Next Issue
Volume 13, April
Previous Issue
Volume 12, December
 
 

J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 13, Issue 1 (February 2024) – 18 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Buffering mechanisms are omnipresent in packet networks of all types. They significantly transform the traffic passing through network nodes. Describing such a transformation is not trivial for two reasons. Firstly, the traffic may exhibit complex statistical properties, including highly variable rates, strong autocorrelation, and batch structure. Secondly, the buffering mechanism may be complicated and incorporate active queue management of some sort. Fortunately, modern Markovian point processes enable precise modeling of traffic while preserving the analytical tractability of the whole model, at least in some cases. In the following case study, we observe how complex traffic is transformed when passing through a buffering mechanism with active queue management of a particular type. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
24 pages, 1429 KiB  
Article
UAV-Assisted Cooperative NOMA and OFDM Communication Systems: Analysis and Optimization
by Thuc Kieu-Xuan and Anh Le-Thi
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010018 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 944
Abstract
Utilizing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to facilitate wireless communication has emerged as a viable and promising strategy to enhance current and prospective wireless systems. This approach offers many advantages by establishing line-of-sight connections, optimizing operational efficiency, and enabling flexible deployment capabilities in various [...] Read more.
Utilizing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to facilitate wireless communication has emerged as a viable and promising strategy to enhance current and prospective wireless systems. This approach offers many advantages by establishing line-of-sight connections, optimizing operational efficiency, and enabling flexible deployment capabilities in various terrains. Thus, in this paper, we investigate UAV communication in a relaying network in which a UAV helps communication between a source and two destination users while flying to a location. To have a complete view of our proposed system, we consider both orthogonal multiple access, such as OFDMs and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scenarios. Moreover, we apply successive convex optimization (SCO) and the block-coordinate gradient descent (BCGD) for the sum-rate optimization problems to improve the system performance under constraints of total bandwidth and total power at the ground base station and UAV. The experimental results validate that the achievable secrecy rates are notably enhanced using our proposed algorithms and show optimal trends for critical parameters, such as transmit powers, the flight trajectory and speed of the UAV, and resource allocation of OFDM and NOMA. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2989 KiB  
Article
Build–Launch–Consolidate Framework and Toolkit for Impact Analysis on Wireless Sensor Networks
by Rakan Alghofaili, Hussah Albinali and Farag Azzedin
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010017 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) utilize their connectivity to enable solutions supporting a spectrum of industries in different and volatile environments. To effectively enhance the security and quality of the service of networks, empirical research should consider a [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) utilize their connectivity to enable solutions supporting a spectrum of industries in different and volatile environments. To effectively enhance the security and quality of the service of networks, empirical research should consider a variety of factors and be reproducible. This will not only ensure scalability but also enable the verification of conclusions, leading to more reliable solutions. Cooja offers limited performance analysis capabilities of simulations, which are often extracted and calculated manually. In this paper, we introduce the Build–Launch–Consolidate (BLC) framework and a toolkit that enable researchers to conduct structured and conclusive experiments considering different factors and metrics, experiment design, and results analysis. Furthermore, the toolkit analyzes diverse network metrics across various scenarios. As a proof of concept, this paper studies the flooding attacks on the IoT and illustrates their impact on the network, utilizing the BLC framework and toolkit. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

38 pages, 4085 KiB  
Review
Reliability of LoRaWAN Communications in Mining Environments: A Survey on Challenges and Design Requirements
by Sonile K. Musonda, Musa Ndiaye, Hastings M. Libati and Adnan M. Abu-Mahfouz
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010016 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1592
Abstract
While a robust and reliable communication network for monitoring the mining environment in a timely manner to take care of people, the planet Earth and profits is key, the mining environment is very challenging in terms of achieving reliable wireless transmission. This survey [...] Read more.
While a robust and reliable communication network for monitoring the mining environment in a timely manner to take care of people, the planet Earth and profits is key, the mining environment is very challenging in terms of achieving reliable wireless transmission. This survey therefore investigates the reliability of LoRaWAN communication in the mining environment, identifying the challenges and design requirements. Bearing in mind that LoRaWAN is an IoT communication technology that has not yet been fully deployed in mining, the survey incorporates an investigation of LoRaWAN and other mining IoT communication technologies to determine their records of reliability, strengths and weaknesses and applications in mining. This aspect of the survey gives insight into the requirements of future mining IoT communication technologies and where LoRaWAN can be deployed in both underground and surface mining. Specific questions that the survey addresses are: (1) What is the record of reliability of LoRaWAN in mining environments? (2) What contributions have been made with regard to LoRa/LoRaWAN communication in general towards improving reliability? (3) What are the challenges and design requirements of LoRaWAN reliability in mining environments? (4) What research opportunities exist for achieving LoRaWAN communication in mining environments? In addition to recommending open research opportunities, the lessons learnt from the survey are also outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electronic Communications, IOT and Big Data)
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 3904 KiB  
Article
IFGAN—A Novel Image Fusion Model to Fuse 3D Point Cloud Sensory Data
by Henry Alexander Ignatious, Hesham El-Sayed and Salah Bouktif
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010015 - 07 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
To enhance the level of autonomy in driving, it is crucial to ensure optimal execution of critical maneuvers in all situations. However, numerous accidents involving autonomous vehicles (AVs) developed by major automobile manufacturers in recent years have been attributed to poor decision making [...] Read more.
To enhance the level of autonomy in driving, it is crucial to ensure optimal execution of critical maneuvers in all situations. However, numerous accidents involving autonomous vehicles (AVs) developed by major automobile manufacturers in recent years have been attributed to poor decision making caused by insufficient perception of environmental information. AVs employ diverse sensors in today’s technology-driven settings to gather this information. However, due to technical and natural factors, the data collected by these sensors may be incomplete or ambiguous, leading to misinterpretation by AVs and resulting in fatal accidents. Furthermore, environmental information obtained from multiple sources in the vehicular environment often exhibits multimodal characteristics. To address this limitation, effective preprocessing of raw sensory data becomes essential, involving two crucial tasks: data cleaning and data fusion. In this context, we propose a comprehensive data fusion engine that categorizes various sensory data formats and appropriately merges them to enhance accuracy. Specifically, we suggest a general framework to combine audio, visual, and textual data, building upon our previous research on an innovative hybrid image fusion model that fused multispectral image data. However, this previous model faced challenges when fusing 3D point cloud data and handling large volumes of sensory data. To overcome these challenges, our study introduces a novel image fusion model called Image Fusion Generative Adversarial Network (IFGAN), which incorporates a multi-scale attention mechanism into both the generator and discriminator of a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN). The primary objective of image fusion is to merge complementary data from various perspectives of the same scene to enhance the clarity and detail of the final image. The multi-scale attention mechanism serves two purposes: the first, capturing comprehensive spatial information to enable the generator to focus on foreground and background target information in the sensory data, and the second, constraining the discriminator to concentrate on attention regions rather than the entire input image. Furthermore, the proposed model integrates the color information retention concept from the previously proposed image fusion model. Furthermore, we propose simple and efficient models for extracting salient image features. We evaluate the proposed models using various standard metrics and compare them with existing popular models. The results demonstrate that our proposed image fusion model outperforms the other models in terms of performance. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 1393 KiB  
Article
Network Sliced Distributed Learning-as-a-Service for Internet of Vehicles Applications in 6G Non-Terrestrial Network Scenarios
by David Naseh, Swapnil Sadashiv Shinde and Daniele Tarchi
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010014 - 07 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1440
Abstract
In the rapidly evolving landscape of next-generation 6G systems, the integration of AI functions to orchestrate network resources and meet stringent user requirements is a key focus. Distributed Learning (DL), a promising set of techniques that shape the future of 6G communication systems, [...] Read more.
In the rapidly evolving landscape of next-generation 6G systems, the integration of AI functions to orchestrate network resources and meet stringent user requirements is a key focus. Distributed Learning (DL), a promising set of techniques that shape the future of 6G communication systems, plays a pivotal role. Vehicular applications, representing various services, are likely to benefit significantly from the advances of 6G technologies, enabling dynamic management infused with inherent intelligence. However, the deployment of various DL methods in traditional vehicular settings with specific demands and resource constraints poses challenges. The emergence of distributed computing and communication resources, such as the edge-cloud continuum and integrated terrestrial and non-terrestrial networks (T/NTN), provides a solution. Efficiently harnessing these resources and simultaneously implementing diverse DL methods becomes crucial, and Network Slicing (NS) emerges as a valuable tool. This study delves into the analysis of DL methods suitable for vehicular environments alongside NS. Subsequently, we present a framework to facilitate DL-as-a-Service (DLaaS) on a distributed networking platform, empowering the proactive deployment of DL algorithms. This approach allows for the effective management of heterogeneous services with varying requirements. The proposed framework is exemplified through a detailed case study in a vehicular integrated T/NTN with diverse service demands from specific regions. Performance analysis highlights the advantages of the DLaaS approach, focusing on flexibility, performance enhancement, added intelligence, and increased user satisfaction in the considered T/NTN vehicular scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing towards 6G Networks)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 2705 KiB  
Article
A Secure Blockchain-Enabled Remote Healthcare Monitoring System for Home Isolation
by Jongsuk Kongsen, Doungsuda Chantaradsuwan, Peeravit Koad, May Thu and Chanankorn Jandaeng
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010013 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
This article presents a secure framework for remote healthcare monitoring in the context of home isolation, thereby addressing the concerns related to untrustworthy client connections to a hospital information system (HIS) within a secure network. Our proposed solution leverages a public blockchain network [...] Read more.
This article presents a secure framework for remote healthcare monitoring in the context of home isolation, thereby addressing the concerns related to untrustworthy client connections to a hospital information system (HIS) within a secure network. Our proposed solution leverages a public blockchain network as a secure distributed database to buffer and transmit patient vital signs. The framework integrates an algorithm for the secure gathering and transmission of vital signs to the Ethereum network. Additionally, we introduce a publish/subscribe paradigm, thus enhancing security using the TLS channel to connect to the blockchain network. An analysis of the maintenance cost of the distributed database underscores the cost-effectiveness of our approach. In conclusion, our framework provides a highly secure and economical solution for remote healthcare monitoring in home isolation scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators, Sensors and Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 1189 KiB  
Article
Fast Multi-User Searchable Encryption with Forward and Backward Private Access Control
by Salim Sabah Bulbul, Zaid Ameen Abduljabbar, Duaa Fadhel Najem, Vincent Omollo Nyangaresi, Junchao Ma and Abdulla J. Y. Aldarwish
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010012 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Untrusted servers are servers or storage entities lacking complete trust from the data owner or users. This characterization implies that the server hosting encrypted data may not enjoy full trust from data owners or users, stemming from apprehensions related to potential security breaches, [...] Read more.
Untrusted servers are servers or storage entities lacking complete trust from the data owner or users. This characterization implies that the server hosting encrypted data may not enjoy full trust from data owners or users, stemming from apprehensions related to potential security breaches, unauthorized access, or other security risks. The security of searchable encryption has been put into question by several recent attacks. Currently, users can search for encrypted documents on untrusted cloud servers using searchable symmetric encryption (SSE). This study delves deeply into two pivotal concepts of privacy within dynamic searchable symmetric encryption (DSSE) schemes: forward privacy and backward privacy. The former serves as a safeguard against the linkage of recently added documents to previously conducted search queries, whereas the latter guarantees the irretrievability of deleted documents in subsequent search inquiries. However, the provision of fine-grained access control is complex in existing multi-user SSE schemes. SSE schemes may also incur high computation costs due to the need for fine-grained access control, and it is essential to support document updates and forward privacy. In response to these issues, this paper suggests a searchable encryption scheme that uses simple primitive tools. We present a multi-user SSE scheme that efficiently controls access to dynamically encrypted documents to resolve these issues, using an innovative approach that readily enhances previous findings. Rather than employing asymmetric encryption as in comparable systems, we harness low-complexity primitive encryption tools and inverted index-based DSSE to handle retrieving encrypted files, resulting in a notably faster system. Furthermore, we ensure heightened security by refreshing the encryption key after each search, meaning that users are unable to conduct subsequent searches with the same key and must obtain a fresh key from the data owner. An experimental evaluation shows that our scheme achieves forward and Type II backward privacy and has much faster search performance than other schemes. Our scheme can be considered secure, as proven in a random oracle model. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

4 pages, 148 KiB  
Editorial
Featured Papers on Network Security and Privacy
by Jordi Mongay Batalla
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010011 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1073
Abstract
There is an urgent need to introduce security-by-design in networks [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Network Security and Privacy)
21 pages, 878 KiB  
Article
Service-Aware Hierarchical Fog–Cloud Resource Mappingfor e-Health with Enhanced-Kernel SVM
by Alaa AlZailaa, Hao Ran Chi, Ayman Radwan and Rui L. Aguiar
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010010 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Fog–cloud-based hierarchical task-scheduling methods are embracing significant challenges to support e-Health applications due to the large number of users, high task diversity, and harsher service-level requirements. Addressing the challenges of fog–cloud integration, this paper proposes a new service/network-aware fog–cloud hierarchical resource-mapping scheme, which [...] Read more.
Fog–cloud-based hierarchical task-scheduling methods are embracing significant challenges to support e-Health applications due to the large number of users, high task diversity, and harsher service-level requirements. Addressing the challenges of fog–cloud integration, this paper proposes a new service/network-aware fog–cloud hierarchical resource-mapping scheme, which achieves optimized resource utilization efficiency and minimized latency for service-level critical tasks in e-Health applications. Concretely, we develop a service/network-aware task classification algorithm. We adopt support vector machine as a backbone with fast computational speed to support real-time task scheduling, and we develop a new kernel, fusing convolution, cross-correlation, and auto-correlation, to gain enhanced specificity and sensitivity. Based on task classification, we propose task priority assignment and resource-mapping algorithms, which aim to achieve minimized overall latency for critical tasks and improve resource utilization efficiency. Simulation results showcase that the proposed algorithm is able to achieve average execution times for critical/non-critical tasks of 0.23/0.50 ms in diverse networking setups, which surpass the benchmark scheme by 73.88%/52.01%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Machine Learning in Communication Systems and Networks)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 518 KiB  
Article
On Maximizing the Probability of Achieving Deadlines in Communication Networks
by Benjamin Becker, Christian Oberli, Tobias Meuser and Ralf Steinmetz
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010009 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1115
Abstract
We consider the problem of meeting deadline constraints in wireless communication networks. Fulfilling deadlines depends heavily on the routing algorithm used. We study this dependence generically for a broad class of routing algorithms. For analyzing the impact of routing decisions on deadline fulfillment, [...] Read more.
We consider the problem of meeting deadline constraints in wireless communication networks. Fulfilling deadlines depends heavily on the routing algorithm used. We study this dependence generically for a broad class of routing algorithms. For analyzing the impact of routing decisions on deadline fulfillment, we adopt a stochastic model from operations research to capture the source-to-destination delay distribution and the corresponding probability of successfully delivering data before a given deadline. Based on this model, we propose a decentralized algorithm that operates locally at each node and exchanges information solely with direct neighbors in order to determine the probabilities of achieving deadlines. A modified version of the algorithm also improves routing tables iteratively to progressively increase the deadline achievement probabilities. This modified algorithm is shown to deliver routing tables that maximize the deadline achievement probabilities for all nodes in a given network. We tested the approach by simulation and compared it with routing strategies based on established metrics, specifically the average delay, minimum hop count, and expected transmission count. Our evaluations encompass different channel quality and small-scale fading conditions, as well as various traffic load scenarios. Notably, our solution consistently outperforms the other approaches in all tested scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Electronic Communications, IOT and Big Data)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 15455 KiB  
Article
Varactor-Based Tunable Sensor for Dielectric Measurements of Solid and Liquid Materials
by Waseem Shahzad, Weidong Hu, Qasim Ali, Ali Raza Barket and Gulab Shah
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010008 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1216
Abstract
In this article, a tunable RF sensor is presented for the measurement of dielectric materials (liquids and solids) based on a metamaterial resonator. The proposed novel configuration sensor has a microstrip line-loaded metamaterial resonator with tunable characteristics by utilizing a single varactor diode [...] Read more.
In this article, a tunable RF sensor is presented for the measurement of dielectric materials (liquids and solids) based on a metamaterial resonator. The proposed novel configuration sensor has a microstrip line-loaded metamaterial resonator with tunable characteristics by utilizing a single varactor diode in the series of the resonator. CST Microwave studio is employed for 3D simulations of the tunable sensor, and the desired performance is attained by optimizing various structural parameters to enhance the transmission coefficient (S21 magnitude) notch depth performance. The proposed RF sensor can be tuned in L and S-bands using the varactor diode biasing voltage range of 0–20 V. To validate the performance of the sensor, the proposed design has been simulated, fabricated, and tested for the dielectric characterization of different solid and liquid materials. Material testing is performed in the bandwidth of 1354 MHz by incorporating a single metamaterial resonator-based sensor. Agilent’s Network Analyzer is used for measuring the S-parameters of the proposed sensor topology under loaded and unloaded conditions. Simulated and measured S-parameter results correspond substantially in the 1.79 to 3.15 GHz frequency band during the testing of the fabricated sensor. This novel tunable resonator design has various applications in modulators, phase shifters, and filters as well as in biosensors for liquid materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Actuators, Sensors and Devices)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 6920 KiB  
Article
Game Theory-Based Incentive Design for Mitigating Malicious Behavior in Blockchain Networks
by Souhail Mssassi and Anas Abou El Kalam
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010007 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1463
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative incentive model that utilizes graph and game theories to address the issue of node incentives in decentralized blockchain networks such as EVM blockchains. The lack of incentives for nodes within EVM networks gives rise to potential weaknesses that [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative incentive model that utilizes graph and game theories to address the issue of node incentives in decentralized blockchain networks such as EVM blockchains. The lack of incentives for nodes within EVM networks gives rise to potential weaknesses that might be used for various purposes, such as broadcasting fake transactions or withholding blocks. This affects the overall trust and integrity of the network. To address this issue, the current study offers a network model that incorporates the concepts of graph theory and utilizes a matrix representation for reward and trust optimization. Furthermore, this study presents a game-theoretic framework that encourages cooperative conduct and discourages malicious actions, ultimately producing a state of equilibrium according to the Nash equilibrium. The simulations validated the model’s efficacy in addressing fraudulent transactions and emphasized its scalability, security, and fairness benefits. This study makes a valuable contribution to the field of blockchain technology by presenting an incentive model that effectively encourages the development of secure and trusted decentralized systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Trends and Prospects in Security, Encryption and Encoding)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 2901 KiB  
Article
Experiences Using Ethereum and Quorum Blockchain Smart Contracts in Dairy Production
by Filisia Melissari, Andreas Papadakis, Dimitris Chatzitheodorou, Duc Tran, Joachim Schouteten, Georgia Athanasiou and Theodore Zahariadis
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010006 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1584
Abstract
feta cheese is a Greek protected designation of origin (PDO) product that is produced in three main phases: milk collection, cheese preparation and maturation, and product packaging. Each phase must be aligned with quantitative rules, stemming from the legislation framework and best practices. [...] Read more.
feta cheese is a Greek protected designation of origin (PDO) product that is produced in three main phases: milk collection, cheese preparation and maturation, and product packaging. Each phase must be aligned with quantitative rules, stemming from the legislation framework and best practices. The production complexity, the increased production cost, centralised and monolithic traceability systems, and the lack of a systematic monitoring framework have made dairy products a commodity with increased frequency of food fraud. Given the context of the dairy section in Greece, this study aims to examine (a) whether it is possible to model the end-to-end process of PDO feta cheese considering production rules to develop a trustworthy blockchain-based traceability system (b) how to associate the (‘easy-to-retrieve’, operational) traceability data with the (difficult-to-assess) product characteristics meaningful to the consumer, (c) how to design a technical solution ensuring that information is accessible by the stakeholders and the consumer, while minimising blockchain-related delay, and (d) how to design a graphical user interface and offer tools to consumers so that traceability information is communicated effectively and they can verify it through access to the blockchain. In terms of methods, we analyse and model the process steps, identify measurable, operational parameters and translate the legislative framework into rules. These rules are designed and codified as blockchain smart contracts that ensure the food authenticity and compliance with legislation. The blockchain infrastructure consists of the private Quorum blockchain that is anchored to the public infrastructure of Ethereum. Mechanisms to address scalability in terms of dynamic data volumes, effective data coding, and data verification at the edge as well as relevant limitations are discussed. Consumers are informed about traceability information by using QR codes on food packaging and can verify the data using the blockchain tools and services. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 1034 KiB  
Article
Dynamic and Distributed Intelligence over Smart Devices, Internet of Things Edges, and Cloud Computing for Human Activity Recognition Using Wearable Sensors
by Ayman Wazwaz, Khalid Amin, Noura Semary and Tamer Ghanem
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010005 - 02 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1543
Abstract
A wide range of applications, including sports and healthcare, use human activity recognition (HAR). The Internet of Things (IoT), using cloud systems, offers enormous resources but produces high delays and huge amounts of traffic. This study proposes a distributed intelligence and dynamic HAR [...] Read more.
A wide range of applications, including sports and healthcare, use human activity recognition (HAR). The Internet of Things (IoT), using cloud systems, offers enormous resources but produces high delays and huge amounts of traffic. This study proposes a distributed intelligence and dynamic HAR architecture using smart IoT devices, edge devices, and cloud computing. These systems were used to train models, store results, and process real-time predictions. Wearable sensors and smartphones were deployed on the human body to detect activities from three positions; accelerometer and gyroscope parameters were utilized to recognize activities. A dynamic selection of models was used, depending on the availability of the data and the mobility of the users. The results showed that this system could handle different scenarios dynamically according to the available features; its prediction accuracy was 99.23% using the LightGBM algorithm during the training stage, when 18 features were used. The prediction time was around 6.4 milliseconds per prediction on the smart end device and 1.6 milliseconds on the Raspberry Pi edge, which can serve more than 30 end devices simultaneously and reduce the need for the cloud. The cloud was used for storing users’ profiles and can be used for real-time prediction in 391 milliseconds per request. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4512 KiB  
Article
Output Stream from the AQM Queue with BMAP Arrivals
by Andrzej Chydzinski
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010004 - 02 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1145
Abstract
We analyse the output stream from a packet buffer governed by the policy that incoming packets are dropped with a probability related to the buffer occupancy. The results include formulas for the number of packets departing the buffer in a specific time, for [...] Read more.
We analyse the output stream from a packet buffer governed by the policy that incoming packets are dropped with a probability related to the buffer occupancy. The results include formulas for the number of packets departing the buffer in a specific time, for the time-dependent output rate and for the steady-state output rate. The latter is the key performance measure of the buffering mechanism, as it reflects its ability to process a specific number of packets in a time unit. To ensure broad applicability of the results in various networks and traffic types, a powerful and versatile model of the input stream is used, i.e., a BMAP. Numeric examples are provided, with several parameterisations of the BMAP, dropping probabilities and loads of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Communications and Networking)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 3947 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimization of Gateway Location Selection in Long-Range Wide Area Networks: A Tradeoff Analysis between System Costs and Bitrate Maximization
by Charuay Savithi and Chutchai Kaewta
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010003 - 02 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2266
Abstract
LoRaWANs play a critical role in various applications such as smart farming, industrial IoT, and smart cities. The strategic placement of gateways significantly influences network performance optimization. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the tradeoffs between system costs and bitrate maximization for [...] Read more.
LoRaWANs play a critical role in various applications such as smart farming, industrial IoT, and smart cities. The strategic placement of gateways significantly influences network performance optimization. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of the tradeoffs between system costs and bitrate maximization for selecting optimal gateway locations in LoRaWANs. To address this challenge, a rigorous mathematical model is formulated to incorporate essential factors and constraints related to gateway selection. Furthermore, we propose an innovative metaheuristic algorithm known as the M-VaNSAS algorithm, which effectively explores the solution space and identifies favorable gateway locations. The Pareto front and TOPSIS methods are employed to evaluate and rank the generated solutions, providing a robust assessment framework. Our research findings highlight the suitability of a network model comprising 144 gateways tailored for the Ubon Ratchathani province. Among the evaluated algorithms, the M-VaNSAS method demonstrates exceptional efficiency in gateway location selection, outperforming the PSO, DE, and GA methods. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3368 KiB  
Article
Robust ISAC Localization in Smart Cities: A Hybrid Network Approach for NLOS Challenges with Uncertain Parameters
by Turke Althobaiti, Ruhul Amin Khalil and Nasir Saeed
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010002 - 29 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Accurate localization holds paramount importance across many applications within the context of smart cities, particularly in vehicular communication systems, the Internet of Things, and Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) technologies. Nonetheless, achieving precise localization remains a persistent challenge, primarily attributed to the prevalence [...] Read more.
Accurate localization holds paramount importance across many applications within the context of smart cities, particularly in vehicular communication systems, the Internet of Things, and Integrated Sensing and Communication (ISAC) technologies. Nonetheless, achieving precise localization remains a persistent challenge, primarily attributed to the prevalence of non-line-of-sight (NLOS) conditions and the presence of uncertainties surrounding key wireless transmission parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive framework tailored to address the intricate task of localizing multiple nodes within ISAC systems significantly impacted by pervasive NLOS conditions and the ambiguity of transmission parameters. The proposed methodology integrates received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-arrival (TOA) measurements as a strategic response to effectively overcome these substantial challenges, even in situations where the precise values of transmitting power and temporal information remain elusive. An approximation approach is judiciously employed to facilitate the inherent non-convex and NP-hard nature of the original estimation problem, resulting in a notable transformation, rendering the problem amenable to a convex optimization paradigm. The comprehensive array of simulations conducted within this study corroborates the efficacy of the proposed hybrid cooperative localization method by underscoring its superior performance relative to conventional approaches relying solely on RSS or TOA measurements. This enhancement in localization accuracy in ISAC systems holds promise in the intricate urban landscape of smart cities, offering substantial contributions to infrastructure optimization and service efficiency. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3237 KiB  
Article
Reduction in Data Imbalance for Client-Side Training in Federated Learning for the Prediction of Stock Market Prices
by Momina Shaheen, Muhammad Shoaib Farooq and Tariq Umer
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2024, 13(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan13010001 - 21 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1433
Abstract
The approach of federated learning (FL) addresses significant challenges, including access rights, privacy, security, and the availability of diverse data. However, edge devices produce and collect data in a non-independent and identically distributed (non-IID) manner. Therefore, it is possible that the number of [...] Read more.
The approach of federated learning (FL) addresses significant challenges, including access rights, privacy, security, and the availability of diverse data. However, edge devices produce and collect data in a non-independent and identically distributed (non-IID) manner. Therefore, it is possible that the number of data samples may vary among the edge devices. This study elucidates an approach for implementing FL to achieve a balance between training accuracy and imbalanced data. This approach entails the implementation of data augmentation in data distribution by utilizing class estimation and by balancing on the client side during local training. Secondly, simple linear regression is utilized for model training at the client side to manage the optimal computation cost to achieve a reduction in computation cost. To validate the proposed approach, the technique was applied to a stock market dataset comprising stocks (AAL, ADBE, ASDK, and BSX) to predict the day-to-day values of stocks. The proposed approach has demonstrated favorable results, exhibiting a strong fit of 0.95 and above with a low error rate. The R-squared values, predominantly ranging from 0.97 to 0.98, indicate the model’s effectiveness in capturing variations in stock prices. Strong fits are observed within 75 to 80 iterations for stocks displaying consistently high R-squared values, signifying accuracy. On the 100th iteration, the declining MSE, MAE, and RMSE (AAL at 122.03, 4.89, 11.04, respectively; ADBE at 457.35, 17.79, and 21.38, respectively; ASDK at 182.78, 5.81, 13.51, respectively; and BSX at 34.50, 4.87, 5.87, respectively) values corroborated the positive results of the proposed approach with minimal data loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Federated Learning: Applications and Future Directions)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop