Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods

A special issue of Social Sciences (ISSN 2076-0760). This special issue belongs to the section "Gender Studies".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 October 2023) | Viewed by 43187

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Social Work, Care and Community, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4BU, UK
Interests: sexualities and sexual health; gender politics and diversity; parenting, and education for equality with young people, children and the professionals who work with them
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Education, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
Interests: sexual harassment and gender-based violence in education settings; the development of research-informed prevention models; genders; sexualities; equalities and education

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Call for Papers on Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods.

Studies of gender-related violence (GRV) are concerned with problematising the structural and cultural hierarchies that create normativities and marginalities by gender and all the intersecting dimensions of social life, especially age, race, sexuality, class and ability. The concept was intended to expand on gender-based violence (GBV) to strengthen intersectional thinking and its power in research and interventions. From whichever discipline and theoretical approach gender and violence are studied, specific methodological challenges arise that require sensitive, private and anonymised, collaborative, empowering and intersectional research approaches. It needs the very highest standards of feminist research and indeed calls into question what we mean by feminist research. What do both experienced and early career researchers have to share as lessons about intersectional methodological and ethical practice? What innovations in this area offer good practice for research more broadly? This Special Issue will bring together early career researchers and established names in the field internationally to share their insights around intersectional methodologies for researching gender-related violence.

For consideration, please submit extended abstracts by 1 November 2021. Please submit your abstract to special issue editors, Prof Pam Alldred (pam.alldred@ntu.ac.uk) and Prof Vanita Sundaram (vanita.sundaram@york.ac.uk). For those accepted for consideration, paper submission will be due 30 April 2022 for preliminary review.

Prof. Dr. Pam Alldred
Prof. Dr. Vanita Sundaram
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • gender-related violence
  • gender based violence
  • inequalities
  • social justice
  • researching sensitive topics
  • intersectionality
  • research ethics
  • feminist methods

Published Papers (18 papers)

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16 pages, 886 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Gender-Related Digital Violence Training in Catalonia
by Catalina Guerrero-Sanchez, Jordi Bonet-Marti and Barbara Biglia
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13020096 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
This study examines the results of evaluating a Catalan training program for practitioners working with survivors of gender-related violence. Considering the lack of scientific evidence previously shown by studies on this topic, this article aimed to triangulate the participants’ self-perception with their assessment [...] Read more.
This study examines the results of evaluating a Catalan training program for practitioners working with survivors of gender-related violence. Considering the lack of scientific evidence previously shown by studies on this topic, this article aimed to triangulate the participants’ self-perception with their assessment of knowledge and competencies in tackling digital gender-related violence before and after the training. To do so, a pre-test and post-test case-based design was employed to identify and measure the participants’ improvement in self-perceived knowledge and their effective gain in knowledge and skills to address this kind of violence. Considering the contributions of a feminist evaluation approach, we also included in our evaluation the analysis of classroom interactions and the participants’ responses. The results overall demonstrate that the incorporation of assessment criteria from the feminist evaluation methodology increased the reliability of evaluation criteria. In addition, it also enabled us to identify the need to continue developing training programs that empower participants and prevent women and LGBTQI+ people from disengaging from digital spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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19 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
Tackling Gender-Related Violence: How Can Theory Inform International Professional Education Projects?
by gigi guizzo and Pam Alldred
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010061 - 17 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Is it helpful to share feminist theory with youth practitioners and is there room for it on short training courses such as in EU Action Projects? Can theoretical work on intersectionality, and the concept of gender-related violence (GRV) which grew from it, be [...] Read more.
Is it helpful to share feminist theory with youth practitioners and is there room for it on short training courses such as in EU Action Projects? Can theoretical work on intersectionality, and the concept of gender-related violence (GRV) which grew from it, be shared in training interventions with professionals who work with children and young people? This article is based on the findings of the EU co-funded GAP Work Project that sought to improve GRV intervention and referral through training for practitioners in everyday (rather than specialist) contact with children or young people in four countries. Summarising how the project worked, and how theory informed it, including a brief account of how the concept of GRV worked in practice, guides the selection of material from the wider Project Final Report and offers a reflection on how educators used theory in the training, sometimes explicitly in the sessions. It therefore contributes our experiences to discussions about the design and implementation of education and training about violence and abuse. It concludes by sharing resources for designing and implementing training on sexual harassment, violence and hate crime, including from other recent projects that offer resources for incorporating an intersectional perspective when developing local government plans, programmes, and projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
15 pages, 838 KiB  
Article
The Background Factors and Reality of Domestic Abuse Faced by High-Income Women: An Online Survey in Japan
by Zixuan Wang and Takashi Sekiyama
Soc. Sci. 2024, 13(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci13010055 - 15 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1034
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the prevalence and factors influencing domestic abuse victimization among high-income women in Japan, including physical, psychological, economic, and sexual abuse. The background factors and reality of domestic abuse faced by high-income women have not been sufficiently addressed, although [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the prevalence and factors influencing domestic abuse victimization among high-income women in Japan, including physical, psychological, economic, and sexual abuse. The background factors and reality of domestic abuse faced by high-income women have not been sufficiently addressed, although some academic studies contend that economically disadvantaged women are more susceptible to domestic abuse. This study collected data from 359 high-income women in Japan using an online questionnaire survey. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the contributing factors. Approximately one-fifth of high-income women had suffered physical, economic, and sexual domestic abuse, and approximately two-fifths had experienced psychological violence. Adverse childhood experiences, the degree of approval of traditional gender norms, quarrels over opposing views on traditional gender norms, and partners’ education levels considerably influenced the prevalence of domestic abuse among high-income female victims. In contrast with the literature, the earnings gap between female victims and their partners did not yield meaningful results. This study examines the experiences of four types of domestic abuse among high-income women in East Asia and highlights the factors that contribute to it, as exemplified by Japan, which is a research direction that has not received sufficient attention. It also offers valuable insight into domestic abuse support policies that target low-income women in contemporary society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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21 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Gender, Shame, and Social Support in LGBTQI+ Exposed to Discrimination: A Model for Understanding the Impact on Mental Health
by Joana Cabral and Tiago Miguel Pinto
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(8), 454; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12080454 - 15 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2906
Abstract
Discrimination and homonegativity have been consistently linked to poorer mental health outcomes in LGBTQI+ individuals. However, little is known about the role of internal shame and the potential moderating role of social support. This cross-sectional study investigated the impact of discrimination, internal shame, [...] Read more.
Discrimination and homonegativity have been consistently linked to poorer mental health outcomes in LGBTQI+ individuals. However, little is known about the role of internal shame and the potential moderating role of social support. This cross-sectional study investigated the impact of discrimination, internal shame, and social support on mental health outcomes in LGBTQI+ individuals, exploring the intersection between gender and sexual orientation. LGBTQI+ participants, especially women, reveal higher levels of discrimination and shame and a stronger impact on mental health outcomes compared to heterosexual counter-partners. Internal shame was found to mediate the impact of discrimination on depression and anxiety. Social support was found to buffer the impact of discrimination on internal shame, depression, and anxiety. These findings have important implications for clinical practice with LGBTQI+ individuals, suggesting that addressing internal shame and building social support networks are central to promoting resilience and mental health. Results also highlight that gender and sexual orientation should be considered in an intersectional approach when addressing gender-based violence and discrimination and its impact on mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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13 pages, 722 KiB  
Article
Theorising Gender-Based Violence Policies: A 7P Framework
by Lut Mergaert, Marcela Linková and Sofia Strid
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(7), 385; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12070385 - 29 Jun 2023
Viewed by 3182
Abstract
This paper presents and critically interrogates a comprehensive 7Ps framework for analysing and addressing gender-based violence. It takes the UN and the Council of Europe’s models as points of departure and develops the framework beyond the current state of the art, explains its [...] Read more.
This paper presents and critically interrogates a comprehensive 7Ps framework for analysing and addressing gender-based violence. It takes the UN and the Council of Europe’s models as points of departure and develops the framework beyond the current state of the art, explains its different components, and offers reflections on its use in the practice of gender-based violence research. The UN 3P model, encompassing prevention, protection, and prosecution, later developed by the Council of Europe’s Istanbul Convention into a 4P model, comprising prevention, protection, prosecution, and integrated policies, has since been revisited, elaborated upon, and expanded in work focusing on gender-based violence in particular domains, such as female genital mutilation or gender-based violence in sport. To study gender-based violence in academia, the comprehensive 7Ps analytical framework has been deployed to interrogate the policies in place at national and institutional levels, including sexual harassment. Based on empirical data and conceptual analysis in the EU project UniSAFE: Gender-based violence and institutional responses: Building a knowledge base and operational tools to make universities and research organisations safe (2021–2024), the paper argues that the refined 7Ps model, comprising Prevalence, Prevention, Protection, Prosecution of offenders (and disciplinary measures), Provision of services, Partnerships between actors, and Policies specifically addressing the issue, allows for a more encompassing approach, in turn allowing a more fine-grained understanding of variations and explanations for success (or lack thereof) in terms of outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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22 pages, 392 KiB  
Article
Measuring Resilience and the Importance of Resource Connectivities: Revising the Adult Resilience Measure (RRC-ARM)
by Janine Natalya Clark and Philip Jefferies
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(5), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12050290 - 08 May 2023
Viewed by 2219
Abstract
There have been many efforts to measure and quantify resilience, and various scales have been developed. This article draws on a mixed methods study which involved the application of one particular scale—the Resilience Research Centre-Adult Resilience Measure (referred to throughout as the ARM). [...] Read more.
There have been many efforts to measure and quantify resilience, and various scales have been developed. This article draws on a mixed methods study which involved the application of one particular scale—the Resilience Research Centre-Adult Resilience Measure (referred to throughout as the ARM). Rather than focus on the quantitative results, however, which have been presented elsewhere, this unique article draws on the qualitative results of the study—semi-structured interviews with victims-/survivors of conflict-related sexual violence in Bosnia–Herzegovina (BiH), Colombia and Uganda—to explore and discuss some of the ARM’s shortcomings. It develops its empirical analyses around the crucial concept of connectivity, “borrowed” from the field of ecology, and the three elements of the study’s connectivity framework—broken and ruptured connectivities, supportive and sustaining connectivities and new connectivities. Through its analyses, the article highlights aspects of the ARM that could potentially be improved or developed in future research, and it ultimately proposes some concrete revisions to the measure, including two additional scales relating to change and importance, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
16 pages, 4185 KiB  
Article
Reaching Out: Using Social Media to Recruit ‘Invisible Groups’: The Case of South Asian Women in the UK Experiencing Gender-Related Violence
by Kalwinder Sandhu, Geraldine Brady and Hazel Barrett
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12040212 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1720
Abstract
The rise of social media use has been phenomenal, particularly during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, Facebook has also seen its share of users rise at a meteoric rate. At the same time, the academy is producing a growing body of literature concerning [...] Read more.
The rise of social media use has been phenomenal, particularly during the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, Facebook has also seen its share of users rise at a meteoric rate. At the same time, the academy is producing a growing body of literature concerning the use of online methods for primary data collection. Yet, despite the increase in the use of the internet as a research tool, very little still exists on the use of social media to recruit research participants, particularly those deemed “socially invisible”. This paper addresses this gap. Another research project explored the experiences of South Asian women who had departed the social norms of arranged marriage to form an intimate relationship with a partner of choice and who then experienced forms of gender-related violence (GRV). The project encountered difficulties in recruiting participants from this marginalised and often invisible group in UK society, who are often too frightened or ashamed to come forward. This study demonstrates how to use Facebook ethically and methodologically, highlighting some of the methods used to overcome the challenges that were presented. The research was undertaken before the COVID-19 pandemic (which prompted a widespread use of social media in social science research). We argue that, despite the ethical challenges, the advantages of using social media to recruit participants when researching a highly sensitive topic such as GRV with ‘invisible groups’ was highly beneficial. We therefore suggest that social media should be an integral part of the research recruitment process, alongside non-digital methods, so that other ‘invisible groups’ are not created comprising those who cannot access technology. We share the lessons learned for the benefit of researchers using a similar approach today when recruiting research participants from invisible and marginalised groups. The authors caveat their recommendation of using social media with suggesting that those who do not have high levels of experience of data collection with such cohorts instead consider working with gatekeepers to facilitate the recruitment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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16 pages, 342 KiB  
Article
Intersections of Women as Survivors: Disclosures of Violence and Global Research Standards in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago
by Ruth Rodney, Sireesha Bobbili, Gabrielle Hosein and Emmanuelle Cummings
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12010031 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
Global guidelines on VAWG research prioritize safety-first approaches to discuss experiences of violence with survivors. Guidelines recommend that survivors only be interviewed in confidential and private interviews. However, little is known about why and how women choose to disclose experiences of violence in [...] Read more.
Global guidelines on VAWG research prioritize safety-first approaches to discuss experiences of violence with survivors. Guidelines recommend that survivors only be interviewed in confidential and private interviews. However, little is known about why and how women choose to disclose experiences of violence in focus group settings. Utilizing survivor quotes and reflexive notes from the qualitative components of the first national prevalence surveys on VAWG in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago, we reflect on women’s decisions to disclose experiences of violence in focus groups. Our results illustrate that women’s choice to speak out about previous experiences of violence and in some cases, irrespective of the guidelines provided for focus group discussions, aligns with the unapologetic nature of Caribbean feminist organizing in the region. Identifying as a survivor of gender-based violence holds different meanings for women based on when the relationship occurred and the sense of insight and empowerment they gained and therefore guides which information and where women feel comfortable disclosing. Researchers should ensure safety-first approaches are followed and also support women who choose to disclose experiences of violence outside of confidential interviews. Focus groups can be areas where women disclose violence and should be addressed through preparation rather than as an error in ethical research practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
15 pages, 311 KiB  
Article
Queer Positionality and Researching University Lad Culture
by Annis Elizabeth Stenson
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(12), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11120562 - 30 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1870
Abstract
This paper reflects on my experiences as a queer researcher investigating the relationship between university lad culture and gender-related violence. Gender-related violence is analysed as a useful conceptual tool for considering lad culture, owing to the relationship between lad culture and sexual violence, [...] Read more.
This paper reflects on my experiences as a queer researcher investigating the relationship between university lad culture and gender-related violence. Gender-related violence is analysed as a useful conceptual tool for considering lad culture, owing to the relationship between lad culture and sexual violence, LGBT-phobia and the privileging of white, young, heterosexual men within lad culture. Using reflections from my doctoral case study research, in which I collected data from self-identified ‘lads’ (5 in-depth interviews), I will consider the challenges and benefits of my researcher position in relation the research methodology. Then, using a re-analysis of interviews, I will argue that my researcher position led to certain presentations of lad culture from my participants. Self-Identified Lad (SIL) participants presented themselves as distant from lad culture, showed queerness/hid homophobia within lad culture and were willing to discuss sexual violence. While the case study yielded only a small sample of SILs, a benefit of my researcher position is that this project was the first to conduct interviews with LGB lads and one female lad. My queer feminist position has therefore produced a unique insight into lads who identify with lad culture but discursively position themselves as fringe members. This contributes to theorisations of a laddish continuum, and allows us to consider why some self-identified lads are on the fringes, and what this tells us about lad culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
12 pages, 592 KiB  
Article
Gender-Related Violence in Young People’s Lives: UK Practitioners’ Concerns and Planned Interventions
by Mika Neil Cooper-Levitan and Pam Alldred
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110535 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1524
Abstract
Youth workers are on the front line for supporting children and young people with the violence some of them face. However, education and training for this part of the role seemed lacking in our experience as a Youth and Community Worker and a [...] Read more.
Youth workers are on the front line for supporting children and young people with the violence some of them face. However, education and training for this part of the role seemed lacking in our experience as a Youth and Community Worker and a Youth and Community Work Lecturer in the UK. An international project that sought to address this educational gap for ‘youth practitioners’ had a UK arm, which is the context for this article. This project created a three-day training course that sought to improve responses to gender-related violence (GRV) by increasing awareness, improving knowledge about providing support and making referrals, and also sought to prevent or reduce gender-related violence by challenging the inequalities on which it rests. The UK ‘youth practitioners’ who attended the training wrote almost 500 ‘action plans’—plans to act on the basis of the training, and analysis of these offers an indication of their concerns and priorities. Here, we present the concerns that UK-based teachers and youth workers had for the children and young people they worked with, and the forms of violence they were aware of when they began this training course. We then describe the interventions with young people or changes to their practice that these attendees said they would make in response to the training once they were back at work. This provides an agenda for action in youth, education and social services to address gender-related violence in the lives of children and young people in the UK. By the end of the training, the interventions they had committed to making included changes to their own practice, showing their reflexivity and their understanding that key tools for tackling gender-related violence included their own behaviour and reflexive practice in their service or team. They highlighted the need for culture change at an organisational level, and identified the problems of sexism and homophobia, even in their own workplaces. Their views about the value of the term gender-related violence (GRV) were mixed, with some practitioners finding it unnecessarily theoretical and others finding it a helpful link between areas of discrimination and of violence that they tended to tackle separately, such as between homophobia and violence against women and girls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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17 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
An Insider–Outsider Approach to Understanding the Prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation in Pusiga in the Upper East Region of Ghana
by Benedict Ekow Ocran and Godwin Agot Atiigah
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(11), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11110526 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) as a form of gender-related violence continues to thrive within communities and across borders, with (under)reported prevalence among communities in the diaspora. Reports of FGM/C among communities in the diaspora speak to the socio-cultural and religious factors which promote [...] Read more.
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) as a form of gender-related violence continues to thrive within communities and across borders, with (under)reported prevalence among communities in the diaspora. Reports of FGM/C among communities in the diaspora speak to the socio-cultural and religious factors which promote its prevalence. Successful interventions offer alternatives such as rites of passage to the socio-cultural-religious prospects offered by FGM/C to practicing communities. This suggests the need for a critical approach to research methods that engage intimately with the worldview of communities practicing FGM/C while inferring implications for designing health-promotion interventions in specific contexts. This paper draws on the insider and outsider approach to positionality to assess the factors accounting for the prevalence of FGM/C in Pusiga (3.8% nationally and 27.8% in Pusiga) in the Upper East Region of Ghana while inferring lessons for designing health promotion interventions. Applying a phenomenological qualitative design guided by focus groups and interviews, we draw on the insider approach to present a contextually and culturally sensitive report of five survivors, five non-survivors, and ten religious leaders on factors that account for the prevalence of FGM/C. Next, we assume an outsider approach to infer implications based on participants’ perspectives for designing health promotion interventions to curb FGM/C. The findings suggest shifting from socio-cultural-religious factors to economic undertones underpinning FGM/C. Inter-generational differences also vary attitudes toward FGM/C. We recommend a systematic approach to health promotion that addresses FGM/C’s deep socio-cultural and economic, religious underpinnings of FGM/C in Pusiga. The insider–outsider continuum in feminist research provides a powerful approach to producing knowledge on contextual factors that account for FGM/C in particular settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
16 pages, 356 KiB  
Article
New Materialism, Micropolitics and the Everyday Production of Gender-Related Violence
by Nick J. Fox and Pam Alldred
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(9), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11090380 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3088
Abstract
This paper assesses how a new materialist ontology can inform the sociological study of gender-related violence (GRV). The new materialisms are relational rather than essentialist; post-anthropocentric as opposed to humanist; and replace dualisms such as agency/structure, reason/emotion and micro/macro with a monist or [...] Read more.
This paper assesses how a new materialist ontology can inform the sociological study of gender-related violence (GRV). The new materialisms are relational rather than essentialist; post-anthropocentric as opposed to humanist; and replace dualisms such as agency/structure, reason/emotion and micro/macro with a monist or ‘flat’ ontology. To make sense of GRV from within this ontology, we explore violence as assemblages of human and non-human matter and draw upon the DeleuzoGuattarian micropolitical concepts of ‘the war machine’ and ‘lines of flight’. While violence may supply a protagonist with new capacities (a line of flight), it typically closes down or constrains the capacities of one or more other parties in a violence-assemblage. This theoretical exploration establishes the basis for a methodological approach to studying GRV empirically, using a Deleuzian toolkit of affects, assemblages, capacities and micropolitics. The paper concludes with an assessment of what is gained from this new materialist ontology of GRV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
19 pages, 372 KiB  
Article
Researching Students’ Experiences of Sexual and Gender-Based Violence and Harassment: Reflections and Recommendations from Surveys of Three UK HEIs
by Anna Bull, Marian Duggan and Louise Livesey
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(8), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080373 - 18 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3405
Abstract
In the US, ‘campus climate surveys’ are an established measure of the prevalence of, and students’ awareness of and attitudes to sexual and gender-based violence and harassment (SGBVH). They are regularly carried out by universities to assist SGBVH prevention and responses. Such surveys [...] Read more.
In the US, ‘campus climate surveys’ are an established measure of the prevalence of, and students’ awareness of and attitudes to sexual and gender-based violence and harassment (SGBVH). They are regularly carried out by universities to assist SGBVH prevention and responses. Such surveys have only recently started to be carried out within UK higher education institutions (HEIs) and the three authors of this article all independently undertook such surveys in different HEIs. Comparing our experiences of undertaking these surveys across three HEIs allows us to explore similarities and differences in our experiences of this type of research, in particular the challenges which arose in carrying out such research in three very different types of HEI. This article presents reflections on the methodological and political challenges of such work. We discuss our rationales for initiating these projects, the methodological approaches we employed, the governance structures navigated in pursuing the research and the difficulties that arose in conducting and reporting on the research. This article will be of interest to academics, activists, and policy-makers—domestically and internationally—who wish to carry out such research. By comparing approaches, we draw attention to issues and potential impediments of relevance to others wanting to embark on similar work within their own HEI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
19 pages, 609 KiB  
Article
A Web Model of Domestic Violence and Abuse in Muslim Communities—A Multi Perspective IPA Approach
by Rahmanara Chowdhury and Belinda Winder
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(8), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080354 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3508
Abstract
This paper brings together two qualitative studies exploring how domestic violence and abuse (DVA) manifests within UK Muslim communities. Study one was conducted with UK-based Muslim female survivors of DVA (n = 10). Study two was conducted with UK professionals working in [...] Read more.
This paper brings together two qualitative studies exploring how domestic violence and abuse (DVA) manifests within UK Muslim communities. Study one was conducted with UK-based Muslim female survivors of DVA (n = 10). Study two was conducted with UK professionals working in a supportive capacity with both DVA victims/survivors and those perpetrating abuse within Muslim communities (n = 9). Through a multi-perspective interpretative phenomenological lens, the two data sets were analysed for overarching themes. These themes were subsequently used to develop a graphical representation of the findings. The resulting outcome was the web model of DVA. The model identifies the trajectories and interactions at four levels in relation to DVA in Muslim communities. It is argued that this model has increased capacity for understanding the extended nature of how DVA manifests for UK Muslim communities, with a particular emphasis on the active role of faith and additional nuances often missed by singular methodological approaches. The model is recommended for use by services as a means toward individually tailored client care. Recommendations are made in relation to inclusive and decolonial approaches within gender-related violence research relating to minority communities in the UK. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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11 pages, 247 KiB  
Article
Safeguarding and Agency: Methodological Tensions in Conducting Research with Survivors of Sexual Violence in Universities
by Erin R. Shannon
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(8), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080350 - 07 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1601
Abstract
This paper examines the tension between safeguarding measures and participant agency in conducting feminist interviews with survivors of sexual violence in universities. There is a core contradiction inherent in feminist research of gender-related violence, including sexual violence, because participants have been traumatized: Research [...] Read more.
This paper examines the tension between safeguarding measures and participant agency in conducting feminist interviews with survivors of sexual violence in universities. There is a core contradiction inherent in feminist research of gender-related violence, including sexual violence, because participants have been traumatized: Research with survivors of violence must enact appropriate safeguarding measures to ensure their emotional wellbeing, yet in designing these safeguarding measures, researchers must also ensure that survivor participants can exert agency within the research process. These phenomena are often at odds as safeguarding—the work of protecting participants through limiting their exposure to upsetting stimuli—appears to circumscribe participant agency, or a participant’s ability to make informed choices for themselves that respond to and change the structures in which they are situated. Using part of my doctoral thesis research’s methodology, I detail the safeguarding measures I implemented for participants as well as highlight how and where I attempted to build in agential engagement for survivor participants, and whether, or how often, survivors took up these options. The article concludes by suggesting ways gender-related violence research more broadly can reflect on and continue to interrogate how researchers balance safeguarding requirements while enabling survivors to assert their agency in the research process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
16 pages, 351 KiB  
Article
The Contribution of Critical Pedagogy to Feminist Research on Sexual Violence
by Esther Luna and María José Rubio-Martín
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(8), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080328 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
As a form of scientific enquiry, feminist research aims to produce knowledge that is decentred from, as well as decentres, androcentrism. It also establishes challenges that send us back to methodology and how we produce knowledge. Feminist research on sexual violence proposes a [...] Read more.
As a form of scientific enquiry, feminist research aims to produce knowledge that is decentred from, as well as decentres, androcentrism. It also establishes challenges that send us back to methodology and how we produce knowledge. Feminist research on sexual violence proposes a number of methodological challenges that open new paths for exploration: integrating intersectionality into research; reflexivity as a criterion of rigour; the development of research techniques that respect the voices and practices of women as active agents; and the role of emotions in research. In order to analyse to what degree methodological challenges are being met and what work is still to be done, we reviewed various Spanish studies (published between 2015 and early 2022) that used a feminist approach to research sexual violence. Subsequently, using illustrations from two studies we have implemented, we outlined how critical pedagogy can make an important contribution to the methodological challenges of feminist research in this field. The article proposes that a closer relationship between socio-educational praxis (critical methodology) and feminist approaches can contribute to an enrichment and improvement of scientific praxis (feminist methodology), as well as showing how knowledge production can straddle scientific concerns and social intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
12 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Characteristics and Impacts of Conflict-Related Sexual Violence against Men in the DRC: A Phenomenological Research Design
by Ines Yagi, Judith Malette, Timothee Mwindo and Buuma Maisha
Soc. Sci. 2022, 11(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11020034 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3524
Abstract
There is increased evidence of the existence of sexual violence against men and boys in many war-stricken areas. Yet, there are still discrepancies in understanding male victims’ experience in depth. Furthermore, limited research on sexual violence against men in the context of the [...] Read more.
There is increased evidence of the existence of sexual violence against men and boys in many war-stricken areas. Yet, there are still discrepancies in understanding male victims’ experience in depth. Furthermore, limited research on sexual violence against men in the context of the war in the Eastern Region of the Congo has been undertaken to date. As part of addressing this knowledge gap, a phenomenological study was conducted to shed light and understand the experience of male survivors of sexual violence. The participants were males who experienced sexual violence in the war. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. The findings show that participants experienced a wide range of psychological and physical wounds other than rape. Their experience during the event (s) falls under the umbrella term gender-based violence (GBV) which encompasses other forms of harmful acts against one’s will including sexual assault, genital mutilation, acts of penetration with different objects, and cultural inappropriate actions with intention to sexually harass and humiliate. The results show a wide and complex range of short and long-term impact on multiple levels. The findings add clarification and understanding to the controversial and taboo subject around conflict-related sexual violence against men in the Congo. They shed light on how the understanding of gender impacts participants’ masculine identity, their sexual victimization experience, and healing journey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)

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16 pages, 357 KiB  
Concept Paper
Gender-Related Violence: What Can a Concept Do?
by Pam Alldred
Soc. Sci. 2023, 12(9), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci12090479 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
This paper explains the logic for using the concept of gender-related violence (GRV) as a broad category that problematises homophobia, transphobia and the policing of gender norms and the gender binary, as well as gender-based violence—understood as primarily violence against women and girls [...] Read more.
This paper explains the logic for using the concept of gender-related violence (GRV) as a broad category that problematises homophobia, transphobia and the policing of gender norms and the gender binary, as well as gender-based violence—understood as primarily violence against women and girls (VAWG). It then evaluates the utility of this concept and its capacity to introduce theoretical refinement to the study of gendered violence, by reviewing its reception within a large international feminist project on gendered violence in the lives of children and young people. The aim of this study was to improve knowledge and understanding of forms of violence and discrimination among practitioners who have everyday contact with general populations of children and young people. It sought to improve their ability to identify and challenge sexist, sexualising, homophobic or transphobic language or behaviour, and their knowledge of how and when to refer children and young people to appropriate support. The paper reports my view of the contribution that the concept of gender-related violence made in each of the four project sites: Ireland, Italy, Spain and the UK. The findings are mixed: in Spain and the UK the concept seemed helpful, but in Italy and Ireland it was initially expected to be helpful but, in practice, a conceptualisation closer to gender-based violence plus homophobia was employed. It is tentatively concluded that where LGBTQIA+ rights were well-established as well as the problematisation of VAWG, this framework was successful, but that it was less successful in more heteronormative sites where homophobia was less problematised. It is suggested that, as a concept, GRV can make a valuable intervention in sites like the former. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender-Related Violence: Social Sciences’ Research & Methods)
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