Emotional Labor, Stress, and Well-Being: Components of the Sustainability and Dignity of Work

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "Work, Employment and the Labor Market".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 9929

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Institute of Psychology, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador 40-210730, Brazil
2. Institute of Psychology, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia 38408-100, Brazil
Interests: emotional labor; organizational psychology; work stress; well-being at work

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Guest Editor
Institute of Psychology, University of Brasilia, Brasília 70910-900, Brazil
Interests: emotional labor; burnout syndrome; organizational psychology

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Guest Editor
Centros de Investigação: OSEAN na UMA e ao CINEICC da UC, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3040-256 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: entrepreneurship; work-family/life relationship; emotions (emotional labor, emotion regulation); well-being at work; psychosocial risks, trust, and burnout; technology, work in/of the future, and industry 4.0/5.0; human-robot interaction

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of the UN 2030 Agenda, this Special Issue aims to address related theoretical–methodological aspects and disseminate empirical studies from different countries on emotional labor, stress, decent work, and well-being at work. We expect that there would be a contribution to the nomological network, providing better differentiation and interrelation between the concepts and theoretical bases that guide research in that field. We also intend to disseminate empirical studies that help elaborate management policies to improve the dignity and quality of life at work. Considering Agendas 3 (Establish Good Health and Well-Being), 8 (Create Decent Work and Economic Growth), and 10 (Reduce Inequality), we expect contributions from authors whose research focuses on those relevant topics.

Prof. Dr. Sônia Maria Guedes Gondim
Prof. Dr. Mary Sandra Carlotto
Dr. Carla Carvalho
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • emotional labor
  • workplace stress
  • well-being at work
  • decent work
  • psychology of work
  • research methods
  • sustainable development

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 596 KiB  
Article
Age and Burnout: The Mediating Role of Emotion-Regulation Strategies
by Bianca Mendes and Isabel Miguel
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(5), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13050274 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 474
Abstract
In the context of an aging workforce, this study explores the interaction between age, burnout, and emotion-regulation strategies (ERS). Despite recognized challenges in managing age diversity and employee well-being, the direct impact of age on burnout and the mediating role of ERS remain [...] Read more.
In the context of an aging workforce, this study explores the interaction between age, burnout, and emotion-regulation strategies (ERS). Despite recognized challenges in managing age diversity and employee well-being, the direct impact of age on burnout and the mediating role of ERS remain unexplored. Analyzing data from 604 Portuguese workers (aged 18–65), this study utilizes a mediation model to investigate if age is directly related to the main problems that affect the workforce presently, focusing specifically on burnout and the role that emotion-regulation abilities (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) have in controlling the burnout effects (measured by emotional exhaustion and disengagement). The findings indicate that age does not have a straightforward linear relationship with burnout or ERS choice. Although age alone does not significantly influence burnout outcomes, ERS markedly impacts these outcomes, suggesting that factors beyond age predominantly drive ERS selection and effectiveness in managing burnout. This study emphasizes the critical role of ERS in influencing burnout, suggesting the importance of equipping workers with effective emotion-regulation skills to mitigate burnout risks. Further research is warranted to disentangle the complex interrelations among age, burnout, and ERS in organizational contexts. Full article
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13 pages, 677 KiB  
Article
Burnout Syndrome and Emotional Labor in Leaders and Subordinates: A Dyad Analysis
by Michelle Engers Taube, Mary Sandra Carlotto, Sonia Maria Guedes Gondim and Carla Carvalho
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13040211 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 758
Abstract
Burnout Syndrome is considered a chronic response to occupational stressors in the work environment. Social interactions constitute one of the stressors at work that can generate negative feelings that trigger a process of contagion of the syndrome among workers in interdependent relationships. This [...] Read more.
Burnout Syndrome is considered a chronic response to occupational stressors in the work environment. Social interactions constitute one of the stressors at work that can generate negative feelings that trigger a process of contagion of the syndrome among workers in interdependent relationships. This study aimed to analyze whether emotional labor (emotional demands, emotional dissonance) at the level of the leader and subordinate dyad contributes to the manifestation of Burnout Syndrome. The participants included 244 leader–subordinate dyads who answered a questionnaire with sociodemographic and labor data, the Spanish Burnout Inventory, a subscale of the Questionnaire on the Experience and Assessment of Work, and a subscale of the Frankfurt Emotion Work Scale. Analyses were performed using the actor–partner interdependence model (APIM) through path analysis. The results indicate that the emotional demands of the leaders and the emotional dissonance of the subordinates predict the leader’s Burnout Syndrome. The Burnout Syndrome of subordinates was predicted only by the emotional demands of subordinates. Organizational actions are necessary for the better functioning of this dyad, aiming to mitigate the negative consequences of emotional labor on workers’ mental health. Full article
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24 pages, 614 KiB  
Article
Slow Work: The Mainstream Concept
by Maria João Silvestre, Sónia P. Gonçalves and Maria João Velez
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(3), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13030178 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
The global acceleration of the pace of life has led to an increase in working hours, time pressure, and intensification of work tasks in organisations, with consequences for the physical and psychological health of workers. This acceleration and its consequences make it especially [...] Read more.
The global acceleration of the pace of life has led to an increase in working hours, time pressure, and intensification of work tasks in organisations, with consequences for the physical and psychological health of workers. This acceleration and its consequences make it especially relevant to consider the principles of the slow movement and how they can be applied to the work context, focusing on the importance of slowing down the current pace of work and its implications for the sustainability of people and organisations. The key purpose of this study is to define the concept of slow work and understand its relationship with individual and organisational factors in order to extract the structuring dimensions, enabling its empirical study and practical application. Using grounded theory methodology, we conducted 12 semi-structured interviews with leaders of organisations from different sectors. Data analysis was performed using the MAXQDA programme. It was concluded that slow work is a way of working that respects the balance between individual rhythms and the objectives of the organisation, in favour of the sustainability of both parties, and that advocates qualitative goals, thinking time, individual recovery, purpose, and the humanisation of work. The main contribution is the conceptualisation of a construct that may be used in future studies, as well as in the development of organisational policies promoting the slow work culture. Full article
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17 pages, 1062 KiB  
Article
Human Resource Management Practices and Decent Work in UN Global Compact: A Qualitative Analysis of Participants’ Reports
by Anabela Magalhães, Nuno Rebelo dos Santos and Leonor Pais
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010056 - 15 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1325
Abstract
This study aims at describing and characterizing the Human Resources practices (HRPs), as reported by organizations within the framework of the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). That endeavor was undertaken considering the concept of decent work (DW). Specifically, we intended to analyze and [...] Read more.
This study aims at describing and characterizing the Human Resources practices (HRPs), as reported by organizations within the framework of the United Nations Global Compact (UNGC). That endeavor was undertaken considering the concept of decent work (DW). Specifically, we intended to analyze and verify to what extent those practices translate and incorporate the concept of DW to build a typology of commitment levels by organizations regarding the values behind UNGC. We conducted a documentary analysis on 40 annual reports of Portuguese organizations’ participants of the UNGC. A qualitative content analysis using NVivo and a descriptive and cluster analysis based on coding similarity were performed. One output of this research is the design of a maturity typology of adhesion to the UNCG. Four levels were identified, reflecting expressed concerns with DW concepts and the UNGC Ten Principles and its integration into HRP. This research reflects the concerns of Human Resources Management (HRM) with the wellbeing, development, and conditions of employees and may support the design of future research and interventions, leading to more responsible and ethical HRM practices. Full article
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17 pages, 1210 KiB  
Article
Suggesting Context Differences Influence the Impact of Nurses’ Psychological Contracts
by John Rodwell and Julia Ellershaw
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010040 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1366
Abstract
Inconsistent findings regarding psychological contracts may be due to the variety of contexts studied. Sensemaking processes inform the psychological contract and may explain contextual differences. This study examines the psychological contract components of promises, fulfillment and breach, with negative affectivity, in relation to [...] Read more.
Inconsistent findings regarding psychological contracts may be due to the variety of contexts studied. Sensemaking processes inform the psychological contract and may explain contextual differences. This study examines the psychological contract components of promises, fulfillment and breach, with negative affectivity, in relation to employee-level outcomes in two related but different contexts. Surveys were completed by 162 hospital nurses and 218 aged care nurses, in a situation where many potential contextual moderators were held relatively constant. Both fulfillment and breach were significant and predicted multiple outcomes in each context. Similar patterns of results for fulfillment and breach suggests there may simultaneously be two forms of discrepancy mechanism underpinning the impacts of the psychological contract: assessment of continuous discrepancy (fulfillment) and assessment of discontinuous discrepancy (breach). Negative affectivity appears to have prevented relationships, particularly between breach and stress, and should be included in future psychological contract research. The consistent relationships of fulfillment and breach with organizational and occupational commitment highlights the importance of career management. The main differences by context were the negative effects of breach and the lack of an effect for promises for aged care nurses, possibly due to prestige and other differences to be investigated in future research. Full article
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15 pages, 360 KiB  
Article
Factors Affecting Job-Loss Anxiety: The Influence of Decent Work Policies and Corporate Sustainability in a Case Study of Economic Crises
by Askar Nailevich Mustafin, Galina Nikolaevna Tuguskina, Ivana Kravčáková Vozárová and Rastislav Kotulič
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(11), 639; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12110639 - 19 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1832
Abstract
This study examined the factors affecting the fear of job loss, which is characteristic of various phases of an economic crisis. We used a representative sample of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-Higher School of Economics for 2007, 2009, 2013, 2015, 2019, [...] Read more.
This study examined the factors affecting the fear of job loss, which is characteristic of various phases of an economic crisis. We used a representative sample of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-Higher School of Economics for 2007, 2009, 2013, 2015, 2019, and 2021. It was assumed that the factors that determine the level of layoff anxiety are dynamic. The current economic conditions caused by both the COVID-19 pandemic and the growing prerequisites of a new economic crisis in Russia have promoted increased interest in this area. Method: Binary choice models were estimated using the maximum likelihood method with the calculation of average marginal effects. State ownership in the capital of an organization, a high income, job satisfaction, good qualifications, and a positive assessment of one’s health reduce layoff anxiety. The fear of job loss was found to peak at 45 years of age. The factors associated with job insecurity can be permanent or temporary, depending on the phase of the economic cycle. The conclusions of this study may be of interest to the management of organizations interested in increasing the efficiency of labor and production. Full article
22 pages, 4260 KiB  
Article
Sentiment Analysis on Twitter-Based Teleworking in a Post-Pandemic COVID-19 Context
by Joan Sebastián Rojas Rincón, Andrés Ricardo Riveros Tarazona, Andrés Mauricio Mejía Martínez and Julio César Acosta-Prado
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(11), 623; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12110623 - 8 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1684
Abstract
The implementation of the telework model has become popular globally due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, this new model of work organization generates conflicting opinions regarding the positive and negative effects that its implementation can bring to organizations. In this study, sentiment analysis [...] Read more.
The implementation of the telework model has become popular globally due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, this new model of work organization generates conflicting opinions regarding the positive and negative effects that its implementation can bring to organizations. In this study, sentiment analysis of Twitter-based teleworking in a post-pandemic COVID-19 context was conducted. A set of Twitter conversations is examined by applying text mining and opinion analysis techniques. The results show the prevalence of positive sentiments regarding telework. In addition, opinions are generally associated with confidence, anticipation, and joy. According to the results, it is recommended to consider telework as an opportunity to improve worker well-being. However, it is important to consider some factors, such as the sector to which the company belongs, the characteristics of the job, and the working conditions. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Emocional Labor in Educacional and Intervention Workers in Chile, Uruguay and Spain

Abstract: This study analyze dimensions of emotional labor in schools and social work facilities. Intensity of dimensions and their association with wellbeing, quality of life related to health and stress symptoms are examined. Conclusions for organizational interventions are discussed

Title: Is there a single profile of a victim of workplace bullying? The prevalence of workplace bullying in the educational sector in Spain and its consequences for teachers' health.

Abstract: Dysfunctional work environments are characterized by the presence of psycho-social risks, such as workplace bullying (WB): hostile, systematic and planned behaviors towards other workers in order to get them to leave the organization they work for. The aims of this study are: (1) To analyze the prevalence of WB in a sample of teachers; (2) to determine the relationship between socio-demographic and socio-labor variables in relation to three study groups: Teachers who are victims of WB, Violent behaviors and Null or low violence. The sample consists of 3,442 teachers working in publicly regulated educational centers located in the province of Valencia (Spain). Estimated frequencies, cross-tabulations and effect size were performed, using SPSS 24. The following results were obtained: (1) 12.26% of the total sample were potential WB cases; (2) Potential victims of WB were not influenced by the socio-demographic and socio-labor variables proposed. The results obtained did not make it possible to determine a single profile of a victim of WB in the sector studied. It is recommended that training protocols be developed aimed at the recognition and comprehensive management of WB processes in educational centers, in order to achieve healthier educational environments and to improve the well-being of teachers.

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