completed the ICS. PCA and SEM yielded the original two-factor solution: 1. Inner resilience and coherence and 2. Thermo coherence. Overall internal consistency for this cohort was satisfying (Cronbach’s α with rα = 0.72), and test-retest reliability was moderate (rrt = 0.53). ICS scores were significantly correlated to all convergent criteria ranging between r = 0.22 * and 0.49 ** (p < 0.05 *; p < 0.01 **). Conclusion: Study results suggest that the ICS appears to be a reliable and valid tool to measure internal coherence in a geriatric cohort (70–96 years). However, moderate test-retest reliability prompts the consideration of potential age-effects that may bias the reliability for this specific cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Healthy Aging)
10 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Association between Bone Quality and Physical Activity in Community-Dwelling Older Adults
by Koki Akai, Koutatsu Nagai, Shotaro Tsuji, Katsuyoshi Hirose, Daisuke Maruyama, Ryota Matsuzawa, Kayoko Tamaki, Hiroshi Kusunoki, Yosuke Wada and Ken Shinmura
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030062 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 736
Abstract
Bone quality is an essential factor determining bone strength. However, the relationship between physical activity (PA) and bone quality remains unclear. This study aimed to ascertain the relationship between bone quality and PA using a cortical bone quantitative ultrasound device that measures components [...] Read more.
Bone quality is an essential factor determining bone strength. However, the relationship between physical activity (PA) and bone quality remains unclear. This study aimed to ascertain the relationship between bone quality and PA using a cortical bone quantitative ultrasound device that measures components of bone quality. In this cross-sectional study, bone quality was assessed in community-dwelling older adults by measuring the cortical speed of sound (cSOS) at the mid-tibia using a quantitative ultrasound device. Using a wrist-worn accelerometer, we calculated the daily duration of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light physical activity (LPA) based on estimated METs from the accelerometer data, without differentiating between types of activities. A multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association between PA and the cSOS. The participants’ physical activity averaged 42.0 min/day for MVPA and 483.6 min/day for LPA. No significant association was observed between PA and bone quality in either men or women in the crude models. Furthermore, PA was not significantly correlated with the cSOS in the models adjusted for age, body mass index, nutrient intake, number of medications, and kidney disease. This study was a cross-sectional study which focused on the association between bone quality in older adults and their current amount of PA. The cSOS, as a measure of bone quality, was not associated with PA in men or women. Higher amounts of daily PA, as estimated from metabolic equivalents with an accelerometer, may not necessarily maintain or improve bone quality in older adults. This study does not rule out the potential for a positive association between PA levels or types and bone quality in younger or middle-aged individuals. It was specifically targeted at older adults, and its findings should not be generalized to younger populations. Further longitudinal studies are required to better understand the relationship between PA and bone quality. Full article
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19 pages, 1842 KiB  
Article
Ladder Use Ability, Behavior and Exposure by Age and Gender
by Erika M. Pliner, Daina L. Sturnieks, Kurt E. Beschorner, Mark S. Redfern and Stephen R. Lord
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030061 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 507
Abstract
This study aimed to quantify and compare ladder use ability and behavior in younger and older men and women from three ladder use behavior experiments. The experimental tasks comprised (1) changing a lightbulb on a household stepladder under two cognitive demands (single and [...] Read more.
This study aimed to quantify and compare ladder use ability and behavior in younger and older men and women from three ladder use behavior experiments. The experimental tasks comprised (1) changing a lightbulb on a household stepladder under two cognitive demands (single and dual task), (2) clearing a simulated roof gutter on a straight ladder and (3) querying ladder choice in different exigency scenarios. Ladder use ability and behavior data were captured from recorded time, performance, motion capture and user choice data. In addition, this study surveyed ladder use frequency and habitual behaviors. The experimental findings indicate that older adults require more time to complete ladder tasks; younger adults display riskier ladder use behaviors; men and women display similar ladder use ability; and men are more willing to climb riskier ladders. The survey found older adults to report more frequent ladder use than younger adults, and men use straight ladders more frequently than women. These results suggest that the reported higher ladder fall rates experienced by older adults and men are linked to increased ladder use exposure and riskier ladder choice. This knowledge can help guide population-specific interventions to reduce ladder falls in both young and older people. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Public Health)
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15 pages, 934 KiB  
Article
Informed Decision-Making with and for People with Dementia—Efficacy of the PRODECIDE Education Program for Legal Representatives: A Randomized Controlled Trial (PRODECIDE-RCT) and Process Evaluation
by Julia Lühnen, Burkhard Haastert and Tanja Richter
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030060 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 587
Abstract
Legal representatives take a major role in healthcare decisions with and for people with dementia, but only a minority has a qualification in this field. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the PRODECIDE education program for legal representatives. In a prospective [...] Read more.
Legal representatives take a major role in healthcare decisions with and for people with dementia, but only a minority has a qualification in this field. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of the PRODECIDE education program for legal representatives. In a prospective randomized controlled trial, legal representatives (volunteers and professionals, representing at least one person with dementia) were allocated (1:1 computer-generated block randomization) to the intervention (PRODECIDE education program) and control (standard care) groups. The primary outcome measure was knowledge, operationalized as the understanding of decision-making processes and in setting realistic expectations. Only data entry and analyses were blinded. A process evaluation in a mixed methods design was performed. We enrolled 218 legal representatives, and 216 were included in the primary analysis (intervention n = 109, control n = 107). The percentage of correct answers in the knowledge test post intervention was 69.0% in the intervention and 43.4% in the control group (difference 25.6%; CI 95%, 21.3 to 29.8; p < 0.001). In the comparison of professional and voluntary representatives, professionals had 13.6% (CI 95%, 8.0 to 19.2; p < 0.001) more correct answers. The PRODECIDE education program can improve the knowledge of legal representatives, an important prerequisite for evidence-based, informed decision-making. Full article
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12 pages, 279 KiB  
Review
A State-of-the-Art Review on the Role of Cognitive and Motor Reserve on Quality of Life: A Focus on Cardiovascular Patients in a Lifespan Perspective
by Jessica Giannì, Maura Crepaldi, Giulia Fusi, Francesca Colombi, Agostino Brugnera, Andrea Greco, Angelo Compare and Maria Luisa Rusconi
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030059 - 9 May 2024
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) reflect a huge and diversified condition that influences patient quality of life (QoL) both in the physical and mental aspects, especially in older adults who often present comorbidities and may be affected by cognitive decline. The concept of cognitive reserve [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) reflect a huge and diversified condition that influences patient quality of life (QoL) both in the physical and mental aspects, especially in older adults who often present comorbidities and may be affected by cognitive decline. The concept of cognitive reserve (CR), which is built through life course experiences, has widely been considered a protective factor against cognitive decline, while the results of QoL in the field of CVDs are still controversial. In particular, there is a lack of evidence that explicitly explores the effects of CR on the QoL in CVD cases since studies have considered only single CR proxies (e.g., education) or specific cardiovascular conditions. Moreover, none of them have considered the motor reserve (MR), another recent concept that considers the amount of physical activity carried out during a lifespan. Its potential role in preventing age-related diseases has been observed, but more clarification is needed given the importance of the physical component in CVDs. The present state-of-the-art review aims to (i) examine how the literature conceives CR and its proxies in CVDs relating to QoL and (ii) integrate the concept of MR in this framework. Implications for clinical practice will also be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiogeriatrics)
12 pages, 1879 KiB  
Systematic Review
Cerebral Blood Flow in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Meta-Analysis on Transcranial Doppler Investigations
by Marco Zuin, Alessandro De Vito, Tommaso Romagnoli, Michele Polastri, Eleonora Capatti, Cristiano Azzini, Gloria Brombo and Giovanni Zuliani
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030058 - 4 May 2024
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Background: Cerebrovascular hemodynamic impairment has been reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in AD patients. Methods: Data were obtained by searching MEDLINE and Scopus for all investigations published between [...] Read more.
Background: Cerebrovascular hemodynamic impairment has been reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in AD patients. Methods: Data were obtained by searching MEDLINE and Scopus for all investigations published between 1 January 2011 and 1 November 2021, comparing the cerebrovascular hemodynamic between AD patients and cognately healthy age-matched controls, using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound. Results: Twelve studies, based on 685 patients [395 with AD and 290 age-matched cognitively healthy controls, with a mean age of 71.5 and 72.1 years, respectively] were included in the analysis. A random effect model revealed that AD patients, in the proximal segments of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), have a significantly lower CBF velocity, compared to controls (MD: −7.80 cm/s, 95%CI: −10.78 to −5.13, p < 0.0001, I2 = 71.0%). Due to a significant Egger’s test (t = 3.12, p = 0.008), a trim-and-fill analysis was performed, confirming the difference (MD: −11.05 cm/s, 95%CI: –12.28 to −9.82, p < 0.0001). Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that the mean CBF at the proximal MCA was directly correlated with arterial hypertension (p = 0.03) and MMSE score (p < 0.001), but inversely correlated with age (p = 0.01). In AD patients, the pulsatility index was significantly higher compared to controls (MD: 0.16, 95%CI: 0.07 to 0.25, p < 0.0001, I2: 84.5%), while the breath-holding index test results were significant lower (MD: −1.72, 95%CI: −2.53 to −0.91, p < 0.001, I2: 85.4%). Conclusions: AD patients have a significant impairment in relation to their cerebrovascular perfusion, suggesting that cerebrovascular hemodynamic deterioration, evaluated using TCD, may be a useful diagnostic tool. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Geriatric Psychiatry and Psychology)
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12 pages, 464 KiB  
Article
An Assessment of Physical Activity and Risk Factors in People Living with Dementia: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Long-Term Care Facility in Vietnam
by Khanh Nam Do, Linh Thao Thi Le, Son Cong Dang, Ha Thu Thi Nguyen, Giang Thu Nguyen, Hang Van Thi Ngo, Huong Lan Thi Nguyen, Lieu Thu Thi Nguyen, Anh Kim Dang and Huong Thi Le
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030057 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 826
Abstract
Background: People living with dementia (PLWD) may experience substantial cognitive decline as the disease progresses, which interferes with their daily activities. This study aimed to assess physical activity (PA) performance and care dependency (CD) and identify factors related to PA among PLWD. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: People living with dementia (PLWD) may experience substantial cognitive decline as the disease progresses, which interferes with their daily activities. This study aimed to assess physical activity (PA) performance and care dependency (CD) and identify factors related to PA among PLWD. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 63 PLWD from National Geriatrics Hospital, Vietnam, from 2021 to 2023. We used the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and Care Dependency Scale (CDS) to assess the nutritional status and the levels of PA and CD, respectively. We used the Mann–Whitney test to compare the differences in the PA types and CD levels between dementia levels and a multivariable logistics regression model to analyze factors related to PA. Results: More than half of the subjects had mild dementia. In total, 35% of the PLWD had a low level of PA, and 46.3% were completely independent of care. The mean score in each CDS aspect of the subjects with moderate/severe dementia was statistically significantly lower than that of those with mild dementia (p ≤ 0.05). Lower dependency (OR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.88–0.99) and malnutrition (OR = 15.4; 95% CI = 1.18–20.21) were associated with insufficient PA in the PLWD. Conclusion: Formal caregivers and healthcare workers should encourage PLWD to perform physical activities at any level and personalize the development of tailored and nutritional care strategies for each individual. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Exercise in Older Adults)
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16 pages, 1207 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of Combining Weight and Elastic Resistance Exercise on Vascular Function in Older Adults
by Kampanart Paditsaeree and Witid Mitranun
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030056 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 935
Abstract
Prior research has suggested that resistance exercise may result in a temporary decrease in vascular function, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), among untrained young individuals. However, the immediate impact of combined elastic and weight resistance training on older adults remains insufficiently explored. [...] Read more.
Prior research has suggested that resistance exercise may result in a temporary decrease in vascular function, as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), among untrained young individuals. However, the immediate impact of combined elastic and weight resistance training on older adults remains insufficiently explored. We assessed vascular function before, after, and 30 min after acute exercise under three resistance conditions to evaluate whether a combination of weight and elastic resistance exercises has an acute effect on vascular function in older adults. Fourteen older adults (65.6 ± 2.9 years) executed three sets of 12 repetitions at 65% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) of the bench press (BP) exercise. Testing was performed on three separate days as follows: (1) barbell alone (BA); (2) barbell plus elastic bands (10% of 65% 1 RM) (BE10); and (3) barbell plus elastic bands (20% of 65% 1 RM) (BE20). A two-way (time × condition) repeated measures analysis of variance was employed to assess the time and condition effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). At 0 min post-exercise, FMD was significantly higher during BE10 than during BA (p < 0.05); however, at 30 min post-exercise, no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) was observed between the three conditions. In each condition, FMD results did not differ significantly at different times (p ≥ 0.05). For FMD, the main effect of the condition (F[2,26] = 3.86, p = 0.034) and that of the time and condition (F[4,52] = 3.66, p = 0.011) were significant. For PWV, only the difference between the BA and BE10 conditions was significant at 0 min (p < 0.05). PWV increased from baseline in the BA condition (p < 0.05) but not significantly in the BE10 and BE20 conditions (p ≥ 0.05). Therefore, BA, BE10, and BE20 demonstrated various changes in vascular function. Long-term training intervention studies are needed to validate these findings. Full article
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11 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Oral Health and the Association with Blood Parameters in Neurogeriatric Inpatients without Relevant Systemic Inflammation: An Observational Study
by Alicia Maria Blasi, Sonja Henny Maria Derman, Asha Kunnel, Pantea Pape, Gabriele Röhrig and Anna Greta Barbe
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics9030055 - 23 Apr 2024
Viewed by 816
Abstract
As little evidence is available, we report the oral health of neurogeriatric inpatients and the association with hematological parameters representing systemic health. We performed a cross-sectional investigation of 30 patients undergoing neurogeriatric early rehabilitation and excluded systemic inflammation as a trigger for oral [...] Read more.
As little evidence is available, we report the oral health of neurogeriatric inpatients and the association with hematological parameters representing systemic health. We performed a cross-sectional investigation of 30 patients undergoing neurogeriatric early rehabilitation and excluded systemic inflammation as a trigger for oral infection (C-reactive protein >5 mg/dL). Outcomes included oral health and hygiene status and routine laboratory parameters. Patients (mean age 79 ± 6 years, mean comorbidities 7 ± 3, and mean Barthel Index at hospital admission 31 ± 18) had impaired oral health (mean 18 ± 7 of their own teeth, elevated plaque indices (2.5 ± 0.4), and bleeding on probing (26 ± 17)), representing short- and long-term reduced oral hygiene. Twenty-four (80%) patients had periodontitis. Laboratory parameters for inflammation, nutrition, and anemia did not correlate with oral health parameters (p > 0.05). The number of teeth correlated moderately with total protein (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (rs) = 0.524; p = 0.003). Plaque indices correlated weakly with number of teeth (rs = −0.460; p = 0.010) and periodontitis diagnosis (rs = 0.488; p = 0.006). Thus, highly vulnerable neurogeriatric inpatients had reduced oral health and hygiene independent of laboratory parameters, representing a high-risk population for oral health problems even without clinically proven systemic infection. This should be considered in future interprofessional therapy planning. Full article
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