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Metals, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2020) – 131 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The crystallization process at the initial and subsequent stages of amorphous Al88–RE4–Ni8 melt spun ribbons (RE = Y, Sm, and Ce), with 1 at % Cu replacing Ni or Al, is presented. The stabilities of the Ce alloys are the highest. Cu reduces the nanocrystal size during primary crystallization. Intermetallic phases appearing at higher temperatures include Al3Ni and Al11Ce3 for Ce alloy. A more complex evolution from metastable ternary phases to Al19RE5Ni3 occurs for Y and Sm alloys. Shape changes occur from equiaxial in Ce alloys to elongate for Y and Sm, with longer particles for Sm and, in general, when Cu is present. View this paper
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14 pages, 17371 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Behavior and Mechanical Properties of AISI 316 Stainless Steel Clad Q235 Plate
Metals 2020, 10(4), 552; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040552 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4413
Abstract
This paper deals with carbon steel and stainless steel clad-plate properties. Cladding is performed by the submerged-arc welding (SAW) overlay process. Due to element diffusion (Fe, Cr, Ni, and Mn), a 1.5 mm wide diffusion layer is formed between the stainless steel and [...] Read more.
This paper deals with carbon steel and stainless steel clad-plate properties. Cladding is performed by the submerged-arc welding (SAW) overlay process. Due to element diffusion (Fe, Cr, Ni, and Mn), a 1.5 mm wide diffusion layer is formed between the stainless steel and carbon steel interface of the cladded plate affecting corrosion resistance. Pitting resistance is evaluated by measuring the critical-pitting temperature (CPT), as described in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) G-48 standard test. Additionally, Huey immersion tests, in accordance with ASTM A262, Type C, are carried out to evaluate the intergranular corrosion resistance. Some hardness peaks are detected in microalloyed steel close to the molten interface line in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ). Results show that stress-relieving treatments are not sufficient to avoid hardness peaks. The hardness peaks in the CGHAZ of the microalloyed steel disappear after quenching and tempering (Q and T). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heat Treatment of Steels)
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17 pages, 4813 KiB  
Article
Caliche and Seawater, Sources of Nitrate and Chloride Ions to Chalcopyrite Leaching in Acid Media
Metals 2020, 10(4), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040551 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2952
Abstract
Hydrometallurgical processing of chalcopyrite is of great interest today due to the depletion of oxidized copper minerals. This will also enable existing plants to continue operation. The objective of this work is to study the behavior of chalcopyrite leaching by stirring in an [...] Read more.
Hydrometallurgical processing of chalcopyrite is of great interest today due to the depletion of oxidized copper minerals. This will also enable existing plants to continue operation. The objective of this work is to study the behavior of chalcopyrite leaching by stirring in an acid-nitrate-chloride media where seawater and brines provide chloride ions and nitrate ions can be provided from the caliche industry. The variables studied were sulfuric acid, nitrate and chloride concentration, source of water (dissolvent), temperature, solid/liquid ratio, particle size, mineral sample, and pretreatment before the leaching process. Despite being a refractory mineral, chalcopyrite can be leached in this system obtaining favorable recoveries at the conditions studied. It was possible to obtain 50% Cu in 0.7 M of H2SO4 and NaNO3, using brine at 45 °C. The nitrate-chloride-acid system was highly temperature dependent, with an activation energy of 82.6 kJ/mol, indicative of chemical reaction control of leaching kinetics. SEM/EDS indicated the presence of sulfur on the surface of the mineral after leaching. This study demonstrates that sources such as seawater or discard brines (such as from the reverse osmosis process) and waste (solid or solutions) from the caliche industry can provide a highly oxidative system for the dissolution of chalcopyrite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Metals: Metallurgy and Metal Technology)
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11 pages, 3461 KiB  
Article
Effect of Roasting Temperature on Phase Transformation in Co-Reduction Roasting of Nickel Slag
Metals 2020, 10(4), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040550 - 24 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
Nickel slag and blast furnace dust comprise a large part of solid waste produced by the metallurgical industry. In this study, a novel method of co-reduction roasting followed by grinding/magnetic separation was proposed to collaboratively reutilize nickel slag and blast furnace dust. The [...] Read more.
Nickel slag and blast furnace dust comprise a large part of solid waste produced by the metallurgical industry. In this study, a novel method of co-reduction roasting followed by grinding/magnetic separation was proposed to collaboratively reutilize nickel slag and blast furnace dust. The nickel slag was combined with blast furnace dust to produce a Ni-Fe alloy containing Cu component by using the proposed method. In addition, the blast furnace dust acted not only as a reductant but also as an Fe resource. Results in this work showed that 81.62% Fe and 89% Ni could be recovered from nickel slag and blast furnace dust, and a Ni-Fe alloy product with 93.03 wt% Fe, 0.86 wt% Ni, and 0.49 wt% Cu could be obtained under optimal conditions in this study. The effect of roasting temperature on phase transformation was characterized and analyzed by XRD and SEM-EDS. The results illustrated that roasting temperature was considered as the main influence to regulate the mineral phase transformation and microstructural change in roasted product. The minerals in the nickel slag finally transformed iron and augite from fayalite containing magnesium and magnetite after the disappearance/transformation of the mineral phase. The Fe-bearing minerals were first reduced in situ position of structure into metallic Fe particles and then grown into a Ni-Fe alloy with Cu of chain structure. The new structure, instead of the original structure, formed the homogeneous slag phase and Ni-Fe alloy with Cu component. Full article
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13 pages, 9574 KiB  
Article
Effect of Cooling Rates on the Microstructure and Mechanical Property of La Modified Al7SiMg Alloys Processed by Gravity Die Casting and Semi-Solid Die Casting
Metals 2020, 10(4), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040549 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3143
Abstract
Rare earth (RE) additions are capable of refining the α-Al phase as well as modifying the eutectic Si particles of alloys. The cooling rate in casting process should be carefully concerned when the Al-Si alloys are refined and modified by adding RE elements. [...] Read more.
Rare earth (RE) additions are capable of refining the α-Al phase as well as modifying the eutectic Si particles of alloys. The cooling rate in casting process should be carefully concerned when the Al-Si alloys are refined and modified by adding RE elements. In this study, the effect of cooling rates on the microstructure and mechanical properties of La modified Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg alloys was studied in gravity die casting and semi-solid die casting. It is found that in La modified Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg alloys, with increasing the cooling rate from 0.2 to 9 K/s in gravity die casting, the α-Al grains are greatly refined and the Si particles are modified to branching morphology, which evidently increases the UTS and elongation of alloys. In addition, when increasing the cooling rate from 30 to 130 K/s in semi-solid die casting, the α-Al grains are refined from 140 to 47 μm, and the Si particles are modified to fibrous morphology, which increases the UTS from 190 to 230 MPa and elongation from 10% to 11%. However, the 0.4 wt.% La addition results to La-rich phases formed in microstructure, which impairs the mechanical properties of Al-7.0Si-0.3Mg alloys in semi-solid die casting. Full article
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15 pages, 38193 KiB  
Article
Influence of Laser-Assisted Fusing on Microstructural Evolution and Tribological Properties of NiWCrSiB Coating
Metals 2020, 10(4), 548; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040548 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
The present study examines the applicability of a diode laser-assisted fusing treatment and a temperature-control system to the NiWCrSiB thermal spray coating to develop the enhanced wear resistance of continuous-casting molds. As a result of the use of the lasers, the variations in [...] Read more.
The present study examines the applicability of a diode laser-assisted fusing treatment and a temperature-control system to the NiWCrSiB thermal spray coating to develop the enhanced wear resistance of continuous-casting molds. As a result of the use of the lasers, the variations in the microstructure and the hardening behavior during the fusing treatment could be controlled. Fine secondary phases (approximately 0.05–10 μm in size) homogeneously present in the coating after the laser-assisted fusing were observed to be Cr-, Mo- and W-based carbides and borides. Transmission electron microscope analysis was used to characterize these fine secondary phases as M7C3 and M23C6 carbides and M5B3 boride. Because of these fine secondary phases, the hardness increased from 730 (as-sprayed status) to 1230 HV (after fusing at a temperature of 1473 K). Finally, given the formation of fine secondary phases and the occurrence of surface hardening, the laser-assisted fusing treatment was deemed to enhance the tribological performance of the thermal-sprayed coating, in that it exhibited a lower coefficient of friction and lower wear rate than the as-sprayed coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clad Metals: Fabrication, Properties and Applications)
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8 pages, 2806 KiB  
Article
Effect of Nb on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti2Cu Intermetallic through the First-Principle Calculations and Experimental Investigation
Metals 2020, 10(4), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040547 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2013
Abstract
Through the first-principle calculations based on density functional theory and experimental investigation, the structural stability elastic properties and mechanical properties of Ti2Cu and Ti18Cu5Nb1 intermetallics were studied. The first-principle calculations showed that the ratio of bulk [...] Read more.
Through the first-principle calculations based on density functional theory and experimental investigation, the structural stability elastic properties and mechanical properties of Ti2Cu and Ti18Cu5Nb1 intermetallics were studied. The first-principle calculations showed that the ratio of bulk modulus to shear modulus (B/G) and Poisson’s ratio (ν) of Ti2Cu and Ti18Cu5Nb1 intermetallics were 2.03, 0.288, and 2.22, 0.304, respectively, indicating that the two intermetallics were ductile. This was confirmed by the compression tests, which showed that the plastic strain of both intermetallics was beyond 25%. In addition, the yield strength increased from the 416 to 710 MPa with the addition of Nb. The increase in strength is the result of three factors, namely covalent bond tendency, fine grain strengthening, and solid solution strengthening. This finding gives clues to design novel intermetallics with excellent mechanical properties by first-principle calculations and alloying. Full article
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9 pages, 4817 KiB  
Article
Effect of Tool Offset on the Microstructure and Properties of AA6061/AZ31B Friction Stir Welding Joints
Metals 2020, 10(4), 546; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040546 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
Friction stir welding was carried out on AA6061/AZ31B alloy, and the influence of tool offset on microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints was studied. The results showed that preferred properties were obtained when Mg was placed in the Advancing Side (AS) and [...] Read more.
Friction stir welding was carried out on AA6061/AZ31B alloy, and the influence of tool offset on microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints was studied. The results showed that preferred properties were obtained when Mg was placed in the Advancing Side (AS) and offset was positioned into Mg. The distribution of Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17 intermetallic compounds (IMCs) could be improved with offset in a certain range. The tensile strength of the joints was elevated with the increase of the offset due to the superior distribution and diminished size of IMCs, and when the offset was 1.5 mm, the joint strength reached the maximum value of 107 MPa. The microhardness of the stirring zone decreased with the increased offset. Full article
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14 pages, 3586 KiB  
Article
Solvent Extraction of Ni and Co from the Phosphoric Acid Leaching Solution of Laterite Ore by P204 and P507
Metals 2020, 10(4), 545; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040545 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5085
Abstract
An alternative process of pre-roasting, phosphoric acid leaching followed by solvent extraction of a limonitic laterite ore was described in this work, with emphasis on the solvent extraction of Ni and Co from the phosphoric acid leaching solution by P204 and P507. First, [...] Read more.
An alternative process of pre-roasting, phosphoric acid leaching followed by solvent extraction of a limonitic laterite ore was described in this work, with emphasis on the solvent extraction of Ni and Co from the phosphoric acid leaching solution by P204 and P507. First, the pH value of the leaching solution was adjusted using ammonia to reduce the content of Al3+ and Fe3+ by precipitation, then the content of Al3+, Fe3+ and Mn2+ were further decreased by extraction using P204. At last, Ni2+ and Co2+ were separated by three-stage extraction using P507. After extraction, the extraction ratio of Co2+ was 96.61%, while that of Ni2+ was 12.32%, and the selective extraction of Ni2+ and Co2+ could be realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solvent Extraction of Transition Metals)
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17 pages, 4384 KiB  
Article
Effect of Lubrication on Friction in Bending under Tension Test-Experimental and Numerical Approach
Metals 2020, 10(4), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040544 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3063
Abstract
This paper is aimed to determine the value of coefficient of friction (COF) at the rounded edge of the die in the sheet metal forming operations using the bending under tension (BUT) test. The experimental part of the investigations is devoted to the [...] Read more.
This paper is aimed to determine the value of coefficient of friction (COF) at the rounded edge of the die in the sheet metal forming operations using the bending under tension (BUT) test. The experimental part of the investigations is devoted to the study of the frictional resistances of low alloy steel sheet under different strains of the specimen, surface roughnesses of the tool and for different lubrication conditions. Three oils are destined for different conditions of duties in the stamping process. Numerical modeling of the material flow in the BUT test has been conducted in the MSC.Marc program. One of the objectives of the numerical computations is to know the type of the contact pressure acting on the cylindrical surface countersample in the BUT test by assuming the anisotropic properties of the metallic sheet. It has been found that the COF in the rounded edge of the die does not vary with increasing sheet elongation. Taking into account that normal pressure increases with increasing specimen elongation and workpiece material is subjected to strain hardening phenomenon, the COF value is very stable during the friction test. The effectiveness of the lubrication depends on the balance between two mechanisms accompanied by friction process: roughening of workpiece asperities and adhesion of the contacting surfaces. In the case of high surface roughness of tool due to a dominant share of ploughing, all of the lubricants used were not able to decrease the COF in a sufficient extent. The used lubricants were able to reduce the value of friction coefficient approximately by 3–52% in relation to the surface roughness of rolls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Forming Processes of Modern Metallic Materials)
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14 pages, 4059 KiB  
Article
Forming Complex Graded and Homogeneous Components by Joining Simple Presintered Parts of TRIP-Matrix Composite through Powder Forging
Metals 2020, 10(4), 543; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040543 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1920
Abstract
The ability to fabricate complex graded structures would be a significant step towards the manufacturing of material systems with properties tailored to individual applications. While powder metallurgy has had some success in this regard, it requires that the semi-finished products be exactly similar [...] Read more.
The ability to fabricate complex graded structures would be a significant step towards the manufacturing of material systems with properties tailored to individual applications. While powder metallurgy has had some success in this regard, it requires that the semi-finished products be exactly similar to the final component. However, it is significantly cheaper to produce simple, semi-finished products and then join them to form complex components with the desired graded structure through powder forging and simultaneous compaction. It is also essential that the graded structure of the semi-finished products is retained during the forming process. In this study, pre-sintered cylindrical semi-finished products consisting of identical homogeneous layers as well as graded components consisting of non-identical homogeneous layers were joined using powder forging at 1100 °C. The microstructures and densities as well as the mechanical properties of the final components were investigated. It was observed that, upon compaction, the components formed solid structures, in which the reinforcing ZrO2 particles were completely integrated within the transformation-induced plasticity steel matrix. Finally, it was confirmed that the graded structure of the semi-finished products was retained in the final components. Full article
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17 pages, 4158 KiB  
Article
Calibration of Advanced Yield Criteria Using Uniaxial and Heterogeneous Tensile Test Data
Metals 2020, 10(4), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040542 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2839
Abstract
Conventionally, plastic anisotropy is calibrated by using standard uniaxial tensile and biaxial test results. Alternatively, heterogeneous strain field specimens in combination with full-field measurements can be used for this purpose. As reported by the literature, such an approach reduces the number of required [...] Read more.
Conventionally, plastic anisotropy is calibrated by using standard uniaxial tensile and biaxial test results. Alternatively, heterogeneous strain field specimens in combination with full-field measurements can be used for this purpose. As reported by the literature, such an approach reduces the number of required tests enormously, but it is challenging to obtain reliable results. This paper presents an alternative methodology, which represents a compromise between the conventional and heterogeneous strain field calibration technique. The idea of the method is to use simple tests, which can be conducted on the uniaxial testing machine, and to avoid the use of advanced measuring equipment. The procedure is accomplished by conducting standard tensile tests, which are simple and reliable, and by a novel heterogeneous strain field tensile test, to calibrate the biaxial stress state. Moreover, only two of the parameters required for full characterisation need to be inversely identified from the test response; the other parameters are directly determined from the uniaxial tensile test results. This way, a dimension of optimization space is reduced substantially, which increases the robustness and effectiveness of the optimization algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Achievements in Metal Forming)
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18 pages, 5257 KiB  
Article
Titanium Nitride (TiN) Germination and Growth during Vacuum Arc Remelting of a Maraging Steel
Metals 2020, 10(4), 541; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040541 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3471
Abstract
During the processing of maraging steels, Titanium easily combines with Nitrogen to form nitride inclusions, known to be deleterious for fatigue properties of the alloy. According to thermodynamic calculations, the precipitation occurs during solidification of the vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot. A coupled [...] Read more.
During the processing of maraging steels, Titanium easily combines with Nitrogen to form nitride inclusions, known to be deleterious for fatigue properties of the alloy. According to thermodynamic calculations, the precipitation occurs during solidification of the vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot. A coupled model of titanium nitride (TiN) inclusion precipitation and vacuum remelting has been set-up to study the inclusion cleanliness of the ingot. The nitrogen content, nuclei numeral density and solidification time appear as the key factors which control the inclusion size. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mathematical Modeling and Simulation in Ironmaking and Steelmaking)
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14 pages, 5871 KiB  
Article
Influence of Processing Parameters on the Conduct of Electrical Resistance Sintering of Iron Powders
Metals 2020, 10(4), 540; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040540 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2219
Abstract
The influence of the applied pressure and electrical parameters on the macrostructure of specimens consolidated by the medium-frequency electrical resistance sintering technique (MF-ERS) is analysed in this work. This technique is based on the application of pressure to a mass of conductive powder [...] Read more.
The influence of the applied pressure and electrical parameters on the macrostructure of specimens consolidated by the medium-frequency electrical resistance sintering technique (MF-ERS) is analysed in this work. This technique is based on the application of pressure to a mass of conductive powder that, simultaneously, is being crossed by a high intensity and low voltage electric current. The simultaneous action of the pressure and the heat released by the Joule effect causes the densification and consolidation of the powder mass in a very short time. The effect of the current intensity and heating time on the global porosity, the porosity distribution, and the microhardness of sintered compacts is studied for two applied pressures (100 and 150 MPa). For the different experiments of electrical consolidation, a commercially available pure iron powder was chosen. For comparison purposes, the properties of the compacts consolidated by MF-ERS are compared with the results obtained by the conventional powder metallurgy route (cold pressing and furnace sintering). Results show that, as expected, higher current intensities and dwelling times, as well as higher pressures and the consolidation of compacts with lower aspects ratios, produce denser materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals Powders 2021: Synthesis and Processing)
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26 pages, 6088 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Corrosion Protection of AA2024-T3 Alloy by Surface Treatments Based on Piperazine-Modified Hybrid Sol–Gel Films
Metals 2020, 10(4), 539; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040539 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3191
Abstract
The aim of this study was to develop new chrome-free surface pretreatments for AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy. These pretreatments were based on hybrid organic–inorganic sol–gel thin films prepared from mixtures of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS) and tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS). Different MAPTMS/TMOS molar ratios were used for optimizing [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to develop new chrome-free surface pretreatments for AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy. These pretreatments were based on hybrid organic–inorganic sol–gel thin films prepared from mixtures of γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS) and tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS). Different MAPTMS/TMOS molar ratios were used for optimizing the physical–chemical characteristics of the sol–gel films. The formulation of a set of these sols was modified by incorporating piperazine (1,4-diazacyclohexane) as a corrosion inhibitor. The resulting sol–gel films were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), liquid-state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (29Si-NMR) and viscosity measurements. The corrosion performance of the sol–gel films was analyzed by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and local electrochemical impedance mapping (LEIM). The characterization techniques indicated that piperazine behaved as a catalyst for the condensation reaction during the formation of the MAPTMS/TMOS organopolysiloxane network and produces an increase of the crosslinking degree of the sol–gel films. EIS and LEIM results showed that piperazine is an effective corrosion inhibitor, which can be used to enhance the active corrosion protection performance of sol–gel films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Chemistry and Corrosion of Light Alloys)
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12 pages, 6321 KiB  
Article
Abrasive Disc Performance in Dry-Cutting of Medium-Carbon Steel
Metals 2020, 10(4), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040538 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4656
Abstract
Abrasive-cutting processes are widely used to obtain semi-finished products from metal bars, slabs, or tubes. Thus, the abrasive cutting-off process is applied when requiring precision cutting and productivity at a moderate price. Cut-off tools are discs composed of small abrasive particles embedded in [...] Read more.
Abrasive-cutting processes are widely used to obtain semi-finished products from metal bars, slabs, or tubes. Thus, the abrasive cutting-off process is applied when requiring precision cutting and productivity at a moderate price. Cut-off tools are discs composed of small abrasive particles embedded in a bonding material, called the binder. This work aims to compare the cutting performance of discs with different composition, in dry cutting of steel bars. To do that, disc wear was measured and disc final topography was digitalized in order to determine both disc surface wear patterns and if the abrasive particles bonding into the binder matrix was affected. In addition, X-Ray inspection gave information about the abrasive grit-binder bonding. Therefore, the method here presented allows identifying discs with a superior abrasive-cutting capability, by combining profilometry and tomography to define micrometrical aspects, grit size, and binder matrix structure. Results led to the conclusion that discs with high grit size and protrusion, high grit retention by bond material, and closer mesh of fiberglass matrix binder were the optimal solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and Analysis of Metal Cutting Processes)
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17 pages, 10040 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Performance Evaluation of the Al-Mg-Si-(Cu) Aluminum Alloys after Transient Thermal Shock through an Novel Equivalent Structure Design and Finite Element Modeling
Metals 2020, 10(4), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040537 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2405
Abstract
In this paper, the microstructure evolution and mechanical performance of the Al-Mg-Si-(Cu) aluminum alloy after transient thermal shock were investigated through experimental tests and finite element simulations. A novel equivalent structure was designed as a typical case in which one side of the [...] Read more.
In this paper, the microstructure evolution and mechanical performance of the Al-Mg-Si-(Cu) aluminum alloy after transient thermal shock were investigated through experimental tests and finite element simulations. A novel equivalent structure was designed as a typical case in which one side of the plate was welded therefore the other side was thermally shocked with different temperature distribution and duration. The temperature gradient which influences most importantly the mechanical properties was simulated and experimentally verified. Through cutting layers and tensile testing, the mechanical response and material constitutive relation were obtained for each layer. Gurson-Tvergaard-Needlemen (GTN) damage parameters of these samples under large strains were then obtained by the Swift law inverse analysis approach. By sorting the whole welded joint into multi-material composed structure and introducing the obtained material constitutive relation and damage parameters, tensile properties were precisely predicted for typical types of weld joint such as butt, corner, and lap joints. The results show that precipitate coarsening, phase transformation from β″ phase to Q′ phase, and dissolving in the temperature range of 243.3–466.3 °C during the thermal shock induced a serious deterioration of the mechanical properties. The highest reduction of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) would be 38.6% and 57.4% respectively. By comparing the simulated and experimentally obtained force-displacement curves, the error for the above prediction method was evaluated to be less than 8.1%, indicating the proposed method being effective and reliable. Full article
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12 pages, 5357 KiB  
Article
Investigation on the Case-Hardening Behavior of Additively Manufactured 16MnCr5
Metals 2020, 10(4), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040536 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3642
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M), allow for the fabrication of complex parts due to their high freedom of design. PBF-LB/M is already used in several different industrial application fields, especially the automotive and aerospace industries. [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as laser-based powder bed fusion of metals (PBF-LB/M), allow for the fabrication of complex parts due to their high freedom of design. PBF-LB/M is already used in several different industrial application fields, especially the automotive and aerospace industries. Nevertheless, the amount of materials being processed using AM technologies is relatively small compared to conventional manufacturing. Due to this, an extension of the material portfolio is necessary for fulfilling the demands of these industries. In this work, the AM of case-hardening steel 16MnCr5 using PBF-LB/M is investigated. In this context, the influences of different processing strategies on the final hardness of the material are studied. This includes, e.g., stress relief heat treatment and microstructure modification to increase the resulting grain size, thus ideally simplifying the carbon diffusion during case hardening. Furthermore, different heat treatment strategies (stress relief heat treatment and grain coarsening annealing) were applied to the as-built samples for modifying the microstructure and the effect on the final hardness of case-hardened specimens. The additively manufactured specimens are compared to conventionally fabricated samples after case hardening. Thus, an increase in both case-hardening depth and maximum hardness is observed for additively manufactured specimens, leading to superior mechanical properties. Full article
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12 pages, 5194 KiB  
Article
Effect of Proton Irradiation on the Defect Evolution of Zr/Nb Nanoscale Multilayers
Metals 2020, 10(4), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040535 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2828
Abstract
Nanoscale multilayer coatings (NMCs) with different crystal structures are considered as capable of self-healing after radiation damage due to the recombination of vacancies and interstitials. This work is focused on a defect distribution study of NMCs based on Zr/Nb layers (25/25 nm and [...] Read more.
Nanoscale multilayer coatings (NMCs) with different crystal structures are considered as capable of self-healing after radiation damage due to the recombination of vacancies and interstitials. This work is focused on a defect distribution study of NMCs based on Zr/Nb layers (25/25 nm and 100/100 nm) after proton irradiation. Coatings with a total thickness of 1.05 ± 0.05 µm were irradiated by 900-keV protons using a pelletron-type electrostatic accelerator with an ion current of 2 µA for durations of 60 min to 120 min. The influence of the irradiation effect was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GD–OES), and Doppler broadening spectroscopy using a variable energy positron beam. The results obtained by these methods are compatible and indicate that defect concentration of Zr/Nb NMCs remains unchanged or slightly decreases with increasing irradiation time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Metals: Metallurgy and Metal Technology)
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14 pages, 4464 KiB  
Article
Effect of Stress-Induced Martensite Stabilization on Acoustic Emission Characteristics and the Entropy of Martensitic Transformation in Shape Memory Ni51Fe18Ga27Co4 Single Crystal
Metals 2020, 10(4), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040534 - 21 Apr 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2183
Abstract
Simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and acoustic emission, AE, measurements were carried out for single crystals of quenched and stress-induced martensite stabilized (SIM-aged) shape memory Ni51Fe18Ga27Co4 alloy. The transformation temperatures were shifted to higher values, the [...] Read more.
Simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and acoustic emission, AE, measurements were carried out for single crystals of quenched and stress-induced martensite stabilized (SIM-aged) shape memory Ni51Fe18Ga27Co4 alloy. The transformation temperatures were shifted to higher values, the forward (from austenite to martensite) and reverse transitions became sharper and the width of the hysteresis increased in the SIM-aged sample. The energy distributions of acoustic hits showed similar behaviour to those of the quenched sample and the energy exponents, characterizing the power law behaviour, were also similar. For SIM-aged alloys at heating, in accordance with the sharper (burst-like) transition observed in the DSC run, few high-energy solitary hits were observed, and these hits did not fit to the energy distribution function fitted for smaller energies. Thus, these high-energy events were attributed to high sudden jumps in the phase transition during heating. The effect of long-range order (by applying a heat treatment at 573 K for 6 h to transform the B2 austenite to ordered L21 structure) and the SIM-aging on the transformation entropy was also investigated by DSC. It was found that the entropy was about 36% smaller after SIM-aging of the quenched sample and it was practically unchanged after austenite stabilization. Full article
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14 pages, 14503 KiB  
Article
Remote Fibre Laser Welding of Advanced High Strength Martensitic Steel
Metals 2020, 10(4), 533; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040533 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2896
Abstract
The study presents the results of remote robotic laser welding of advanced high strength Docol® 1200 M martensitic steel. One mm thick samples were welded in a lap joint configuration using a special clamping system. Welding was done using a continuous-wave (CW) [...] Read more.
The study presents the results of remote robotic laser welding of advanced high strength Docol® 1200 M martensitic steel. One mm thick samples were welded in a lap joint configuration using a special clamping system. Welding was done using a continuous-wave (CW) fibre laser with a constant welding power of 300 W and constant focus diameter Ø 1.8 mm. Welding was done using 12 different welding speeds in the range from 0.15 to 1 m/min, whereas the inclination angle was kept constant at 0°. The influence of various welding speeds and linear heat inputs during welding on microstructural changes were examined by the occurrence of acicular and allotriomorphic ferrite or martensite. Results revealed big influence of the clamping system on the accumulation of the laser beam energy, heat sink and consequently weld size and geometry, as well as its microstructure and joint strength. Tensile-shear strength, microstructure and hardness results confirmed laser power of 300 W and 0.6 m/min welding speed as the optimal parameters, at which a martensitic structure was obtained in the weld. The width of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in this case is 1100 μm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microstructure and Properties of Metallic Heat-Affected Zones)
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20 pages, 15561 KiB  
Article
Liquid Metal Flow Under Traveling Magnetic Field—Solidification Simulation and Pulsating Flow Analysis
Metals 2020, 10(4), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040532 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4501
Abstract
Non steady applied magnetic field impact on a liquid metal has good prospects for industry. For a better understanding of heat and mass transfer processes under these circumstances, numerical simulations are needed. A combination of finite elements and volumes methods was used to [...] Read more.
Non steady applied magnetic field impact on a liquid metal has good prospects for industry. For a better understanding of heat and mass transfer processes under these circumstances, numerical simulations are needed. A combination of finite elements and volumes methods was used to calculate the flow and solidification of liquid metal under electromagnetic influence. Validation of numerical results was carried out by means of measuring with ultrasound Doppler velocimetry technique, as well as with neutron radiography snapshots of the position and shape of the solid/liquid interface. As a result of the first part of the work, a numerical model of electromagnetic stirring and solidification was developed and validated. This model could be an effective tool for analyzing the electromagnetic stirring during the solidification process. In the second part, the dependences of the velocity pulsation amplitude and the melt velocity maximum value on the magnetic field pulsation frequency are obtained. The ability of the pulsating force to develop higher values of the liquid metal velocity at a frequency close to the MHD resonance was found numerically. The obtained characteristics give a more detailed description of the electrically conductive liquid behaviour under action of pulsating traveling magnetic field. Full article
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15 pages, 6277 KiB  
Article
Recovery of Lead and Zinc from Zinc Plant Leach Residues by Concurrent Dissolution-Cementation Using Zero-Valent Aluminum in Chloride Medium
Metals 2020, 10(4), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040531 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 4635
Abstract
Zinc plant leach residues (ZPLRs) contain significant amounts of metal compounds of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), etc., hence, they are considered as a secondary source of metals. On the other hand, ZPLRs are regarded as hazardous materials because they contain heavy [...] Read more.
Zinc plant leach residues (ZPLRs) contain significant amounts of metal compounds of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), etc., hence, they are considered as a secondary source of metals. On the other hand, ZPLRs are regarded as hazardous materials because they contain heavy metals that pollute the environment. Resources and environmental concerns of ZPLRs were addressed in this study by removing/recovering Pb and Zn using a concurrent dissolution and cementation technique. To cement the dissolved Pb and Zn in leaching pulp, zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) was added during ZPLRs leaching in the hydrochloric (HCl)–sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. The resulting cemented metals were agglomerated and separated by sieving. Lead removal increased with increasing both NaCl and HCl concentrations. However, when ZVAl was added, significant Pb removal was achieved at a low concentration. Zinc was not cemented out of the pulp using ZVAl and its recovery from ZPLRs was dependent on the HCl concentration only. By applying a concurrent dissolution and cementation technique, both Pb and Zn were removed using a low concentration of NaCl, and most importantly Pb—the most toxic metal in ZPLRs—was captured and separated before the solid-liquid separation, hence, eliminating the need for extensive washing of the generated residues to remove the inherent residual solution. Full article
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12 pages, 4645 KiB  
Article
In-Situ Observation of Lüders Band Formation in Hot-Rolled Steel via Digital Image Correlation
Metals 2020, 10(4), 530; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040530 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3647
Abstract
Although the Lüders yield phenomenon has been investigated for more than 150 years, some understanding of Lüders band formation lack substantial support from experimental evidence. In-situ observation of Lüders band formation in hot-rolled steel experimentally clarified the following facts: (i) When stress reaches [...] Read more.
Although the Lüders yield phenomenon has been investigated for more than 150 years, some understanding of Lüders band formation lack substantial support from experimental evidence. In-situ observation of Lüders band formation in hot-rolled steel experimentally clarified the following facts: (i) When stress reaches the true upper yield stress, the Lüders band begins to nucleate. True upper yield stress is greater than nominal upper yield stress. (ii) Gross stress concentration promotes the Lüders band formation, and the size of the gross stress concentration region determines the initial width of the Lüders band. (iii) The Lüders band nucleates far ahead of the gross yield point. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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15 pages, 7674 KiB  
Article
Effect of Titanium Addition on As-Cast Structure and High-Temperature Tensile Property of 20Cr-8Ni Stainless Steel for Heavy Castings
Metals 2020, 10(4), 529; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040529 - 20 Apr 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2478
Abstract
20Cr-8Ni stainless steel is used to manufacture heavy castings in industrial practice. Owing to the slow solidification rate of heavy castings, the as-cast structure is usually coarse, which reduces the mechanical properties. To refine the solidification structure, the effect of titanium addition on [...] Read more.
20Cr-8Ni stainless steel is used to manufacture heavy castings in industrial practice. Owing to the slow solidification rate of heavy castings, the as-cast structure is usually coarse, which reduces the mechanical properties. To refine the solidification structure, the effect of titanium addition on the as-cast structure and high-temperature tensile property was investigated in the laboratory. The ingots with 0.0036, 0.2, and 0.45 mass percent titanium were produced in the laboratory. On the basis of experiment and thermodynamic calculation through Thermo-Calc software, the typical inclusions changed from dual phase Si-Mn-Ti oxides to pure TiN or complex Ti2O3 + TiN with titanium content increasing. The equiaxed grain ratio of ingot increased from 51 percent to nearly 100 percent, and the size of equiaxed grain decreased owing to heterogeneous nucleation of δ-Fe. Besides, the equilibrium solidification model changed from the FA model to the F model, and the mass fraction of ferritic phase in ingots increased from 24.8 to 42.6 percent. As a result, the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of ingots increased gradually, but the tensile elongation changed little owing to the increase of ferritic phase mass fraction and decrease of equiaxed grain size. Full article
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13 pages, 3890 KiB  
Article
Revolution and Control of Fe-Al-(Mg, Ti)-O Oxide Inclusions in IF Steel during 260t BOF-RH-CC Process
Metals 2020, 10(4), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040528 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
The evolution of inclusions that contain Al, Mg, and Ti was studied through industrial-grade experiments. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and FactSage software were used to analyze the evolution mechanisms of inclusions in [...] Read more.
The evolution of inclusions that contain Al, Mg, and Ti was studied through industrial-grade experiments. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, and FactSage software were used to analyze the evolution mechanisms of inclusions in Al-killed titanium alloyed interstitial free (IF) steel. The research found that the evolution of inclusions during the smelting process of IF steel is results in ‘large sphere-like SiO2-CaO-FeO-MgO-MnO’ and ‘small cluster spherical FeO-MnO’ change to cluster-like Al2O3 and irregular MgO·Al2O3, then change to Al2O3·TiOx and Al2O3, and finally change to Al2O3. It is difficult for Al2O3·TiOx to stably exist in the IF molten steel. It is the key to extend the holding time properly after Ruhrstahl Heraeus (RH) to ensure the removal of Al2O3 inclusion. With the increase of Mg content, the change path of MgAl2O4 inclusion in IF steel is that Al2O3 changes to MgO·Al2O3, and finally changes to MgO. It is difficult to suppress MgO·Al2O3 spinel formation by controlling the oxygen in the steel, but Ca can modify part of the MgO·Al2O3 spinel inclusions during RH refining. In order to ensure the removal of 6–10 μm inclusions, the holding time is suitable for 19–42 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inclusion/Precipitate Engineering in Steels)
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10 pages, 3233 KiB  
Article
Effects of Thermomechanical Treatment on Phase Transformation of the Ti50Ni49W1 Shape Memory Alloy
Metals 2020, 10(4), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040527 - 19 Apr 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
The Ti50Ni49W1 alloy has a B2 ↔ 19’ martensitic transformation but slightly lower shape recovery than the Ti50Ni50 alloy. The B19’ martensite structure in the Ti50Ni49W1 has the lattice parameters [...] Read more.
The Ti50Ni49W1 alloy has a B2 ↔ 19’ martensitic transformation but slightly lower shape recovery than the Ti50Ni50 alloy. The B19’ martensite structure in the Ti50Ni49W1 has the lattice parameters a = 0.301 nm; b = 0.423 nm; c = 0.472 nm; and β = 97.5°. The hardness increment and transformation temperature depression of Ti50Ni49W1 are greater than those of Ti50Ni50 under the same degree of cold rolling and the same number of thermal cycles; owing to the Ti50Ni49W1; with higher inherent hardness from solidification strengthening of W atoms. Both thermal cycling and cold rolling on Ti50Ni49W1 also promotes R-phase transformation. The effects of thermal cycling and cold rolling on the martensitic transformation temperature (Ms) of the Ti50Ni49W1 alloy follow a linear trend; and the Ms decreased with the hardness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Titanium Alloys: Processing and Properties)
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11 pages, 3519 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Biomedical Ti/ZrO2 Joint Brazed with Pure Au Filler: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties
Metals 2020, 10(4), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040526 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2531
Abstract
Titanium and zirconia (ZrO2) ceramics are widely used in biomedical fields. This study aims to achieve reliable brazed joints of titanium/ZrO2 using biocompatible Au filler for implantable medical products. The effects of brazing temperature and holding time on the interfacial [...] Read more.
Titanium and zirconia (ZrO2) ceramics are widely used in biomedical fields. This study aims to achieve reliable brazed joints of titanium/ZrO2 using biocompatible Au filler for implantable medical products. The effects of brazing temperature and holding time on the interfacial microstructures and mechanical properties of titanium/Au/ZrO2 joints were fully investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that the typical interfacial microstructure of the titanium/Au/ZrO2 joint was titanium/Ti3Au layer/TiAu layer/TiAu2 layer/TiAu4 layer/TiO layer/ZrO2 ceramic. With an increasing brazing temperature or holding time, the thickness of the Ti3Au + TiAu + TiAu2 layer increased gradually. The growth of the TiO layer was observed, which promoted metallurgical bonding between the filler metal and ZrO2 ceramic. The optimal shear strength of ~35.0 MPa was obtained at 1150 °C for 10 min. SEM characterization revealed that cracks initiated and propagated along the interface of TiAu2 and TiAu4 reaction layers. Full article
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14 pages, 5578 KiB  
Article
T-FSW of Dissimilar Aerospace Grade Aluminium Alloys: Influence of Second Pass on Weld Defects
Metals 2020, 10(4), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040525 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3086
Abstract
The restoration of numerous aircraft structures is achievable with effective repair of welded joints. T-joints are often utilized in these structures to provide structural stability, keeping minimal body weight. Multi-pass friction stir welding (FSW) has proved to be useful for improving the quality [...] Read more.
The restoration of numerous aircraft structures is achievable with effective repair of welded joints. T-joints are often utilized in these structures to provide structural stability, keeping minimal body weight. Multi-pass friction stir welding (FSW) has proved to be useful for improving the quality of aluminium alloy welds employed in the aerospace sector. However, FSW of these alloys in T-configuration has not been sufficiently addressed yet. Even rarer is the discussion of efficacy of second FSW pass, with altered process parameters for improving the weld quality in T-joints. Hence, two commonly used aerospace grade aluminium alloys, namely, AA2024 and AA7075, were friction stir welded in T-configuration, varying three process parameters, i.e., tool rotational speed, welding speed and shoulder diameter. The effect of second FSW pass, performed at an optimum set of parameters, on kissing bond and tunnelling defect was studied in detail. A substantial reduction in the detrimental effect of these weld defects was discussed via tensile testing, micro-hardness and micro-structural observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Stir Welding Prospective on Light-Alloys Joints)
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13 pages, 5534 KiB  
Article
Detailed Thermo-Kinematic Analysis of Face Grinding Operations with Straight Wheels
Metals 2020, 10(4), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040524 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
This paper presents a new model that relates thermal aspects with process kinematics in face grinding applications with straight wheels. Changes in chip thickness along the contact area were considered in the model, which allows for taking into account local thermal effects. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new model that relates thermal aspects with process kinematics in face grinding applications with straight wheels. Changes in chip thickness along the contact area were considered in the model, which allows for taking into account local thermal effects. The model was validated through grinding tests conducted with conventional alumina wheels. Power signals were used as input for the model. Thermal damage on the ground surface was detected using eddy current technology and revealed by acid etching. Both the model and experimental findings provide the basis for developing an approach for process optimization. Full article
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28 pages, 16893 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study on Cyclic Response of End-Plate Biaxial Moment Connection in Box Columns
Metals 2020, 10(4), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040523 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3848
Abstract
The 2008 Wenchuan-China earthquake showed the importance of considering the bidirectional seismic action as a cause of failure in column hinge mechanisms. Subsequently, the large 2011 Tohoku-Japan earthquake revealed that Special Moment Frames buildings, made of tubular columns (Hollow Structural Section or Built-up [...] Read more.
The 2008 Wenchuan-China earthquake showed the importance of considering the bidirectional seismic action as a cause of failure in column hinge mechanisms. Subsequently, the large 2011 Tohoku-Japan earthquake revealed that Special Moment Frames buildings, made of tubular columns (Hollow Structural Section or Built-up Box Section) and rigid connections with I-beams, did not suffer serious damage. However, only the ConXtech® ConXL™ moment connection has been prequalified according to the (American Institute of Construction) AISC Seismic Provisions for use with tubular columns and the rest of connections do not consider biaxial resistance. The research reported herein investigated the cyclic response of box-columns joints, connected to I beams using the four-bolt extended endplate connection, subjected to bidirectional bending and axial load on the column. To conduct the study, complex nonlinear finite element models (FEMs) of several I beam to box column joint configurations were constructed and analyzed under cyclic loading using the ANSYS software. The results reveal that the failure is concentrated in the beams of all joint configurations except for the columns with axial load equal to 75% of the column capacity, where a combined failure mechanism is achieved. The energy dissipation capacity of joints with a greater number of beams is lower than joints with fewer beams. The bidirectional effect of the seismic action and the level of axial load must be considered to avoid the formation of a column-hinge fragile failure mechanism also the behavior exhibited by 3D joints is more realistic than 2D joints according to real structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Steel Research)
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