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Soc. Sci., Volume 13, Issue 1 (January 2024) – 71 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study investigated the occurrence and background factors of domestic abuse among high-income women in Japan. We gathered data from 359 high-income women in Japan through an online questionnaire, and binary logistic regression analysis was employed to analyze contributing factors. Findings revealed that approximately one-fifth of high-income women experienced physical, economic and sexual abuse, while about two-fifths encountered psychological violence. It was found that adverse childhood experiences, traditional gender norms deeply rooted in society and the level of the spouse's education had a significant impact on the victimization experiences of the respondents. This study addresses a significant gap in understanding the complex relationship between women's economic power and domestic abuse in the unique cultural context of Japan. View this paper
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16 pages, 1476 KiB  
Article
Fear and Distress: How Can We Measure the Impact of Technology-Facilitated Abuse in Relationships?
by Cynthia Brown and Kelsey Hegarty
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010071 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2210
Abstract
Technology-facilitated abuse in relationships (TAR) is a relatively new form of intimate partner violence. Research exploring the impact of TAR on young people is limited, and while robust measures of TAR itself are emerging, measures of TAR impact lack evidence of validity. A [...] Read more.
Technology-facilitated abuse in relationships (TAR) is a relatively new form of intimate partner violence. Research exploring the impact of TAR on young people is limited, and while robust measures of TAR itself are emerging, measures of TAR impact lack evidence of validity. A mixed-methods approach was used to establish preliminary face and content validity for the measurement of TAR impact. Youth discussion groups (n = 38) revealed that (1) distress is favored over upset as a preferred measure of TAR impact, and (2) fear is an appropriate impact measure for some TAR behaviors. In an online survey, frontline practitioners (n = 171) perceived and subsequently rated a total of 54 TAR behaviors in the upper half of the severity range on fear and distress, with 6 behaviors ranking among each of the top 10 most fear- and distress-inducing behaviors. These findings provide evidence of both face and content validity for the use of fear and distress measures when seeking to understand the impact of TAR. Scholars, practitioners, and educators alike can use this evidence to enhance the validity of investigations into TAR and its impact, to support victims of TAR, and to improve TAR education among youth. Full article
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18 pages, 975 KiB  
Article
Effects of Parental Workplace Discrimination on Sickness Presenteeism
by Joachim Gerich and Martina Beham-Rabanser
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010070 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1273
Abstract
This paper analyzes the association between experienced and observed parental workplace discrimination and sickness presenteeism. Following stress theoretical approaches and reactance theory, we expected that both experienced and observed parental discrimination of others at the workplace would lead to a reactance behavior and [...] Read more.
This paper analyzes the association between experienced and observed parental workplace discrimination and sickness presenteeism. Following stress theoretical approaches and reactance theory, we expected that both experienced and observed parental discrimination of others at the workplace would lead to a reactance behavior and could increase sickness presenteeism, especially in those individuals who deny arguments of justification. Based on survey data from employees aged between 20 and 45 years (n = 347), we confirmed experienced discrimination as a double risk factor that goes along with increased sickness, as well as an increased sickness presence propensity. Although observed discrimination against others was unrelated to sickness, it was similarly associated with increased presenteeism. For respondents with their own children, the association between experienced discrimination and presenteeism was amplified in those who disagree with economic justifications of discrimination. The relationship between presenteeism and observed discrimination in childless respondents was amplified in those who appraise discrimination as unfair. In accordance with a stress theoretical approach, we confirm negative health effects of parental discrimination. In accordance with reactance theory, it is concluded that discrimination encourages workers’ presenteeism in the sense of a self-endangering behavior to counter inappropriate stereotypes held against them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Work, Employment and the Labor Market)
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20 pages, 881 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effect of Social Media on Dependency and Communication Practices in Emirati Society
by Enaam Youssef, Mervat Medhat and Maryam Alserkal
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010069 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2325
Abstract
In the evolving landscape of information dissemination, the importance of social media has become crucial. This is especially apparent in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, where we observed social media integration into different parts of daily life, yielding myriad impacts. The present [...] Read more.
In the evolving landscape of information dissemination, the importance of social media has become crucial. This is especially apparent in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, where we observed social media integration into different parts of daily life, yielding myriad impacts. The present study investigates the effects of social media on the communication dependency of Emirati individuals who engage with these platforms, further leading to communication with friends, family, and professional connections in the post-pandemic era. Based on the media dependency theory, this research gathered data from 385 respondents that were further analyzed by using Partial Least Square-Structural Equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Results showed that Emirati users widely rely on social media for communication and interactivity. It is further found that social media use is significantly linked to communication with friends and families among the study respondents. Finally, the use of social media for professional communication also remained significantly related, indicating social media as a potential source of communication among Emiratis in the post-pandemic era. Thus, the broader agreement remained towards the role of social media as an agent to sustain socialization even after the disease outbreak. It is concluded that as we progress, both individuals and organizations must adopt the potential benefits of these platforms while also effectively managing the challenges they bring. Improving digital literacy and adaptability will be crucial for effectively navigating this growing communication environment. Full article
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3 pages, 192 KiB  
Editorial
Advancing Qualitative Research: Insights from the 7th World Conference on Qualitative Research
by Gianina-Estera Petre and António Pedro Costa
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010068 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
The 7th World Conference on Qualitative Research convened scholars, researchers, and practitioners across various domains to exchange insights into the wide-ranging utilisation of qualitative research [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 7th World Conference on Qualitative Research)
19 pages, 278 KiB  
Article
Institutional Trust, Spirituality, and Religious Practice in the United States
by Adam Gemar
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010067 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
This study explores the relationship between institutional trust and elements of religion in contemporary American society. Using a nationally representative survey, we utilize latent class and regression analyses to assess the contours of these relationships. Our findings reveal a diverse institutional trust profile, [...] Read more.
This study explores the relationship between institutional trust and elements of religion in contemporary American society. Using a nationally representative survey, we utilize latent class and regression analyses to assess the contours of these relationships. Our findings reveal a diverse institutional trust profile, with pronounced distrust in democratic institutions, especially Congress, although the group with low institutional trust is the smallest one within the society. While trust in religious institutions, and to an extent broader institutional trust, predict religiosity, this is less so with the case of spirituality. Institutional trust similarly shows modest positive relationships to public religious practice, while a clear negative relationship to private religious practice. Interpreting these findings through the lens of secularization and privatization of religion, we hope to provide a strong empirical contribution to the literature regarding intersections of institutional trust and the evolving religious and spiritual orientations of today’s American landscape. Full article
14 pages, 213 KiB  
Article
The Right to Be a Subject of Your Own Life—A Study of Parent-Teacher Conferences in Danish Lower Secondary Education
by Clara Ina Severin Steensen and Stine Helms
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010066 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 951
Abstract
Many recent legislative reforms concerning children have emphasized the importance of involving children and adolescents in accordance with the principles of Article 12 in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. This article deals with the rights of youths to express [...] Read more.
Many recent legislative reforms concerning children have emphasized the importance of involving children and adolescents in accordance with the principles of Article 12 in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. This article deals with the rights of youths to express their opinions, feelings, and views in parent-teacher conferences in lower secondary education in Denmark. Both international and Danish research on parent-teacher conferences has shown that students are often objectified and are not provided with real opportunities to participate with their own voices and perspectives. Based on the sociology of Hartmut Rosa, the article explores students’ experiences of parent-teacher conferences as zones of alienation or spaces of resonance. In addition, we draw on Gert Biesta’s concept of subjectification to analyze how the current organization of the conferences largely displaces students’ opportunities to bring themselves into play as subjects of their own lives. The analysis is based on observations and interviews carried out in 2021 and 2022. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Wellbeing and Children’s RightsA Nordic Perspective)
12 pages, 222 KiB  
Article
Monitoring of Norwegian Foster Homes
by Esben S. B. Olesen and Lea Louise Videt
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010065 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Based on interviews, this article explores how the monitoring of foster homes is experienced by children and youths who have been exposed to what they consider abusive behaviour by foster parents. Using a thematic narrative theoretical framework, the article shows that a common [...] Read more.
Based on interviews, this article explores how the monitoring of foster homes is experienced by children and youths who have been exposed to what they consider abusive behaviour by foster parents. Using a thematic narrative theoretical framework, the article shows that a common narrative in the youths’ accounts is a story of mistrust towards social workers and monitoring officers, which relates to a general mistrust towards the child welfare service. The young individuals are reluctant to tell monitoring officers about how they truly experience their situation in their foster home. At the same time, some of the youths have difficulty comprehending what normal parenting behaviour is like, due to previous experiences of neglect from adults. The article discusses how successful monitoring of foster homes largely stands or falls on the children’s and youths’ ability to disclose their experiences to their supervisors and monitoring officers. We argue that the youths’ narratives tell a story of disempowerment. This represents a dilemma in the monitoring of Norwegian foster homes and in the children’s right to protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Wellbeing and Children’s RightsA Nordic Perspective)
21 pages, 950 KiB  
Article
The Role of Self-Control in Cyberbullying Bystander Behavior
by Revital Sela-Shayovitz, Michal Levy and Jonathan Hasson
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010064 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1302
Abstract
The present study examined the association between general low self-control (LSC) and its three subcomponents: risk taking, self-centeredness, and impulsivity and various bystander behaviors of cyberbullying. The study utilized a bifactor modeling approach and included a sample of 501 adolescents aged 14–18 years [...] Read more.
The present study examined the association between general low self-control (LSC) and its three subcomponents: risk taking, self-centeredness, and impulsivity and various bystander behaviors of cyberbullying. The study utilized a bifactor modeling approach and included a sample of 501 adolescents aged 14–18 years old. Participants’ behaviors were measured using a self-reported questionnaire. General LSC was positively associated with the cyberbully-supporters’ and passive bystanders’ behaviors. Additionally, risk taking was positively associated with both the victim-defender’s and cyberbully-supporter’s behaviors, while self-centeredness was positively associated with both the passive bystander’s and the cyberbully-supporter’s behaviors. Furthermore, impulsivity was positively associated with the cyberbully-supporter’s behaviors. We conclude that general LSC plays an important role in understanding the cyberbully-supporter’s and passive bystander’s behaviors in cyberspace. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that LSC subcomponents were also associated with the bystanders’ behaviors above and beyond the associations between general LSC and these types of behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Childhood and Youth Studies)
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13 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
“I Just Want to Live My Life”: Young Disabled People’s Possibilities for Achieving Participation and Wellness
by Anna Sigrún Ingimarsdóttir and Snæfrídur Thóra Egilson
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010063 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
This study aimed to (a) explore disabled children’s and adolescents’ possibilities for participation and (b) identify the practices and policies that affect their participation and how these are enacted. Case studies were conducted with seven children and adolescents with various impairments. Each case [...] Read more.
This study aimed to (a) explore disabled children’s and adolescents’ possibilities for participation and (b) identify the practices and policies that affect their participation and how these are enacted. Case studies were conducted with seven children and adolescents with various impairments. Each case included interviews with the young person, their parents and teachers, as well as observations in their usual environments. The interview topics covered the young people’s participation, their sense of belonging and aspects that were pivotal to their engagement and wellness. The observations focused on their possibilities for participation and interactions with peers and adults. These young disabled people’s possibilities for participation at home, in school and in their neighbourhoods were affected by complex dynamics between personal and environmental factors. Whether and how the young people’s disability-related rights were enacted depended on the socio-cultural–material arrangements and parents’ knowledge of the welfare system. To better understand and act on the complex and marginalised position of young disabled people, more focus should be directed at policies that affect their rights and possibilities for participation and how these are enacted in practice. Knowledge needs to be expanded to scrutinise the disabling hindrances hidden in social and structural spaces and implemented in services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Children’s Wellbeing and Children’s RightsA Nordic Perspective)
12 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
To Be Scared or Not to Be Scared: Social Representations of COVID-19 in Young People (A Cross-Cultural Study)
by Irina A. Novikova, Elizaveta B. Berezina, Marianna E. Sachkova, Nikolay V. Dvoryanchikov, Alexey L. Novikov and Inna B. Bovina
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010062 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is a serious global threat to the world’s population. The aim of the presented exploratory study was to reveal and analyse social thinking about COVID-19 in two different cultural contexts: Russia and Malaysia. Social representation (SR) theory is a promising [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a serious global threat to the world’s population. The aim of the presented exploratory study was to reveal and analyse social thinking about COVID-19 in two different cultural contexts: Russia and Malaysia. Social representation (SR) theory is a promising framework to analyse the symbolic response to the global health emergency. This exploratory study was conducted at the time of new COVID-19 variants’ emergence, accompanied by quarantine measures, and mass vaccination was not elaborated yet (12 October–15 December 2020). The total sample (convenience sampling) consisted of 349 young adults from Malaysia (n = 195, 35.4% males, 64.6% females) and Russia (n = 154, 10% males, 90% females) aged 17–36 years. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants, and an online version of the questionnaire was proposed to participants. The free association technique was used as the main tool in order to reveal the content of SRs. This prototypical analysis allowed us to reveal a hypothetical structure of SRs in the two cultural groups. These SR structures in each sample were crystallised around mostly negative elements. While in the Malaysian sample, the key elements were troubling and disturbing (death, pandemic, virus, quarantine), in the Russian sample (quarantine, disease), these elements could be seen as a rationalisation (or even a denial) of the COVID-19 threat. Full article
19 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Tackling Gender-Related Violence: How Can Theory Inform International Professional Education Projects?
by gigi guizzo and Pam Alldred
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010061 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Is it helpful to share feminist theory with youth practitioners and is there room for it on short training courses such as in EU Action Projects? Can theoretical work on intersectionality, and the concept of gender-related violence (GRV) which grew from it, be [...] Read more.
Is it helpful to share feminist theory with youth practitioners and is there room for it on short training courses such as in EU Action Projects? Can theoretical work on intersectionality, and the concept of gender-related violence (GRV) which grew from it, be shared in training interventions with professionals who work with children and young people? This article is based on the findings of the EU co-funded GAP Work Project that sought to improve GRV intervention and referral through training for practitioners in everyday (rather than specialist) contact with children or young people in four countries. Summarising how the project worked, and how theory informed it, including a brief account of how the concept of GRV worked in practice, guides the selection of material from the wider Project Final Report and offers a reflection on how educators used theory in the training, sometimes explicitly in the sessions. It therefore contributes our experiences to discussions about the design and implementation of education and training about violence and abuse. It concludes by sharing resources for designing and implementing training on sexual harassment, violence and hate crime, including from other recent projects that offer resources for incorporating an intersectional perspective when developing local government plans, programmes, and projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
25 pages, 483 KiB  
Review
Education and Other Factors Influencing Women Migrants’ Employability and Entrepreneurship
by Yolanda Pérez-Varela and Rocío Cárdenas-Rodríguez
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010060 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Education is considered to be one of the most critical factors when it comes to finding work or starting a business. However, for women migrants, other factors can have an even more decisive influence, since they are starting out with the double disadvantage [...] Read more.
Education is considered to be one of the most critical factors when it comes to finding work or starting a business. However, for women migrants, other factors can have an even more decisive influence, since they are starting out with the double disadvantage they face as women and migrants. This manuscript sets out to identify and analyse the individual and external factors that affect the employability and entrepreneurship of women migrants. To do this, we conducted a systematised qualitative review of recent literature. The studies analysed address different aspects of integration and employment but agree on many of the factors that hinder employability and entrepreneurship, such as traditional gender mandates, racism, socioeconomic status, the migration process, age or human capital. However, the scientific literature continues to mask the reality of women migrants who face discrimination or inequalities derived, for example, from their belonging to the LGBTQ+ collective or their functional diversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue School-to-Work Transition of At-Risk Youth during Crisis and Distress)
17 pages, 5783 KiB  
Article
Towards a Co-Creative Immersive Digital Storytelling Methodology to Explore Experiences of Homelessness in Loughborough
by Holly Turpin, Rebecca Cain and Michael Wilson
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010059 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1289
Abstract
Despite the potential use of digital storytelling with marginalised groups, there are few examples of its application in homelessness or examinations of co-creative relationships in this context. Along with digital storytelling, this research used immersive media (virtual reality and 360 degree video) to [...] Read more.
Despite the potential use of digital storytelling with marginalised groups, there are few examples of its application in homelessness or examinations of co-creative relationships in this context. Along with digital storytelling, this research used immersive media (virtual reality and 360 degree video) to explore place-based social exclusion. In the feasibility study, with four doctoral researchers at Loughborough University as participants, immersive digital stories were co-created. The aim of this study was to understand how to create place-based immersive digital stories, through adapting existing digital storytelling methods and the co-creation of virtual reality, to inform best practices for future studies involving participants who have experienced homelessness. Participants created maps and empathy timelines, shared stories, recorded voiceovers and edited footage. The researcher facilitated this and recorded the 360-degree filmed footage. The final stories proved to explore place-based social exclusion. Co-creative relationships were found to be more significant between the researcher and individual participant than amongst the participants as a group. With immersive media, the researcher’s experience formed an active part of the finished pieces. Despite this, participants described their role as director, being ultimately in control. These findings will influence the methods that will be used in the future with those who have experienced homelessness in Loughborough. They also show how immersive media in digital storytelling can strengthen co-creation and acknowledge the researcher in the story. Full article
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28 pages, 1252 KiB  
Article
Housework Reallocation between Genders and Generations during China’s COVID-19 Lockdowns: Patterns & Reasons
by Ting Wang
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010058 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1250
Abstract
This paper examines housework reallocation during China’s stringent pandemic lockdowns in 2020, where individuals were homebound and job-free while employment status remained unchanged. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, it analyzes 1669 surveys and 100 interviews to understand changes in domestic labor patterns and the [...] Read more.
This paper examines housework reallocation during China’s stringent pandemic lockdowns in 2020, where individuals were homebound and job-free while employment status remained unchanged. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, it analyzes 1669 surveys and 100 interviews to understand changes in domestic labor patterns and the underlying reasons. The findings indicate that men increased their participation in grocery shopping but decreased in cooking, cleaning, and laundry during the lockdown. This gender-task pattern was mirrored in multi-generational households, where younger family members often took on these tasks. The reasons articulated for these shifts predominantly converged around the ‘doing gender’ theory. Women, particularly those working full-time, had more time to engage in household chores. Men, while also having more available time, predominantly focused on grocery shopping, a task that gained masculine connotations during the lockdown. Factors such as perceived differences in household labor quality, difficulty delegating housework, and reduced workload led to women’s increased involvement and specialization in domestic tasks. The study challenges the notion that economic factors are the primary drivers of gender-based division of housework. Instead, it suggests that ingrained gender norms continue to dictate domestic roles, as evidenced during the lockdown period devoid of usual economic and time pressures. Full article
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16 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Getúlio Vargas and the Making of Restrictive Migratory Policies in Post-1930 Brazil
by Mônica Raisa Schpun
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010057 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Following Brazil’s “great migration” period (1880–1930) came Getúlio Vargas’s rise to power, marking a radical historical rupture. From 1930 onwards, we observed the construction of a framework of restrictive rules aimed at controlling the entry and stay of foreigners in the country, including [...] Read more.
Following Brazil’s “great migration” period (1880–1930) came Getúlio Vargas’s rise to power, marking a radical historical rupture. From 1930 onwards, we observed the construction of a framework of restrictive rules aimed at controlling the entry and stay of foreigners in the country, including an ethnically differentiated management of flows. This article sought to cross-reference the new migratory policy, aimed at both new entries and immigrants already present in the territory, with the issue of race. To this end, it dealt with two groups of immigrants whose flows were directly impacted by the new policies (and by racism), but not in the same way: Japanese and Jews. The reflection also turned to the different experiences in each of the two groups between the candidates for immigration—in the face of the new barriers imposed on entry and those already living in Brazil in the face of the assimilationist measures adopted. Brazilian migration policies and state actions have been studied more often than the agency of immigrants. In this sense, the existing studies have focused more on the management of new flows than on the experience of immigrants already settled in the territory. The text, therefore, assumed a change of perspective, opting for a look “from below” in order to focus on both sides of the scales and the border. Finally, it examined the historiography that dealt with migration policy during the Vargas era and, more specifically, that which focused on Jewish and Japanese immigration. Full article
17 pages, 1062 KiB  
Article
Human Resource Management Practices and Decent Work in UN Global Compact: A Qualitative Analysis of Participants’ Reports
by Anabela Magalhães, Nuno Rebelo dos Santos and Leonor Pais
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010056 - 15 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
This study aims at describing and characterizing the Human Resources practices (HRPs), as reported by organizations within the framework of the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). That endeavor was undertaken considering the concept of decent work (DW). Specifically, we intended to analyze and [...] Read more.
This study aims at describing and characterizing the Human Resources practices (HRPs), as reported by organizations within the framework of the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). That endeavor was undertaken considering the concept of decent work (DW). Specifically, we intended to analyze and verify to what extent those practices translate and incorporate the concept of DW to build a typology of commitment levels by organizations regarding the values behind UNGC. We conducted a documentary analysis on 40 annual reports of Portuguese organizations’ participants of the UNGC. A qualitative content analysis using NVivo and a descriptive and cluster analysis based on coding similarity were performed. One output of this research is the design of a maturity typology of adhesion to the UNCG. Four levels were identified, reflecting expressed concerns with DW concepts and the UNGC Ten Principles and its integration into HRP. This research reflects the concerns of Human Resources Management (HRM) with the wellbeing, development, and conditions of employees and may support the design of future research and interventions, leading to more responsible and ethical HRM practices. Full article
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15 pages, 838 KiB  
Article
The Background Factors and Reality of Domestic Abuse Faced by High-Income Women: An Online Survey in Japan
by Zixuan Wang and Takashi Sekiyama
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010055 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the prevalence and factors influencing domestic abuse victimization among high-income women in Japan, including physical, psychological, economic, and sexual abuse. The background factors and reality of domestic abuse faced by high-income women have not been sufficiently addressed, although [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the prevalence and factors influencing domestic abuse victimization among high-income women in Japan, including physical, psychological, economic, and sexual abuse. The background factors and reality of domestic abuse faced by high-income women have not been sufficiently addressed, although some academic studies contend that economically disadvantaged women are more susceptible to domestic abuse. This study collected data from 359 high-income women in Japan using an online questionnaire survey. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the contributing factors. Approximately one-fifth of high-income women had suffered physical, economic, and sexual domestic abuse, and approximately two-fifths had experienced psychological violence. Adverse childhood experiences, the degree of approval of traditional gender norms, quarrels over opposing views on traditional gender norms, and partners’ education levels considerably influenced the prevalence of domestic abuse among high-income female victims. In contrast with the literature, the earnings gap between female victims and their partners did not yield meaningful results. This study examines the experiences of four types of domestic abuse among high-income women in East Asia and highlights the factors that contribute to it, as exemplified by Japan, which is a research direction that has not received sufficient attention. It also offers valuable insight into domestic abuse support policies that target low-income women in contemporary society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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11 pages, 603 KiB  
Article
Epistemic Uncertainty, Social Dominance Orientation, and Prejudices toward Women in Leadership Roles: Mediation and Moderation Analyses
by Federico Contu, Antonio Aiello and Antonio Pierro
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010054 - 15 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1086
Abstract
This research investigated the relation between the need for cognitive closure, social dominance orientation, and attitudes toward women as managers within a sample of Italian workers (N = 391) enrolled in a cross-sectional study. More specifically, we hypothesized and found that the association [...] Read more.
This research investigated the relation between the need for cognitive closure, social dominance orientation, and attitudes toward women as managers within a sample of Italian workers (N = 391) enrolled in a cross-sectional study. More specifically, we hypothesized and found that the association between need for cognitive closure and prejudice toward women managers was mediated by social dominance orientation. Notably, these results remained significant even after controlling for participants’ gender, education, age, and political orientation. Further, results from a moderation analysis revealed that the relationship between social dominance orientation and negative attitudes toward woman leaders was moderated by the need for cognitive closure. That is, the relationship between social dominance orientation and prejudice towards women managers was stronger for participants higher in need for cognitive closure—compared to those who were low. These results could shed light on new routes in practical intervention aimed at solving prejudice towards women in leadership roles. Full article
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9 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Endless Exile—Alain Resnais’s The War Is Over
by Mauro Luiz Rovai
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010053 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 833
Abstract
This paper aims to analyze the movie The War Is Over (La guerre est finie—France/Sweden, 1966, directed by Alain Resnais and a screenplay by Jorge Semprún). The idea is to point out a possible sociological discussion on exile, mobilizing the notion [...] Read more.
This paper aims to analyze the movie The War Is Over (La guerre est finie—France/Sweden, 1966, directed by Alain Resnais and a screenplay by Jorge Semprún). The idea is to point out a possible sociological discussion on exile, mobilizing the notion of mental images. The methodological approach is an internal analysis of the film to allow for the elaboration of sociological considerations along with the expressive elements of the film construction. To do so, we shall focus on the “leaps” within the movie’s narrative order, in which a main character (Diego) anticipates, through imagination, a series of sequences and events that might or might not have occurred. To discuss the notion of mental images and their relationship with the imaginary, the theoretical reference will be Cornelius Castoriadis’ book The Imaginary Institution of Society. This article will benefit from the discussions in the presentations about the film both at meetings in Brazil and at the last ISA Congress 2023 (International Sociological Association—Research Committee 37—Sociology of Arts). This text is one of the results of research supported by the São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP). Full article
8 pages, 208 KiB  
Editorial
Forced Migration: A Relational Wellbeing Approach
by Ravi K. S. Kohli, Marte Knag Fylkesnes, Mervi Kaukko and Sarah C. White
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010052 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
In this Special Issue, we consider the ways in which a relational wellbeing approach can be used to understand the lives and trajectories of refugees in general and young refugees in particular [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relational Wellbeing in the Lives of Young Refugees)
16 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
The TEI Program for Peer Tutoring and the Prevention of Bullying: Its Influence on Social Skills and Empathy among Secondary School Students
by O’Hara Soto-García, Vanesa Sainz, Antonio Maldonado and Juan Calmaestra
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010051 - 13 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Bullying is a phenomenon that afflicts millions of students around the world, severely harming their emotional and psychological well-being. In response to this challenge, the TEI program (Tutoría Entre Iguales or Peer Tutoring) has been developed as a bullying prevention strategy, [...] Read more.
Bullying is a phenomenon that afflicts millions of students around the world, severely harming their emotional and psychological well-being. In response to this challenge, the TEI program (Tutoría Entre Iguales or Peer Tutoring) has been developed as a bullying prevention strategy, aiding students in acquiring social skills and emotional strategies for conflict resolution. The purpose of this research is to examine social skills and empathy among different actors involved in bullying (non-involved, victim, bully, and bully-victim) among secondary school students and to evaluate the impact of the TEI program on the development of relational competencies. A comparative, ex post facto study was conducted in three schools where the TEI program has been implemented (TEI schools) and three where it has not (non-TEI schools). A total of 738 secondary school students (ESO) participated in the study, using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate their perception of bullying. The results of this study demonstrate higher levels of assertiveness and empathy in the non-involved and victim groups. However, lower levels of conflict resolution skills were found in the bully-victim group. In TEI schools, a higher percentage of students not involved in bullying and a lower percentage of bully-victims were observed. Additionally, students in TEI schools scored higher in assertiveness, conflict resolution skills, social skills, and empathy. These findings highlight the importance of developing students’ relational competencies and implementing strategies for bullying prevention to create a safe, healthy, and positive learning environment in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing School Violence)
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10 pages, 660 KiB  
Article
Energy and Environmental Challenges in the European Union and Green Bonds
by Georgios Maris and Marios Psychalis
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010050 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1598
Abstract
Could the European Union mitigate the negative effects of economic, pandemic and environmental crises using only one tool? The answer is positive, by implementing “green” fiscal expansion financed by “green” common debt, such as issuing green bonds. In this paper, we connect the [...] Read more.
Could the European Union mitigate the negative effects of economic, pandemic and environmental crises using only one tool? The answer is positive, by implementing “green” fiscal expansion financed by “green” common debt, such as issuing green bonds. In this paper, we connect the independent responses to different crises into a single response that could end them. The European Union’s theoretical background is based on new-classical models, but current research findings doubt new-classical orthodoxy, underling the importance of economic federalism for sustainable economic and green growth. We argue that the Economic and Monetary Union has to speed up fiscal federalism by establishing a powerful European Union common budget using green Eurobonds and implementing fiscal transfers as a mechanism to address the consequences of the triple crisis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Comparative Political Economy in Europe)
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16 pages, 5822 KiB  
Article
Intensification of Hate Speech, Based on the Conversation Generated on TikTok during the Escalation of the War in the Middle East in 2023
by José-Luis González-Esteban, Carmen Maria Lopez-Rico, Loraine Morales-Pino and Federico Sabater-Quinto
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010049 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 2066
Abstract
The present research has been carried out concurrently with the conversation that took place on the social network TikTok during the most recent escalation of the war between Hamas and Israel in the Middle East (Gaza-Palestine) during the month of October 2023. The [...] Read more.
The present research has been carried out concurrently with the conversation that took place on the social network TikTok during the most recent escalation of the war between Hamas and Israel in the Middle East (Gaza-Palestine) during the month of October 2023. The main objective of this article is to analyze of how young audiences are informed about complex problems, the quality of that information, and the consequences of the intensification of uncontrolled hate speech. Regarding the methodology, data were extracted from TikTok using the open-source tool tiktok-hashtag-analysis—hosted on GitHub—which facilitated the analysis of hashtags within the posts collected from this social network, starting with an initial sample of 17,654 comments. The article draws and reaches conclusions related to the fact that young audiences indeed are interested in the escalation of the conflict in the Middle East, as it is evident that the conversation—which is polarized—on TikTok about this issue has escalated considerably. Similarly, analysis of the extracted and filtered sample shows that the variable “hate speech” intensified on the platform during the analyzed conversation. Full article
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17 pages, 333 KiB  
Article
Justice in Achievement Matters: The Fairness of Educational Opportunities and Active Citizenship
by Pepka Boyadjieva, Petya Ilieva-Trichkova and Valery Todorov
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010048 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Unlike existing research which has focused mainly on the effects of educational attainment and curricula on active citizenship, the present article aims to study the relationship of subjective assessment regarding the fairness of people’s educational opportunities and their active social engagement, and how [...] Read more.
Unlike existing research which has focused mainly on the effects of educational attainment and curricula on active citizenship, the present article aims to study the relationship of subjective assessment regarding the fairness of people’s educational opportunities and their active social engagement, and how this relationship is embedded in different social environments. Theoretically, the analysis is based on the view of active citizenship as a multidimensional and domain-specific phenomenon. It is also inspired by the capability approach’s understanding of the opportunity aspect of freedom and the importance of fairness of opportunities and processes. Empirically, our study uses a multilevel linear regression model to analyse data from the European Social Survey 2018 for 29 countries. We develop a scale of active citizenship with four domains: political, social, workplace, and democratic values. Our findings show that a higher perceived unfairness of educational opportunities is associated with lower levels of active citizenship. They also reveal that although there is a negative relationship between the perceived unfairness of people’s opportunities to receive a desired level of education and their active citizenship, it is mitigated when people are living in high-trust societies and in countries which are more economically and democratically developed. Full article
17 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
Peer Support Provided by People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Rapid Scoping Review to Develop a Toolkit for Inclusive Research
by Beth Pfeiffer, Taye Hallock, Luke Tomczuk and Jessica Kramer
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010047 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1234
Abstract
Inclusive research teams actively engage people with intellectual and developmental disabilities at all stages of research development, implementation, and dissemination. There is a dearth of research that specifically addresses the use of peer support in research engagement, yet research using peer support may [...] Read more.
Inclusive research teams actively engage people with intellectual and developmental disabilities at all stages of research development, implementation, and dissemination. There is a dearth of research that specifically addresses the use of peer support in research engagement, yet research using peer support may provide a useful framework for engagement in inclusive research teams. A rapid scoping review was completed following the reporting guidelines for PRISMA-SCR. The scoping review identified five peer support roles (communication, sharing experiences, helping peers to learn, peer development, and creating a welcoming environment) and two types of support and accommodation for peer supporters (individual and environmental). The findings of the rapid scoping review aided in developing key sections of a Peer Support Toolkit to help people with intellectual and developmental disabilities engage in research to create more inclusive research teams and research that is informed directly by the needs of people with lived experience. The scoping review and toolkit were completed by an inclusive team. Full article
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39 pages, 807 KiB  
Article
Adversarial Growth among Refugees: A Scoping Review
by Mira Elise Glaser Holthe and Kerstin Söderström
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010046 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1265
Abstract
Background: The main aims of this scoping review are to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing knowledge about adversarial growth among refugees, and to gain insight into the complexity of post-trauma development. Methods: We applied a systematic search strategy resulting in the [...] Read more.
Background: The main aims of this scoping review are to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing knowledge about adversarial growth among refugees, and to gain insight into the complexity of post-trauma development. Methods: We applied a systematic search strategy resulting in the inclusion of 43 quantitative and qualitative empirical studies. Our findings underscore the prevalence of growth as a common phenomenon among refugees, emphasizing the positive associations with problem-focused coping, optimism, positive reappraisal, religiosity, and social support. Additionally, this review sheds light on the qualitative experiences and outcomes of growth, particularly pro-social outcomes, and the cultural and religious aspects of growth processes. Findings concerning the role of time and post-migration factors on growth processes highlight the need for more studies among established refugees. In sum, the findings supplement and lend nuance to pathology-oriented research, while acknowledging the severity of suffering and trauma and their consequences for individuals. We suggest that further research should focus on existential aspects and theories of growth: compassion, altruism, and pro-sociality following trauma, and the importance of religious and cultural elements in growth processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relational Wellbeing in the Lives of Young Refugees)
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14 pages, 282 KiB  
Article
After Being Granted or Refused Asylum in Norway: Relational Migration Journeys among Afghan Unaccompanied Young Men
by Moa Nyamwathi Lønning
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010045 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1022
Abstract
This article considers experiences of moving and dwelling in Europe among Afghan unaccompanied young men in the context of stringent migration, asylum, and settlement processes. The young men embarked as minors and arrived unaccompanied in Norway. There, their claims for asylum had radically [...] Read more.
This article considers experiences of moving and dwelling in Europe among Afghan unaccompanied young men in the context of stringent migration, asylum, and settlement processes. The young men embarked as minors and arrived unaccompanied in Norway. There, their claims for asylum had radically different outcomes: some were granted international protection and others were refused asylum. The article sheds light on forms of relationality on migration journeys by focusing on relational selves and subjectivities regarding trajectories, processes of inclusion and exclusion, and family. Participants shared numerous challenges and struggles arising from their journeys, but also possibilities and transformations taking place alongside developmental changes and life transitions. While some attached meaning to experienced hardships and drew on a sense of direction, others spoke of exhaustion or inoculated themselves from an inability to pursue a direction they desired and saw as necessary for their lives. They made sense of their experiences relationally, relating to hopes and fears, idealised and longed for kinship ties and care, and the ongoing processes and positionings involved in shaping their present situations and imaginings of the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relational Wellbeing in the Lives of Young Refugees)
10 pages, 253 KiB  
Review
Social Media, Newsworthiness, and Missing White Woman Syndrome: A Criminological Analysis
by Avril Margaret Brandon, Erika Emandache and Aleksandra Iwaniec
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010044 - 10 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
Missing White Woman Syndrome has been widely acknowledged within traditional mainstream media, resulting in a heavy focus on missing white women and a simultaneous underrepresentation of missing women from minority ethnic communities. However, less is known about whether this has carried through to [...] Read more.
Missing White Woman Syndrome has been widely acknowledged within traditional mainstream media, resulting in a heavy focus on missing white women and a simultaneous underrepresentation of missing women from minority ethnic communities. However, less is known about whether this has carried through to social media, wherein users play a key role in determining what becomes widespread news. This review seeks to examine this issue with reference to existing research. It begins by exploring the concept of newsworthiness and the ways in which social media influences the distribution of news. It will then review the concept of the ‘ideal victim’, and its continued association with ethnicity. Finally, the review will examine Missing White Woman Syndrome and the ways in which it has historically manifested within traditional media and continues to manifest on social media. The review will conclude with a discussion on findings and avenues for future research in Ireland and internationally. Full article
18 pages, 1264 KiB  
Article
Narratives of Symbolic Objects: Exploring Relational Wellbeing of Young Refugees Living in Scotland, Finland, and Norway
by Masego Katisi, Milfrid Tonheim, Sharon A. McGregor and Fath E Mubeen
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010043 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1116
Abstract
Background: In this study, objects are used as a representation of relational wellbeing to help young refugees living in Norway, Scotland, and Finland to talk about important persons who make them feel well. At the time of this research, there is no [...] Read more.
Background: In this study, objects are used as a representation of relational wellbeing to help young refugees living in Norway, Scotland, and Finland to talk about important persons who make them feel well. At the time of this research, there is no known study that uses objects to facilitate narratives of how young refugees and members of their social networks generate relational wellbeing. Methods: Using a qualitative approach, young refugees participated in individual interviews about the objects they brought to art workshops to understand their experiences, feelings, and acts of wellbeing. Results: Treating each object as unique to the owner was powerful in revealing how relational wellbeing is experienced and expressed. There were overlaps in experiences and expressions of wellbeing, hence our themes of discussion: overlaps between old and new social ties; between time and space; and between the three constructs of relational wellbeing. Old ties were not forgotten; instead, they evolved to a different form, supporting young refugees from a distance, while new ties contributed to what is needed in their present and at their current age. Experiences of relational wellbeing transcended time and space between their disrupted places of origin, their experiences on the journey, and settling in their new countries. The constructs of relational wellbeing—feeling good, being connected, and having enough—were inseparable in the participants’ experiences. Conclusions: We conclude that these overlaps have implications for a relational wellbeing approach in theory and practice. The results leave a challenge for both researchers and practitioners to develop complex research and intervention methods that can capture these tapestries of young refugees’ experiences of relational wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Relational Wellbeing in the Lives of Young Refugees)
17 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Well-Being of Foreign Language Speaking Migrant Mothers Living in Finland during the Initial Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Eveliina Heino, Hanna Kara and Camilla Nordberg
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010042 - 9 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1029
Abstract
This article examines changes in the well-being of foreign-language-speaking migrant mothers living in Finland during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring of 2020. Our data consist of 73 mothers’ responses to a qualitative survey conducted between 18 April and [...] Read more.
This article examines changes in the well-being of foreign-language-speaking migrant mothers living in Finland during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the spring of 2020. Our data consist of 73 mothers’ responses to a qualitative survey conducted between 18 April and 26 May 2020. In our analysis, we employ the division of well-being into three dimensions: having, loving, and being. According to our results, the participating mothers experienced dramatic changes, such as an increased burden of care and domestic work, difficulties helping children with remote studies, health concerns, a lack of free time, isolation from Finnish society and the inability to travel to their country of origin. Family-centered activities helped the mothers to cope in this situation but also caused strains. Based on our findings, we discuss the vulnerabilities these mothers experienced in relation to language, migration background and gender roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthropological Reflections on Crisis and Disaster)
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