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J. Clin. Med., Volume 11, Issue 8 (April-2 2022) – 204 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a progressively debilitating disease. ATTR-CM occurs when TTR amyloid protein builds up in the myocardium along with different organs. To date, tafamidis is the only agent approved for ATTR-CM treatment. Furthermore, several agents, including green tea, tolcapone, and diflunisal, are used off-label in ATTR-CM patients. Novel therapies using RNA interference also offer clinical promise. Patisiran and inotersen are currently approved for ATTR-polyneuropathy of hereditary origin. Monoclonal antibodies in the early development phases carry hope for amyloid deposit clearance. This review describes current and future therapies for ATTR-CM and sheds light on the clinical development hurdles facing them. View this paper
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8 pages, 1489 KiB  
Article
Combined Stimulation of the Substantia Nigra and the Subthalamic Nucleus for the Treatment of Refractory Gait Disturbances in Parkinson’s Disease: A Preliminary Study
by Marta Villadóniga, Lidia Cabañes-Martínez, Laura López-Viñas, Samira Fanjul, Marta del Álamo and Ignacio Regidor
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2269; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082269 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2329
Abstract
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is efficient for the treatment of motor symptoms (i.e., tremors) in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Gait disorders usually appear during advanced stages of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease in up to 80% of patients and have an important [...] Read more.
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is efficient for the treatment of motor symptoms (i.e., tremors) in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Gait disorders usually appear during advanced stages of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease in up to 80% of patients and have an important impact on their quality of life. The effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on gait and balance are still controversial. For this reason, alternative targets have been considered, such as stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus and the pars reticulata of substantia nigra, involved in the integration of the functional connections for gait. Due to the proximity of the subthalamic nucleus to the substantia nigra, their combined stimulation is feasible and may lead to better outcomes, improving axial symptoms. Our objective was to prospectively compare simultaneous stimulation of both structures versus conventional subthalamic stimulation in improving gait disorders. In ten patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease, deep brain stimulation leads (eight linear contacts) were implanted, and gait analysis was performed 6 months after surgery in off-stimulation and after 4 weeks of dual or single subthalamic stimulation. An improvement in gait parameters was confirmed with both stimulation conditions, with better results with combined substantia nigra and subthalamic stimulation compared with conventional subthalamic stimulation. Further studies are needed to determine if this effect remains after long-term dual-target stimulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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7 pages, 226 KiB  
Article
Serum Asprosin Concentrations in Children with Prader–Willi Syndrome: Correlations with Metabolic Parameters
by Maha Alsaif, Catherine J. Field, Eloisa Colin-Ramirez, Carla M. Prado and Andrea M. Haqq
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2268; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082268 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Children with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) are characterized by severe obesity. Asprosin is a newly discovered protein hormone produced by the white adipose tissue and is correlated with insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to describe the concentrations of serum asprosin in [...] Read more.
Children with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) are characterized by severe obesity. Asprosin is a newly discovered protein hormone produced by the white adipose tissue and is correlated with insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to describe the concentrations of serum asprosin in children with PWS compared to those with overweight/obesity and normal weight, and to explore the postprandial change in asprosin concentrations in participants with PWS and BMI-z matched controls. We enrolled 52 children, 23 with PWS, 8 with overweight/obesity, and 21 with normal weight. Fasting levels of asprosin, glucose, and insulin were collected in all children, and postprandial asprosin and fasting levels of acyl ghrelin (AG) and leptin were also determined in a subsample of participants. There were no significant differences among groups in fasting levels of asprosin, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Fasting serum asprosin and 1-h post-meal serum asprosin did not differ in children with PWS nor in BMI-z matched controls. Fasting asprosin showed an adjusted positive correlation with glucose in children with obesity (r = 0.93, p = 0.007) but not in children with PWS nor children with normal weight. Circulating asprosin might be a predictor of early alterations in glucose metabolism in children with obesity. More research is needed to further explain the association between asprosin, food intake, metabolism, and obesity in PWS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases: Prader-Willi Syndrome)
16 pages, 1954 KiB  
Article
Classification of Chemotherapy-Related Subjective Cognitive Complaints in Breast Cancer Using Brain Functional Connectivity and Activity: A Machine Learning Analysis
by Lei Wang, Yanyan Zhu, Lin Wu, Ying Zhuang, Jinsheng Zeng and Fuqing Zhou
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2267; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082267 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
The aim of this study was combining multi-level resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) features with machine learning method to distinguish breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-related subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) from non-chemotherapy (BC) and healthy controls (HC). Forty subjects in SCC group, forty-nine [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was combining multi-level resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) features with machine learning method to distinguish breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-related subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) from non-chemotherapy (BC) and healthy controls (HC). Forty subjects in SCC group, forty-nine in BC group and thirty-four in HC group were recruited and underwent rs-fMRI scanning. Based on the anatomical automatic labeling brain atlas, the functional metrics of all subjects included functional connectivity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation and fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation, regional homogeneity, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity and degree centrality were calculated and extracted as features set. Then, the rs-fMRI features were selected by two-sample t-test, removing variables with a high pairwise correlation and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression. Finally, the support vector machine models were built for classification (SCC vs. BC, SCC vs. HC). Thirty-eight features (SCC vs. BC) and seventeen features (SCC vs. HC) were selected separately, and the accuracy of the models were 82.0% and 91.9%, respectively. These findings demonstrated a valid machine learning approach that effectively distinguished breast cancer patients with chemotherapy-related SCC from non-chemotherapy and healthy controls, providing potential neuroimaging evidence for early diagnosis and clinical intervention of chemotherapy-related SCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Computational Neuroradiology and AI in Neuroradiology)
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9 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Vertebral Osteomyelitis and Infective Endocarditis Co-Infection
by Tadatsugu Morimoto, Hirohito Hirata, Koji Otani, Eiichiro Nakamura, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Yoshinori Terashima, Kanichiro Wada, Takaomi Kobayashi, Masatoshi Murayama, Masatsugu Tsukamoto and Masaaki Mawatari
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2266; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082266 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
Many cases of vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) and infective endocarditis (IE) co-infection have been reported, and it has been recognized that attention should be paid to the possibility of both diseases co-existing during diagnosis and treatment. However, the incidence, clinical status, and outcomes of [...] Read more.
Many cases of vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) and infective endocarditis (IE) co-infection have been reported, and it has been recognized that attention should be paid to the possibility of both diseases co-existing during diagnosis and treatment. However, the incidence, clinical status, and outcomes of IE in patients with VO remain unclear. For this study, the eligibility criteria for patient recruitment included all cases of VO at the five medical university hospitals. Patients with a history of spinal surgery were excluded from this study. Echocardiography was routinely performed for all patients with VO. IE was diagnosed according to the modified Duke criteria for definite endocarditis. We analyzed demographic data, underlying conditions, clinical features, laboratory data, echocardiography, radiologic images, treatments, and outcomes. VO was diagnosed in 59 patients and IE was diagnosed in seven patients (12%). There were no significant differences in the clinical features, microorganisms, or radiographic status between the VO-IE co-infection and VO-only groups. In this study, using routine echocardiography for VO, the IE prevalence was 12%. The lack of specific clinical features and laboratory findings may hamper the diagnosis of IE. Therefore, clinicians are always required to suspect IE in patients with VO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Diagnosis and Treatment of Spinal Infections)
33 pages, 3716 KiB  
Review
Clinical Applications of Artificial Intelligence—An Updated Overview
by Ștefan Busnatu, Adelina-Gabriela Niculescu, Alexandra Bolocan, George E. D. Petrescu, Dan Nicolae Păduraru, Iulian Năstasă, Mircea Lupușoru, Marius Geantă, Octavian Andronic, Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu and Henrique Martins
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2265; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082265 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 7238
Abstract
Artificial intelligence has the potential to revolutionize modern society in all its aspects. Encouraged by the variety and vast amount of data that can be gathered from patients (e.g., medical images, text, and electronic health records), researchers have recently increased their interest in [...] Read more.
Artificial intelligence has the potential to revolutionize modern society in all its aspects. Encouraged by the variety and vast amount of data that can be gathered from patients (e.g., medical images, text, and electronic health records), researchers have recently increased their interest in developing AI solutions for clinical care. Moreover, a diverse repertoire of methods can be chosen towards creating performant models for use in medical applications, ranging from disease prediction, diagnosis, and prognosis to opting for the most appropriate treatment for an individual patient. In this respect, the present paper aims to review the advancements reported at the convergence of AI and clinical care. Thus, this work presents AI clinical applications in a comprehensive manner, discussing the recent literature studies classified according to medical specialties. In addition, the challenges and limitations hindering AI integration in the clinical setting are further pointed out. Full article
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19 pages, 2916 KiB  
Article
Prediction of Poststroke Depression Based on the Outcomes of Machine Learning Algorithms
by Yeong Hwan Ryu, Seo Young Kim, Tae Uk Kim, Seong Jae Lee, Soo Jun Park, Ho-Youl Jung and Jung Keun Hyun
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082264 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2622
Abstract
Poststroke depression (PSD) is a major psychiatric disorder that develops after stroke; however, whether PSD treatment improves cognitive and functional impairments is not clearly understood. We reviewed data from 31 subjects with PSD and 34 age-matched controls without PSD; all subjects underwent neurological, [...] Read more.
Poststroke depression (PSD) is a major psychiatric disorder that develops after stroke; however, whether PSD treatment improves cognitive and functional impairments is not clearly understood. We reviewed data from 31 subjects with PSD and 34 age-matched controls without PSD; all subjects underwent neurological, cognitive, and functional assessments, including the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the Korean version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE), computerized neurocognitive test (CNT), the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), and functional independence measure (FIM) at admission to the rehabilitation unit in the subacute stage following stroke and 4 weeks after initial assessments. Machine learning methods, such as support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors, random forest, voting ensemble models, and statistical analysis using logistic regression were performed. PSD was successfully predicted using a support vector machine with a radial basis function kernel function (area under curve (AUC) = 0.711, accuracy = 0.700). PSD prognoses could be predicted using a support vector machine linear algorithm (AUC = 0.830, accuracy = 0.771). The statistical method did not have a better AUC than that of machine learning algorithms. We concluded that the occurrence and prognosis of PSD in stroke patients can be predicted effectively based on patients’ cognitive and functional statuses using machine learning algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ehealth, Telemedicine and AI in Clinical Medicine)
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14 pages, 631 KiB  
Article
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Is Related to Vascular Endothelial Injury and Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction
by Jerzy Dropiński, Radosław Dziedzic, Agnieszka Kubicka-Trząska, Bożena Romanowska-Dixon, Teresa Iwaniec, Lech Zaręba, Jan G. Bazan, Agnieszka Padjas and Stanisława Bazan-Socha
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2263; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082263 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2830
Abstract
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an emergency state characterized by sudden, painless vision impairment. Patients with CRAO have an increased risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke, likely related to vascular endothelial damage. Therefore, we investigated flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery [...] Read more.
Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is an emergency state characterized by sudden, painless vision impairment. Patients with CRAO have an increased risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke, likely related to vascular endothelial damage. Therefore, we investigated flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery as a marker of endothelial dysfunction, intima-media complex thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery, pointing to the arterial wall atherosclerotic alteration, and transthoracic echocardiographic parameters in 126 consecutive CRAO patients (66 men [52.4%], median age 55 years) and 107 control participants (56 men [52.3%], matched by age, sex, and body mass index). Most CRAO patients (n = 104, 82.5%) had at least one internal medicine comorbidity, mainly hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, which coexisted in one-fourth of them. Furthermore, they had a 38.2% lower relative increase of FMD (FMD%) and a 23.1% thicker IMT compared to the controls (p < 0.001, both, also after adjustment for potential confounders). On echocardiography, the CRAO group was characterized by increased dimensions of the left atrium and thicker left ventricular walls, together with impaired left ventricular diastolic function. CRAO is related to vascular endothelial damage, atherosclerosis, and left ventricular diastolic cardiac dysfunction. Thus, non-invasive ultrasound assessments, such as FMD%, IMT, and echocardiography, may be helpful in screening patients with increased CRAO risk, particularly those with other comorbidities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ophthalmology)
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14 pages, 2015 KiB  
Review
The Role of the Immune System in Pediatric Burns: A Systematic Review
by Tomasz Korzeniowski, Paulina Mertowska, Sebastian Mertowski, Martyna Podgajna, Ewelina Grywalska, Jerzy Strużyna and Kamil Torres
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2262; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082262 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2659
Abstract
Burns are one of the most common causes of home injuries, characterized by serious damage to the skin and causing the death of affected tissues. In this review, we intended to collect information on the pathophysiological effects of burns in pediatric patients, with [...] Read more.
Burns are one of the most common causes of home injuries, characterized by serious damage to the skin and causing the death of affected tissues. In this review, we intended to collect information on the pathophysiological effects of burns in pediatric patients, with particular emphasis on local and systemic responses. A total of 92 articles were included in the review, and the time range of the searched articles was from 2000 to 2021. The occurrence of thermal injuries is a problem that requires special attention in pediatric patients who are still developing. Their exposure to various burns may cause disturbances in the immune response, not only in the area of tissue damage itself but also by disrupting the systemic immune response. The aspect of immunological mechanisms in burns requires further research, and in particular, it is important to focus on younger patients as the existence of subtle differences in wound healing between adults and children may significantly influence the treatment of pediatric patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Challenges and Advances in Skin Repair and Regeneration)
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11 pages, 1030 KiB  
Article
Clinical Safety of Expanded Hemodialysis Compared with Hemodialysis Using High-Flux Dialyzer during a Three-Year Cohort
by Nam-Jun Cho, Seung-Hyun Jeong, Ka Young Lee, Jin Young Yu, Samel Park, Eun Young Lee and Hyo-Wook Gil
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2261; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082261 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1880
Abstract
Expanded hemodialysis (HD) equipped with a medium cut-off (MCO) membrane provides superior removal of larger middle molecules. However, there is still little research on the long-term benefits of expanded HD. Over a three-year period, this observational study evaluated the efficacy and safety profile [...] Read more.
Expanded hemodialysis (HD) equipped with a medium cut-off (MCO) membrane provides superior removal of larger middle molecules. However, there is still little research on the long-term benefits of expanded HD. Over a three-year period, this observational study evaluated the efficacy and safety profile of expanded HD for inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6. We conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the inflammatory cytokine changes and a retrospective observational cohort study to investigate long-term clinical efficacy and safety over a three-year period. We categorized the patients according to dialyzer used: MCO and high-flux (HF) dialyzer. The inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, were measured annually. The concentrations and changes of the four cytokines over time did not differ between the HF group (n = 15) and MCO group (n = 27). In both prospective and retrospective (HF group, n = 38; MCO group, n = 76) cohorts, there were no significant differences in either death, cardiovascular events, infections, or hospitalizations. Furthermore, the temporal changes in laboratory values, including serum albumin and erythropoietin prescriptions, did not differ significantly between the two groups in either the prospective or retrospective cohorts. In conclusion, clinical efficacy and safety outcomes, as well as inflammatory cytokines, did not differ with expanded HD compared with HF dialysis during a three-year treatment course, although the level of inflammatory cytokine was stable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology)
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11 pages, 1749 KiB  
Article
Survival in Korean Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia Syndrome: Association with Behavioral Features and Parkinsonism
by Na-Yeon Jung, Kee Hyung Park, Sang Won Seo, Hee Jin Kim, Jee Hoon Roh, Jae-Hong Lee, Kyung Won Park, Jay C. Kwon, Jee Hyang Jeong, Soo Jin Yoon, Byeong C. Kim, Young Ho Park, SangYun Kim, Jae-Won Jang, Young Chul Youn, Dong Won Yang, Seong Hye Choi, Duk L. Na and Eun-Joo Kim
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2260; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082260 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2145
Abstract
We investigated the survival time of each clinical syndrome of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and the impacts of behavioral and motor features on survival of FTD. A total of 216 patients with FTD [82 behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD), 78 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia [...] Read more.
We investigated the survival time of each clinical syndrome of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and the impacts of behavioral and motor features on survival of FTD. A total of 216 patients with FTD [82 behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD), 78 semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), 43 non-fluent/agrammatic variant PPA (nfvPPA), 13 FTD-motor neuron disease (MND)] were enrolled from 16 centers across Korea. Behaviors and parkinsonism were assessed using the Frontal Behavioral Inventory and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part III, respectively. The Kaplan–Meier method was used for the survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model was applied for analysis of the effect of behavioral and motor symptoms on survival, after controlling vascular risk factors and cancer. An overall median survival of FTD was 12.1 years. The survival time from onset was shortest for FTD-MND and longest for svPPA. The median survival time of patients with bvFTD was unavailable but likely comparable to that of patients with nfvPPA. In the bvFTD group, negative behavioral symptoms and akinetic rigidity were significantly associated with survival. In the nfvPPA group, the presence of dysarthria had a negative impact on survival. These findings provide useful information to clinicians planning for care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases and Stroke)
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10 pages, 4455 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Aortic Geometry on TAVI Prosthesis Positioning Using Self-Expanding Valves
by Philipp Breitbart, Martin Czerny, Jan Minners, Holger Schröfel, Franz-Josef Neumann and Philipp Ruile
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2259; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082259 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1658
Abstract
Background: The impact of transcatheter heart valve (THV) position on the occurrence of paravalvular leakage and permanent pacemaker implantation caused by new-onset conduction disturbances is well described. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the geometry of the thoracic [...] Read more.
Background: The impact of transcatheter heart valve (THV) position on the occurrence of paravalvular leakage and permanent pacemaker implantation caused by new-onset conduction disturbances is well described. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the geometry of the thoracic aorta on the implantation depth after TAVI (transcatheter heart valve implantation) using self-expanding valve (SEV) types. Methods: We evaluated three-dimensional geometry of the thoracic aorta based on computed tomography angiography (CTA) in 104 subsequently patients receiving TAVI with SEV devices (Evolut R). Prosthesis position was determined using the fusion imaging method of pre- and post-procedural CTA. An implantation depth of ≥4 mm was defined as the cut-off value for low prosthesis position. Results: The mean implantation depth of the THV in the whole cohort was 4.3 ± 3.0 mm below annulus plane. THV position was low in 66 (63.5%) patients and high in 38 (36.5%) patients. After multivariate adjustment none of the aortic geometry characteristics showed an independent influence on the prosthesis position—neither the Sinus of Valsalva area (p = 0.335) nor the proximal aortic arch diameter (p = 0.754) or the distance from annulus to descending aorta (p = 0.309). Conclusion: The geometry of the thoracic aorta showed no influence on the positioning of self-expanding TAVI valve types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Perspective for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement)
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12 pages, 1221 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Efficacy and Effects of Common Hepatic Artery Reconstruction in Pancreas Transplantation: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Naohiro Aida, Taihei Ito, Kei Kurihara, Izumi Hiratsuka, Megumi Shibata, Atsushi Suzuki and Takashi Kenmochi
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2258; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082258 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Maintenance of postoperative graft flow is important in pancreas transplantation. In Japan, reconstruction of the common hepatic artery is performed primarily to increase perfusion in the pancreatic head. We investigated the effects of common hepatic artery reconstruction on patient and graft survival and [...] Read more.
Maintenance of postoperative graft flow is important in pancreas transplantation. In Japan, reconstruction of the common hepatic artery is performed primarily to increase perfusion in the pancreatic head. We investigated the effects of common hepatic artery reconstruction on patient and graft survival and endocrine functions. Twenty-nine cases of pancreas transplantation were registered in the clinical trial. Of the 29 cases, four were excluded because of the risk of ischemia without reconstruction or complicated reconstruction due to a narrow artery. A total of 25 cases were randomized into two groups: 13 in the non-reconstructed group and 12 in the reconstructed group. The 1-year patient survival and graft survival rates of the non-reconstructed and reconstructed groups were 92.3% and 83.3%, and 91.7% and 82.5%, respectively. The incidence of complications in the two groups was comparable, with 38.5% (5/13 cases) in the non-reconstructed group and 33.3% (4/12 cases) in the reconstructed group. The results of the glucagon stimulation test and oral glucose tolerance test at 1 month and 1 year post-transplantation were comparable. Common hepatic artery reconstruction is not essential unless there is risk of ischemia. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry under UMIN000027213. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art in Pancreatic Surgery)
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15 pages, 717 KiB  
Article
Cochlear Implantation Improves Both Speech Perception and Patient-Reported Outcomes: A Prospective Follow-Up Study of Treatment Benefits among Adult Cochlear Implant Recipients
by Kasper Møller Boje Rasmussen, Niels Cramer West, Michael Bille, Matilde Grønborg Sandvej and Per Cayé-Thomasen
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2257; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082257 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2417
Abstract
Cochlear implantation is considered the best treatment option for patients with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss for whom conventional hearing aids are insufficient. We used a repeated measures longitudinal approach to evaluate speech recognition and patient-reported outcomes after cochlear implantation in an unbiased cohort [...] Read more.
Cochlear implantation is considered the best treatment option for patients with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss for whom conventional hearing aids are insufficient. We used a repeated measures longitudinal approach to evaluate speech recognition and patient-reported outcomes after cochlear implantation in an unbiased cohort of Danish adult patients in a prospective cohort study. We assessed 39 recipients before and two times after implantation using a battery of tests that included Dantale I, the Danish Hearing in Noise Test, the Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire, and the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale. The study group improved significantly on all outcome measures following implantation. On average, Dantale I scores improved by 29 percentage points and Hearing in Noise Test scores improved by 22 percentage points. Most notably, the average Dantale score improved from 26 to 70% in the CI in quiet condition and from 12 to 42% in the cochlear implantation in noise condition when tested monaurally. Dantale demonstrated a significant positive correlation with Nijmegen Cochlear Implant Questionnaire and Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale scores, while Hearing in Noise Test had no significant correlation with the patient-reported outcome measures. Patients improved significantly at 4 months and marginally improved further at 14 months, indicating that they were approaching a plateau. Our study’s use of audiometric and patient-reported outcome measures provides evidence of the treatment benefits of cochlear implantation in adults, which may help physicians advise patients on treatment decisions and align treatment benefit expectations, as well as serve as a foundation for the development of new cochlear implantation selection criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cochlear Implantation and Hearing Rehabilitation)
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11 pages, 1322 KiB  
Article
Usefulness of Multi-Organ Point-of-Care Ultrasound as a Complement to the Decision-Making Process in Internal Medicine
by Irene Casado-López, Yale Tung-Chen, Marta Torres-Arrese, Davide Luordo-Tedesco, Arantzazu Mata-Martínez, Jose Manuel Casas-Rojo, Esther Montero-Hernández and Gonzalo García De Casasola-Sánchez
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082256 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4163
Abstract
Accumulated data show the utility of diagnostic multi-organ point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) in the assessment of patients admitted to an internal medicine ward. We assessed whether multi-organ PoCUS (lung, cardiac, and abdomen) provides relevant diagnostic and/or therapeutic information in patients admitted for any reason [...] Read more.
Accumulated data show the utility of diagnostic multi-organ point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) in the assessment of patients admitted to an internal medicine ward. We assessed whether multi-organ PoCUS (lung, cardiac, and abdomen) provides relevant diagnostic and/or therapeutic information in patients admitted for any reason to an internal medicine ward. We conducted a prospective, observational, and single-center study, at a secondary hospital. Multi-organ PoCUS was performed during the first 24 h of admission. The sonographer had access to the patients’ medical history, physical examination, and basic complementary tests performed in the Emergency Department (laboratory, X-ray, electrocardiogram). We considered a relevant ultrasound finding if it implied a significant diagnostic and/or therapeutic change. In the second semester of 2019, we enrolled 310 patients, 48.7% were male and the mean age was 70.5 years. Relevant ultrasound findings were detected in 86 patients (27.7%) and in 60 (19.3%) triggered a therapeutic change. These findings were associated with an older age (Mantel–Haenszel χ2 = 25.6; p < 0.001) and higher degree of dependency (Mantel–Haenszel χ2 = 5.7; p = 0.017). Multi-organ PoCUS provides relevant diagnostic information, complementing traditional physical examination, and facilitates therapy adjustment, regardless of the cause of admission. Multi-organ PoCUS to be useful need to be systematically integrated into the decision-making process in internal medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nuclear Medicine & Radiology)
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11 pages, 776 KiB  
Article
Impact of Deprivation on Obesity in Children with PWS
by Sabrina Grolleau, Marine Delagrange, Melina Souquiere, Catherine Molinas, Gwenaëlle Diene, Marion Valette and Maithé Tauber
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082255 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1696
Abstract
Our study aimed to evaluate the social deprivation score in families with a child with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and analyze its impact on the occurrence of obesity in the affected child. We included 147 children with PWS followed in our reference center with [...] Read more.
Our study aimed to evaluate the social deprivation score in families with a child with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and analyze its impact on the occurrence of obesity in the affected child. We included 147 children with PWS followed in our reference center with Evaluation of the Deprivation and Inequalities of Health in Healthcare Centres by the EPICES score. Deprivation (EPICES ≥ 30) was found in 25.9% of the population. Compared with the non-obese children, children with obesity had more deprived families, 50.0 vs. 18.0% (p = 0.0001); were older, with a median of 10.1 vs. 6.0 years (p = 0.0006); were less frequently treated with growth hormone (GH), 80.6 vs. 91.9% (p = 0.07). The mothers of obese children were more frequently obese, 46.9 vs. 13.3% (p < 0.0001), and achieved high study levels less frequently (≥Bac+2), 40.9 vs. 70.1% (p = 0.012). The multivariate logistic regression indicated that age, living in a deprived family, and having a mother with overweight/obesity were significantly associated with an increased risk of obesity (respectively, OR = 3.31 (1.26–8.73) and OR = 6.76 (2.36–19.37)). The same risk factors of obesity observed in the general population were found in children with PWS. Families at risk, including social deprivation, will require early identification and a reinforced approach to prevent obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases: Prader-Willi Syndrome)
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13 pages, 2460 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Comparison of Subxiphoid and Intercostal Wound Pain in the Same Patients Following Thoracoscopic Surgery
by Yu-Wei Liu, Shah-Hwa Chou, Andre Chou and Chieh-Ni Kao
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082254 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2234
Abstract
There is a lack of data comparing postoperative pain after subxiphoid and intercostal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Pain is an individual’s subjective experience and, therefore, difficult to compare between different individuals subjected to either procedure. This study assessed reported pain at six postoperative [...] Read more.
There is a lack of data comparing postoperative pain after subxiphoid and intercostal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Pain is an individual’s subjective experience and, therefore, difficult to compare between different individuals subjected to either procedure. This study assessed reported pain at six postoperative time points in the same patients receiving both subxiphoid and intercostal incisions for thoracic disease. Data from 44 patients who received simultaneous combined intercostal and subxiphoid VATS were retrospectively analyzed from August 2019 to July 2021. All patients received the same length of subxiphoid and intercostal incisions with or without drain placements. A numerical pain rating scale was administered on postoperative days (POD)-1, POD-2, POD-Discharge, POD-30, POD-90, and POD-180. Bilateral uniportal VATS was performed in 11 patients, and unilateral multiportal VATS was performed in 33 patients. In the unilateral VATS group, there were no differences in pain reported for both incisions in the early postoperative period. However, in the bilateral VATS group, subxiphoid wounds resulted in significantly higher pain scores on POD-1, POD-2, and POD-Discharge (p = 0.0003, 0.001, and 0.03, respectively). Higher late (3 and 6 months) postoperative pain was associated with intercostal incisions in both groups, as previously reported, whereas higher early (day 1, 2, and discharge) postoperative pain was more associated with subxiphoid incisions than intercostal incisions in the bilateral VATS group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Research Advances of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery)
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10 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Impact of Female Sex on Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Ten-Year Retrospective Nationwide Study in France
by Fabien Lareyre, Juliette Raffort, Christian-Alexander Behrendt, Arindam Chaudhuri, Cong Duy Lê, Roxane Fabre, Christian Pradier and Laurent Bailly
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082253 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
The impact of sex on the outcomes of patients with cardiovascular disease is still incompletely understood. The aim of this nationwide multicenter observational study was to investigate the impact of sex on post-operative outcomes in patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for [...] Read more.
The impact of sex on the outcomes of patients with cardiovascular disease is still incompletely understood. The aim of this nationwide multicenter observational study was to investigate the impact of sex on post-operative outcomes in patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) for intact thoracic aortic aneurysm (iTAA). The French National Health Insurance Information System was searched to identify these patients over a ten-year retrospective period. Post-operative outcomes, 30-day and overall mortality were recorded. Among the 7383 patients included (5521 men and 1862 women), females were significantly older than males (66.8 vs. 64.8 years, p < 0.001). They were less frequently diagnosed with cardiovascular comorbidities. Post-operatively, women had less frequently respiratory (10.9 vs. 13.7%, p = 0.002) as well as cardiac complications (34.3 vs. 37.3%, p = 0.023), but they had more frequently arterial complications (52.8 vs. 49.8%, p = 0.024). There was no significant difference on overall mortality for a mean follow-up of 2.2 years (26.9 vs. 27.6%, p = 0.58). In the multivariable regression model, female sex was not associated with 30-day or overall mortality. Although women had a favorable comorbidity profile, the short-term and long-term survival was similar. The significantly higher rate of arterial complications suggests that women may be at higher risk of access-vessel-related complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiovascular Medicine)
9 pages, 816 KiB  
Article
Effects of Pre-Donated Autologous Blood Transfusion on Peri-Operative Hemoglobin Concentration and Mid-Term Health Outcomes in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty
by Jun Tomura, Daichi Morikawa, Masahiko Nozawa, Muneaki Ishijima and Sung-Gon Kim
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082252 - 18 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1639
Abstract
The effects of auto-BT in primary TKA on the perioperative hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and mid-term health outcomes are unknown. This study was performed to analyze the detailed changes in the perioperative Hb concentration before and after the operation (days 0–14 postoperatively), cardiovascular events, [...] Read more.
The effects of auto-BT in primary TKA on the perioperative hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and mid-term health outcomes are unknown. This study was performed to analyze the detailed changes in the perioperative Hb concentration before and after the operation (days 0–14 postoperatively), cardiovascular events, and mortality rate within 1 and 5 years postoperatively. One hundred patients undergoing primary TKA with auto-BT using 800 mL of preoperatively collected blood at the authors’ institution were included. The mean Hb concentration before and after autologous blood collection was 12.7 ± 1.1 and 11.7 ± 1.2 g/dL, respectively. After primary TKA with auto-BT, the mean Hb concentration on day 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 was 10.2 ± 1.2, 9.9 ± 1.2, 10.4 ± 1.3, 10.5 ± 1.3, and 11.0 ± 1.3 g/dL, respectively. Only one (1%) patient required additional allogenic blood transfusion. No patients developed cardiovascular events, and the 1- and 5-year postoperative mortality rate was 1.0% and 2.0%, respectively. Primary TKA with auto-BT showed relatively small perioperative changes in the Hb concentration, a low incidence of cardiovascular events, and a low mortality rate within 1 and 5 years postoperatively. These findings suggest that auto-BT, in which blood is preoperatively collected, is beneficial for patient safety and health, even if its cost-effectiveness may be debatable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art and Research on Joint Arthroplasties)
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13 pages, 10200 KiB  
Article
Case Series on the Long-Term Effect of Three Different Types of Maxillary Implant-Supported Overdentures on Clinical Outcomes and Complications
by Emitis Natali Naeini, Hugo De Bruyn, Ewald M. Bronkhorst and Jan D’haese
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2251; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082251 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
(1) Long-term data on maxillary implant overdentures (IODs) are scarce. This case series evaluated three types of IODs supported by six, four or three implants (Anyridge®, Mega’Gen Implant Co., Ltd., Daegu, South-Korea), after 3–5 years in function. (2) A total of [...] Read more.
(1) Long-term data on maxillary implant overdentures (IODs) are scarce. This case series evaluated three types of IODs supported by six, four or three implants (Anyridge®, Mega’Gen Implant Co., Ltd., Daegu, South-Korea), after 3–5 years in function. (2) A total of 31 patients, with 132 implants, were non-randomly allocated based on available bone or financial limitations. IOD-6 received a telescopic overdenture; IOD-4 a bar; and IOD-3, non-connected implants with locator abutments. Implant survival, bone level changes, probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), and technical, biological and aesthetic complications were registered. Impact of suprastructures on bone loss and PPD was analyzed using mixed-effect linear regression models. Differences between groups were analyzed using the ANOVA test for BOP, and Kruskal Wallis test for complications. (3) In total, 23 patients participated in the follow-up (9 female, 14 male), with average age of 62.2 years; 7, 11 and 5 patients in IOD-6, IOD-4 and IOD-3, respectively. Implant survival after 4.4 years on average, was 98% in total; 100%, 97.8% and 93.3% for IOD-6, IOD-4 and IOD-3, respectively. Mean bone loss corresponded to 0.68 mm (SD 1.06, range −4.57–1.51), 0.39 mm (SD 1.06, range −3.6–2.43), and 1.42 mm (SD 1.68, range −5.11–0.74) for IOD-6, IOD-4 and IOD-3, respectively. A statistically significant difference was seen in bone level when comparing IOD-6 to IOD-3 (p = 0.044), and IOD-4 to IOD-3 (p = 0.018). Mean PPD was 3.8 mm (SD: 0.69; range 2.5–5.3), 3.5 mm (SD 0.59; range 2.33–5), and 3.2 mm (SD 0.56; range 2–4) for IOD-6, IOD-4 and IOD-3, respectively, and differed significantly between IOD-6 and IOD-3 (p = 0.029). Incidence of peri-implantitis was 1%. No differences were seen for complications between groups. (4) Maxillary IOD supported by four to six implants is the most reliable treatment regarding implant survival and peri-implant health. More research is needed in the clinical outcomes, in particular the peri-implant health, and complications of maxillary IODs, especially with a reduced number of implants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Restorative Dentistry: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives)
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14 pages, 500 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on the Course of COVID-19
by Katarzyna Wilk-Sledziewska, Piotr Jan Sielatycki, Natalia Uscinska, Elżbieta Bujno, Mariusz Rosolowski, Katarzyna Kakareko, Rafal Sledziewski, Alicja Rydzewska-Rosolowska, Tomasz Hryszko and Edyta Zbroch
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2250; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082250 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2660
Abstract
Aim of the study: The aim of our review is to indicate and discuss the impact of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes, lipid profile, hypertension and smoking on the course and mortality of COVID-19 infection. Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) [...] Read more.
Aim of the study: The aim of our review is to indicate and discuss the impact of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes, lipid profile, hypertension and smoking on the course and mortality of COVID-19 infection. Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is spreading around the world and becoming a major public health crisis. All coronaviruses are known to affect the cardiovascular system. There is a strong correlation between cardiovascular risk factors and severe clinical complications, including death in COVID-19 patients. All the above-mentioned risk factors are widespread and constitute a significant worldwide health problem. Some of them are modifiable and the awareness of their connection with the COVID-19 progress may have a crucial impact on the current and possible upcoming infection. Data collection: We searched for research papers describing the impact of selected cardiovascular risk factors on the course, severity, complications and mortality of COVID-19 infection form PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Using terms, for example: “COVID-19 cardiovascular disease mortality”, “COVID-19 hypertension/diabetes mellitus/obesity/dyslipidemia”, “cardiovascular risk factors COVID-19 mortality” and other related terms listed in each subtitle. The publications were selected according to the time of their publications between January 2020 and December 2021. From the PubMed database we obtain 1552 results. Further studies were sought by manually searching reference lists of the relevant articles. Relevant articles were selected based on their title, abstract or full text. Articles were excluded if they were clearly related to another subject matter or were not published in English. The types of articles are mainly randomized controlled trial and systematic review. An additional criterion used by researchers was co-morbidities and age of patients in study groups. From a review of the publications, 105 of them were selected for this work with all subheadings included. Findings and Results: The intention of this review was to summarize current knowledge about comorbidities and development of COVID-19 infection. We tried to focus on the course and mortality of the abovementioned virus disease in patients with concomitant CV risk factors. Unfortunately, we were unable to assess the quality of data in screened papers and studies we choose because of the heterogenicity of the groups. The conducted studies had different endpoints and included different groups of patients in terms of nationality, age, race and clinical status. We decide to divide the main subjects of the research into separately described subtitles such as obesity, lipid profile, hypertension, diabetes, smoking. We believe that the studies we included and gathered are very interesting and show modern and present-day clinical data and approaches to COVID-19 infection in specific divisions of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases)
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12 pages, 1616 KiB  
Article
Corneal Confocal Microscopy Identifies People with Type 1 Diabetes with More Rapid Corneal Nerve Fibre Loss and Progression of Neuropathy
by Uazman Alam, Georgios Ponirakis, Omar Asghar, Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Shazli Azmi, Maria Jeziorska, Andrew Marshall, Andrew J. M. Boulton, Nathan Efron and Rayaz A. Malik
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082249 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1863
Abstract
There is a need to accurately identify patients with diabetes at higher risk of developing and progressing diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Fifty subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and sixteen age matched healthy controls underwent detailed neuropathy assessments including symptoms, signs, quantitative [...] Read more.
There is a need to accurately identify patients with diabetes at higher risk of developing and progressing diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Fifty subjects with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and sixteen age matched healthy controls underwent detailed neuropathy assessments including symptoms, signs, quantitative sensory testing (QST), nerve conduction studies (NCS), intra epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) and corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Overall, people with type 1 diabetes mellitus showed no significant change in HbA1c, blood pressure, lipids or neuropathic symptoms, signs, QST, neurophysiology, IENFD and CCM over 2 years. However, a sub-group (n = 11, 22%) referred to as progressors, demonstrated rapid corneal nerve fiber loss (RCNFL) with a reduction in corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD) (p = 0.0006), branch density (CNBD) (p = 0.0002), fiber length (CNFL) (p = 0.0002) and sural (p = 0.04) and peroneal (p = 0.05) nerve conduction velocities, which was not related to a change in HbA1c or cardiovascular risk factors. The majority of people with T1DM and good risk factor control do not show worsening of neuropathy over 2 years. However, CCM identifies a sub-group of people with T1DM who show a more rapid decline in corneal nerve fibers and nerve conduction velocity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Neurology)
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11 pages, 1552 KiB  
Article
Inulin, Choline and Silymarin in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation—Randomized Case-Control Study
by Oana-Bogdana Bărboi, Ioan Chirilă, Irina Ciortescu, Carmen Anton and Vasile-Liviu Drug
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082248 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4545
Abstract
(1) Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disease, with multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involved. A single treatment for all the patients with IBS is not possible. Prebiotics may have a beneficial effect on IBS patients with constipation. (2) Methods: A randomized cross-over [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disease, with multiple pathophysiological mechanisms involved. A single treatment for all the patients with IBS is not possible. Prebiotics may have a beneficial effect on IBS patients with constipation. (2) Methods: A randomized cross-over case-control study was conducted, including patients with IBS and constipation (IBS-C), who were randomized into two groups receiving a specific constipation diet with or without a food supplement containing inulin, choline and silymarin (Stoptoxin®, Fiterman Pharma, Iasi, Romania). Patients were evaluated at baseline, after four and eight weeks, using a questionnaire to assess IBS symptoms. (3) Results: 51 IBS-C patients were included, of which 47 patients finished the trial (33 women, mean age 52.82 years). Adding Stoptoxin® to a diet for constipation brought extra benefits. Abdominal pain severity improved by 68.3% after the diet and Stoptoxin® (p = 0.004) and abdominal bloating severity parameter improved by 34.8% (p = 0.040). The stool number per week and the stool consistency according to the Bristol scale were improved, but without statistical significance between groups (p > 0.05). (4) Conclusions: The combination of inulin, choline and silymarin associated with a specific-constipation diet had obvious clinical beneficial effects on IBS-C patients in terms of bowel movement, abdominal pain and bloating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine)
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9 pages, 1311 KiB  
Article
Real-World Data of Trastuzumab Deruxtecan for Advanced Gastric Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Retrospective Study
by Toshihiko Matsumoto, Shogo Yamamura, Tatsuki Ikoma, Yusuke Kurioka, Keitaro Doi, Shogen Boku, Nobuhiro Shibata, Hiroki Nagai, Takanobu Shimada, Takao Tsuduki, Takehiko Tsumura, Masahiro Takatani, Hisateru Yasui and Hironaga Satake
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2247; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082247 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3505
Abstract
Trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd) has shown promising efficacy against HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer (AGC). However, data on its real-world efficacy in AGC patients are insufficient, and the predictive marker of T-DXd is unclear. In this multi-center retrospective study, we collected clinical information of [...] Read more.
Trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-DXd) has shown promising efficacy against HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer (AGC). However, data on its real-world efficacy in AGC patients are insufficient, and the predictive marker of T-DXd is unclear. In this multi-center retrospective study, we collected clinical information of 18 patients with HER2-positive AGC who received T-DXd after intolerant or refractory responses to at least two prior regimens and analyzed predictive factors. The median age was 71 years (range: 51–85), 13 men were included, and ECOG performance status (PS): 0/1/2/3 was 9/6/2/1. A total of 11 patients (61%) received prior immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), 14 patients were HER2 3+, and 4 patients were HER2 2+/FISH positive. The median trastuzumab (Tmab)-free interval was 7.7 months (range: 2.8–28.6). The overall response rate was 41%, and the disease control rate was 76%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.9 months (95% CI: 2.6–6.5), and median overall survival (OS) was 6.1 months (95% CI: 3.7–9.4). PFS (6.5 vs. 2.9 months, p = 0.0292) and OS (9.2 vs. 3.7 months, p = 0.0819) were longer in patients who received prior ICIs than in those who had not. PFS (6.5 vs. 3.4 months, p = 0.0249) and OS (9.4 vs. 5.7 months, p = 0.0426) were longer in patients with an 8 month or longer Tmab-free interval. In patients with ascites, PFS (6.5 vs. 2.75 months, p = 0.0139) and OS (9.4 vs. 3.9 months, p = 0.0460) were shorter. T-DXd showed promising efficacy in HER2-positive AGC patients in a real-world setting. Pre-administration of ICIs and a sufficient Tmab-free interval may be predictive factors of T-DXd efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Targeting Tumor Metabolism for Cancer Therapy)
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9 pages, 245 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Clinical Features and Outcomes between SARS-CoV-2 and Non-SARS-CoV-2 Respiratory Viruses Associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Retrospective Analysis
by Manbong Heo, Jong Hwan Jeong, Sunmi Ju, Seung Jun Lee, Yi Yeong Jeong, Jong Deog Lee and Jung-Wan Yoo
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082246 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
Although a few studies comparing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses have been reported, clinical features and outcomes comparing SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are still lacking. We retrospectively identified patients with [...] Read more.
Although a few studies comparing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses have been reported, clinical features and outcomes comparing SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are still lacking. We retrospectively identified patients with SARS-CoV-2 (November 2020 to January 2022) and non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses associated ARDS (February 2015 to November 2020) at a single tertiary hospital. Their clinical data were obtained by medical record review. All viral infections were confirmed by RT-PCR. Thirty-one SARS-CoV-2 and seventy-one patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses associated ARDS patients were identified. Influenza (62%) was the most common in non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses associated ARDS patients. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 were more likely to be female and had higher body mass index, lower clinical frailty, APACHE II, and SOFA score than those with non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses. All patients with SARS-CoV-2 were treated with corticosteroids and used more high-flow nasal oxygen than those with non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses. The concomitant respiratory bacterial infection was significantly higher in non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses than SARS-CoV-2. Although there were no significant differences in the 28-, 60-day, and in-hospital mortality rates between SARS-CoV-2 and non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses associated ARDS, the duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay were significantly longer in patients with SARS-CoV-2 than those with non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses. Although the severity of illness and the concomitant bacterial infection rate were lower in patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated ARDS, mortality rates did not differ from non-SARS-CoV-2 respiratory viruses associated ARDS. Full article
13 pages, 1313 KiB  
Review
Does the Foot and Ankle Alignment Impact the Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Nicolò Martinelli, Alberto Nicolò Bergamini, Arne Burssens, Filippo Toschi, Gino M. M. J. Kerkhoffs, Jan Victor and Valerio Sansone
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2245; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082245 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3533
Abstract
Background: A convincing association between the foot and ankle alignment (FAA) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) remains debatable in the literature. Therefore, all studies investigating the role of FAA in patients with PFPS were systematically reviewed. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed [...] Read more.
Background: A convincing association between the foot and ankle alignment (FAA) and patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) remains debatable in the literature. Therefore, all studies investigating the role of FAA in patients with PFPS were systematically reviewed. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed on the databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria were all studies investigating static and/or dynamic FAA factors and PFPS. Studies with less than 20 patients or with patellofemoral osteoarthritis were excluded. The quality assessment was based on Cochrane study criteria, and the maximum score was set at eight. Results: Of 2246 articles, only 13 case-control studies were eligible. Considering static FAA factors, two studies found an association with rearfoot eversion and one with rearfoot inversion. While examining dynamic FAA characteristics, one study found an association with rearfoot eversion range of motion and three with gait kinematics. No further associations were reported. The quality assessment mean score was 5.5 (SD = 0.97) corresponding to moderate quality. Conclusions: In contrast to our expectations, a limited number of studies were founded supporting an association between FAA and PFPS. At present, the quality of the literature is still poor and conflicting, thus the need for further studies to determine any association between FAA and PFPS. Full article
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11 pages, 815 KiB  
Review
Criteria for Return-to-Play (RTP) after Rotator Cuff Surgery: A Systematic Review of Literature
by Marco Bravi, Chiara Fossati, Arrigo Giombini, Andrea Macaluso, José Kawazoe Lazzoli, Fabio Santacaterina, Federica Bressi, Ferruccio Vorini, Stefano Campi, Rocco Papalia and Fabio Pigozzi
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2244; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082244 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3516
Abstract
This systematic review of the literature aimed to highlight which criteria are described in the literature to define when a patient, after rotator cuff repair (RCR), is ready for return-to-play (RTP), which includes return to unrestricted activities, return to work, leisure, and sport [...] Read more.
This systematic review of the literature aimed to highlight which criteria are described in the literature to define when a patient, after rotator cuff repair (RCR), is ready for return-to-play (RTP), which includes return to unrestricted activities, return to work, leisure, and sport activities. An online systematic search on the US National Library of Medicine (PubMed/MEDLINE), SCOPUS, Web of Science (WOS), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, was performed with no data limit until December 2021. A total of 24 studies that reported at least one criterion after RCR were included. Nine criteria were identified and among these, the most reported criterion was the time from surgery, which was used by 78% of the studies; time from surgery was used as the only criterion by 54% of the studies, and in combination with other criteria, in 24% of the studies. Strength and ROM were the most reported criteria after time (25%). These results are in line with a previous systematic review that aimed to identify RTP criteria after surgical shoulder stabilization and with a recent scoping review that investigated RTP criteria among athletes after RCR and anterior shoulder stabilization. Compared to this latest scoping review, our study adds the methodological strength of being conducted according to the Prisma guidelines; furthermore, our study included both athletes and non-athletes to provide a comprehensive view of the criteria used after RCR; moreover, ten additional recent manuscripts were examined with respect to the scoping review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health, Quality of Life and Sport Rehabilitation)
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20 pages, 1146 KiB  
Review
The Treatment of Heart Failure in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: Doubts and New Developments from the Last ESC Guidelines
by Matteo Beltrami, Massimo Milli, Lorenzo Lupo Dei and Alberto Palazzuoli
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2243; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082243 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 9708
Abstract
Patients with heart failure (HF) and associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a population less represented in clinical trials; additionally, subjects with more severe estimated glomerular filtration rate reduction are often excluded from large studies. In this setting, most of the data come [...] Read more.
Patients with heart failure (HF) and associated chronic kidney disease (CKD) are a population less represented in clinical trials; additionally, subjects with more severe estimated glomerular filtration rate reduction are often excluded from large studies. In this setting, most of the data come from post hoc analyses and retrospective studies. Accordingly, in patients with advanced CKD, there are no specific studies evaluating the long-term effects of the traditional drugs commonly administered in HF. Current concerns may affect the practical approach to the traditional treatment, and in this setting, physicians are often reluctant to administer and titrate some agents acting on the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and the sympathetic activity. Therefore, the extensive application in different HF subtypes with wide associated conditions and different renal dysfunction etiologies remains a subject of debate. The role of novel drugs, such as angiotensin receptor blocker neprilysin inhibitors and sodium glucose linked transporters 2 inhibitors seems to offer a new perspective in patients with CKD. Due to its protective vascular and hormonal actions, the use of these agents may be safely extended to patients with renal dysfunction in the long term. In this review, we discussed the largest trials reporting data on subjects with HF and associated CKD, while suggesting a practical stepwise algorithm to avoid renal and cardiac complications. Full article
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9 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Efficacy of 2% Chlorhexidine Gluconate–Alcohol and 10% Povidone-Iodine–Alcohol against Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections and Bacterial Colonization at Central Venous Catheter Insertion Sites: A Prospective, Single-Center, Open-Label, Crossover Study
by Ming-Ru Lin, Po-Jui Chang, Ping-Chih Hsu, Chun-Sui Lin, Cheng-Hsun Chiu and Chih-Jung Chen
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082242 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4116
Abstract
An effective antiseptic agent is an essential component of a central venous catheter (CVC) care bundle, to protect against catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). We conducted a trial to compare the incidences of CRBSI and the growth of insertion site flora in patients with [...] Read more.
An effective antiseptic agent is an essential component of a central venous catheter (CVC) care bundle, to protect against catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). We conducted a trial to compare the incidences of CRBSI and the growth of insertion site flora in patients with CVC using 2% chlorhexidine gluconate–alcohol (CHG) or 10% povidone-iodine–alcohol (PVI) in the CVC care bundle. Patients who were admitted to two medical intensive care units (ICUs) and had CVC placement for >48 h were enrolled. Using a two-way crossover design with two six-month interventions, the ICUs were assigned to use either CHG or PVI in their care bundles. A total of 446 catheters in 390 subjects were enrolled in the study. The detection rate of flora was greater in the PVI group on both day 7 (26.6% versus 6.3%, p < 0.001) and day 14 (43.2% versus 15.8%, p < 0.001). The incidence rate of CRBSI was higher in the PVI group compared to the CHG group (2.15 vs. 0 events per 1000-catheter-days, p = 0.001), although the significance was lost in the multivariate analysis. In conclusion, 2% CHG was superior to 10% PVI in the CVC care bundle in terms of the inhibition of skin flora growth at CVC insertion sites and was potentially associated with lower incidence rates of CRBSI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Infectious Diseases)
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12 pages, 1088 KiB  
Review
E-Cadherin Signaling in Salivary Gland Development and Autoimmunity
by Margherita Sisto, Domenico Ribatti and Sabrina Lisi
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2241; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082241 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3927
Abstract
E-cadherin, the major epithelial cadherin, is located in regions of cell–cell contact known as adherens junctions. E-cadherin contributes to the maintenance of the epithelial integrity through homophylic interaction; the cytoplasmic tail of E-cadherin directly binds catenins, forming a dynamic complex that regulates several [...] Read more.
E-cadherin, the major epithelial cadherin, is located in regions of cell–cell contact known as adherens junctions. E-cadherin contributes to the maintenance of the epithelial integrity through homophylic interaction; the cytoplasmic tail of E-cadherin directly binds catenins, forming a dynamic complex that regulates several intracellular signal transduction pathways, including epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recent progress uncovered a novel and critical role for this adhesion molecule in salivary gland (SG) development and in SG diseases. We summarize the structure and regulation of the E-cadherin gene and transcript in view of the role of this remarkable protein in SG morphogenesis, focusing, in the second part of the review, on altered E-cadherin expression in EMT-mediated SG autoimmunity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diseases of the Salivary Glands—Part II)
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11 pages, 279 KiB  
Article
Associations between Mental Resilience, Mood, Coping, Personality, and Hangover Severity
by Chantal Terpstra, Joris C Verster, Andrew Scholey and Sarah Benson
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(8), 2240; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11082240 - 17 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4967
Abstract
Extensive research exists on relationships between psychological constructs and alcohol consumption. However, research on relationships with hangover severity remains limited. This study aimed to assess the associations between mental resilience, mood (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress), coping, personality, and hangover severity. A total [...] Read more.
Extensive research exists on relationships between psychological constructs and alcohol consumption. However, research on relationships with hangover severity remains limited. This study aimed to assess the associations between mental resilience, mood (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress), coping, personality, and hangover severity. A total of N = 690 participants completed an online survey by answering questions regarding their demographics, alcohol use, hangover prevalence and severity, and several psychological assessments (Brief Resilience Scale, DASS-21, Brief Cope, and Brief Version of the Big Five Personality Inventory). Significant associations were found between hangover severity and mental resilience, mood, and avoidant coping. Higher levels of mental resilience were associated with less severe hangovers, whereas poorer mood was associated with more severe hangovers. No significant associations were found with personality traits. These findings demonstrate that several associations between psychological constructs and hangover severity exist and suggest a role of psychological factors in the pathology of the alcohol hangover. As our findings contrast with the results of previous studies that did not report an association between mental resilience and the presence and severity of hangovers, further research is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mental Health)
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