Numerical and Experimental Advances in Innovative Manufacturing Processes

A special issue of Metals (ISSN 2075-4701). This special issue belongs to the section "Metal Casting, Forming and Heat Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020) | Viewed by 36780

Special Issue Editors

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Sevilla, Camino Descubrimientos, S/N.- Isla Cartuja C.P: 41092, Sevilla, Spain
Interests: metal forming; incremental sheet forming; fatigue and fracture mechanics; finite element analysis
Manufacturing Technologies and Systems, Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy
Interests: friction stir welding; surface modification technologies; cold spray process
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Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Polytechnic School of Engineering, Sao Paulo, Brazil
Interests: material engineering; production engineering; production of additives; machining; surface treatment; laser and plasma welding; thermographic analysis; metal forming; friction; sintered carbides
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Queens University Belfast, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland
Interests: engineering design informatics; geometric algorithms; digital manufacturing processes; agile and automated production systems
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Arak University of Technology, Arak 38135-1177, Iran
Interests: laser forming; hydroforming; incremental forming; bulk metal forming; finite element simulation; friction stir welding process
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Processing methods and systems used in the manufacturing of metallic components are in constant evolution, either through optimizations of classical techniques, such as applying these to new alloys, or through the promotion of new techniques that change the form of, join, add, or remove materials. In this Special Issue, we aim to collect a set of contributions in the referred fields, which include, but are not limited to:

  • Innovations and optimizations in classical processes: Rolling, forging, sheet forming, machining, and casting processes;
  • Additive manufacturing and joining technologies;
  • Laser forming, hydroforming, incremental forming, and other innovative forming technologies;
  • Evolution of material properties and constitutive modeling (including multiscale methods) under new manufacturing conditions;
  • Design and behavior of innovative equipment and tools.

Papers reporting new and unpublished advances either concerning numerical advances or experimental techniques on any aspect of these topics are welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Ricardo J. Alves de Sousa
Prof. Carpoforo Vallellano
Prof. Pierpaolo Carlone
Prof. Gilmar Batalha
Dr. Amar Kumar Behera
Dr. Mehdi Safari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Metals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Manufacturing processes
  • Experimental analysis
  • Numerical simulation
  • Metallic materials and their alloys
  • Sheet metal forming
  • Forging, rolling, and mass conformation
  • Joining techniques
  • Machining

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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2 pages, 174 KiB  
Editorial
Numerical and Experimental Advances in Innovative Manufacturing Processes
Metals 2021, 11(8), 1273; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11081273 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 910
Abstract
The severe competition in an international market pushes manufacturing companies to continuously improve current processes in the quest to minimize errors, reduce waste and speed up the entire idea-to-product cycle, while maintaining low costs [...] Full article

Research

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18 pages, 7510 KiB  
Article
Tube Drawing with Tilted Die: Texture, Dislocation Density and Mechanical Properties
Metals 2021, 11(4), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/met11040638 - 14 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2248
Abstract
Anisotropic behavior is a key characteristic for understanding eccentricity in tubes. In this paper, the effect of using a tilted die during tube drawing on eccentricity, texture, dislocation density, and mechanical properties is shown. Copper tubes were drawn with a ±5° tilted die [...] Read more.
Anisotropic behavior is a key characteristic for understanding eccentricity in tubes. In this paper, the effect of using a tilted die during tube drawing on eccentricity, texture, dislocation density, and mechanical properties is shown. Copper tubes were drawn with a ±5° tilted die for two passes. The increase or decrease in eccentricity can be controlled by controlling the angle of the tilted die. Two types of textures have been developed during tube drawing, namely plane strain and uniaxial types. Plain strain type texture is mainly characterized by the β fiber with a dominant copper component {112}<111>. The uniaxial deformation type is dominated by the <111> fiber, as commonly found by wire drawing. Texture sharpness increases with increasing drawing strain, and the texture varies significantly between the maximum and minimum wall thickness. This texture variation between maximum and minimum wall thickness has no significant influence on mechanical properties, which are more or less similar, but the increase in strength after each drawing pass is apparent. The dislocation density is low for the as-received tubes due to recovery and recrystallization. This is consistent with the as-received texture dominated by the cube component {001}<100>. During tube drawing, dislocation density increases as a function of the deformation strain. The variation of dislocation density between the maximum and minimum wall thickness in the tube deformed with −5° tilted die is higher than the variation in the tube deformed with +5° tilted die. Full article
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25 pages, 7663 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Analysis in the Modelling of a High Speed Steel Thin-Wall Produced by Directed Energy Deposition
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1554; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111554 - 22 Nov 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 3492
Abstract
This paper reports the sensitivity of the thermal and the displacement histories predicted by a finite element analysis to material properties and boundary conditions of a directed-energy deposition of a M4 high speed steel thin-wall part additively manufactured on a 42CrMo4 steel substrate. [...] Read more.
This paper reports the sensitivity of the thermal and the displacement histories predicted by a finite element analysis to material properties and boundary conditions of a directed-energy deposition of a M4 high speed steel thin-wall part additively manufactured on a 42CrMo4 steel substrate. The model accuracy was assessed by comparing the simulation results with the experimental measurements such as evolving local temperatures and distortion of the substrate. The numerical results of thermal history were successfully correlated with the solidified microstructures measured by scanning electron microscope technique, explaining the non-uniform, cellular-type grains depending on the deposit layers. Laser power, thermal conductivity, and thermal capacity of deposit and substrate were considered in the sensitivity analysis in order to quantify the effect of their variations on the local thermal history, while Young’s modulus and yield stress variation effects were evaluated on the distortion response of the sample. The laser power showed the highest impact on the thermal history, then came the thermal capacity, then the conductivity. Considering distortion, variations of the Young’s modulus had a higher impact than the yield stress. Full article
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24 pages, 9458 KiB  
Article
Advanced Process Simulation of Low Pressure Die Cast A356 Aluminum Automotive Wheels—Part II Modeling Methodology and Validation
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111418 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3511
Abstract
This manuscript presents an advanced modeling methodology developed to accurately simulate the temperature field evolution in the die and wheel in an industrial low-pressure die casting (LPDC) machine employed in the production of A356 automotive wheels. The model was developed in the commercial [...] Read more.
This manuscript presents an advanced modeling methodology developed to accurately simulate the temperature field evolution in the die and wheel in an industrial low-pressure die casting (LPDC) machine employed in the production of A356 automotive wheels. The model was developed in the commercial casting simulation platform ProCAST for a production die operating under production conditions. Key elements in the development of the model included the definition of the resistance to heat transfer across the die/casting interfaces and die/water-cooling channel interfaces. To examine the robustness of the modeling methodology, the model was applied to simulate production and non-production process conditions for a die cooled by a combination of water and air-cooling (Die-A), and to a second die for a different wheel geometry (Die-B) utilizing only water cooling for production conditions. In each case, the model predictions with respect to in-die and in-wheel temperature evolution were compared to industrially derived thermocouple (TC) data, and were found to be in good agreement. Once tuned to the process conditions for Die-A operating under production conditions, no further tuning of the die/casting interface resistance was applied. Additionally, the model results, in terms of the prediction of pockets of solid encapsulated liquid, were used to compare to x-ray images of wheels. This comparison indicated that the model was able to predict clusters of porosity associated with encapsulated liquid with an equivalent radius of ~27 mm. Full article
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13 pages, 1808 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of Saddle-Shaped Surfaces by a Laser Forming Process: An Experimental and Statistical Investigation
Metals 2020, 10(7), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10070883 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2595
Abstract
Laser forming is a powerful tool for fabricating complicated shapes economically. The pattern of laser movement (irradiating scheme) has an essential effect on the shaped form. In this article, the forming of a saddle-shaped surface will be investigated experimentally by the laser forming [...] Read more.
Laser forming is a powerful tool for fabricating complicated shapes economically. The pattern of laser movement (irradiating scheme) has an essential effect on the shaped form. In this article, the forming of a saddle-shaped surface will be investigated experimentally by the laser forming process. A spiral irradiating scheme is implemented to manufacture a saddle-shaped surface. The main idea of this study is the investigation of the simultaneous variations of the process parameters and their effect on the curvature of the final part. The process parameters of the study are the spiral pitch, number of spiral passes, and movement pattern (In-to-Out or reversely Out-to-In scanning path). The response surface methodology is selected for experimentation. The measurement of the deformation results shows that the deformations of laser-formed saddle-shaped surfaces decrease with an increase in the spiral pitch of the path. Additionally, the deformations of the saddle-shaped surface increase by increasing the number of spiral passes. The results demonstrate that the pattern movement has little effect on the deformations of laser-formed saddle-shaped surfaces and an Out-to-In spiral pattern movement is advised. At last, the proper input variables to obtain the maximum value of displacements for the saddle point are determined (10 mm spiral pitch, three spiral passes, and Out-to-In pattern movement). Full article
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12 pages, 2979 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Burst Pressure Distribution on Rapid Free Sheet Forming by Vaporizing Foil Actuators
Metals 2020, 10(6), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10060845 - 26 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2526
Abstract
Vaporizing Foil Actuators (VFA) can be employed as an innovative, extremely fast sheet metal forming method. An ultimate goal in forming technologies is generally to be flexible and rely on as few part-specific tools as possible. Therefore, various realizable VFA pressure distributions were [...] Read more.
Vaporizing Foil Actuators (VFA) can be employed as an innovative, extremely fast sheet metal forming method. An ultimate goal in forming technologies is generally to be flexible and rely on as few part-specific tools as possible. Therefore, various realizable VFA pressure distributions were investigated with a focus on the free forming result. Fundamental experiments including laser-based dynamic velocity measurements were conducted to discuss some key forming characteristics of the process. To compare more complex pressure distributions in a well-defined way, a numerical model was built. The strain rate dependency of the blank material was identified experimentally and incorporated in the model. It is shown that there are some VFA free forming capabilities in terms of creating certain part shapes, but only to a limited degree because relevant inertial forces can be present in regions where displacements would actually be either undesirable or wanted. Potential solutions to this are given at the end. Full article
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16 pages, 7216 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis on Temperature Field of Grinding Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy by Oscillating Heat Pipe Grinding Wheel
Metals 2020, 10(5), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10050670 - 21 May 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3023
Abstract
When grinding hard-to-machining materials such as titanium alloys, a massive grinding heat is generated and gathers in the grinding zone due to the low thermal conduction of the materials. The accumulated grinding heat easily leads to severe thermal damages to both the workpiece [...] Read more.
When grinding hard-to-machining materials such as titanium alloys, a massive grinding heat is generated and gathers in the grinding zone due to the low thermal conduction of the materials. The accumulated grinding heat easily leads to severe thermal damages to both the workpiece and the grinding wheel. A novel oscillating heat pipe (OHP) grinding wheel is one of the solutions to this phenomenon. The oscillating heat pipe grinding wheel can transfer the grinding heat directly from the grinding zone to avoid heat accumulation and a high temperature rise. In this paper, the temperature field of the grinding Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated, via the oscillating heat pipe grinding wheel, by numerical analysis. The three-dimensional thermal conduction model is built accordingly, containing the grinding wheel, grinding zone and Ti-6Al-4V workpiece. Due to the enhanced heat transport capacity of the oscillating heat pipe grinding wheel, the highest temperature in the grinding zone and the temperature on the ground surface of the workpiece decrease dramatically. For example, under a grinding heat flux of 1 × 107 W/m2, when using the grinding wheel without OHP and with OHPs, the highest temperature in the grinding zone drops from 917 °C to 285 °C by 68.7%, and the ground surface temperature decreases from 823 °C to 244 °C by 71.2%. Moreover, the temperature distribution on the grinding wheel is more uniform with an increase of the number of oscillating heat pipes. Full article
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13 pages, 5534 KiB  
Article
Detailed Thermo-Kinematic Analysis of Face Grinding Operations with Straight Wheels
Metals 2020, 10(4), 524; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040524 - 18 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2419
Abstract
This paper presents a new model that relates thermal aspects with process kinematics in face grinding applications with straight wheels. Changes in chip thickness along the contact area were considered in the model, which allows for taking into account local thermal effects. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new model that relates thermal aspects with process kinematics in face grinding applications with straight wheels. Changes in chip thickness along the contact area were considered in the model, which allows for taking into account local thermal effects. The model was validated through grinding tests conducted with conventional alumina wheels. Power signals were used as input for the model. Thermal damage on the ground surface was detected using eddy current technology and revealed by acid etching. Both the model and experimental findings provide the basis for developing an approach for process optimization. Full article
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22 pages, 10610 KiB  
Article
Effect of Anisotropic Yield Functions on Prediction of Critical Process Window and Deformation Behavior for Hydrodynamic Deep Drawing of Aluminum Alloys
Metals 2020, 10(4), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10040492 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3573
Abstract
Owing to the reduction of rupture instability and the avoidance of wrinkle defect, the hydrodynamic deep drawing (HDD) process is gradually becoming attractive for fabricating lightweight and complicated products. Meanwhile, since metallic materials present anisotropic deformation behavior, it is necessary to select an [...] Read more.
Owing to the reduction of rupture instability and the avoidance of wrinkle defect, the hydrodynamic deep drawing (HDD) process is gradually becoming attractive for fabricating lightweight and complicated products. Meanwhile, since metallic materials present anisotropic deformation behavior, it is necessary to select an appropriate constitutive model for the prediction of plastic deformation behavior of applied material with high precision. In the present research, several anisotropic yield criteria, namely, Hill’48, Yld2000-2d, and BBC2005, were implemented to investigate the effects of yield functions on the prediction accuracy of the critical process window and deformation behavior for the HDD process of 2024 and 5754 aluminum alloys. Material constants in the yield criteria were determined by applying uniaxial and equi-biaxial tension tests and optimizing an error-function using the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. Furthermore, the process window diagram was computed utilizing the stress analytical model combined material properties with workpiece geometrical features. Numerical simulation results of predicted material anisotropic parameters, process window, and HDD deformation for aluminum alloys were compared with the experimental data. Through the comparison of diverse yield criteria based on materials’ anisotropic coefficients, critical process window prediction, earing profile, and thickness distribution, it was revealed that the Yld2000-2d and the BBC2005 yield criteria can offer more precise models of material behavior in planar anisotropy properties for the HDD process of 2024 and 5754 aluminum alloys. Full article
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15 pages, 14934 KiB  
Article
Failure and Control of PCBN Tools in the Process of Milling Hardened Steel
Metals 2019, 9(8), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9080885 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3681
Abstract
The polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) milling tool can be used in the mold industry to replace cemented carbide tools to improve machining efficiency and quality. It is necessary to study the tool wear and failure mechanism to increase machining efficiency and extend [...] Read more.
The polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) milling tool can be used in the mold industry to replace cemented carbide tools to improve machining efficiency and quality. It is necessary to study the tool wear and failure mechanism to increase machining efficiency and extend tool life. Cr12MoV is used to analyze the failure form of PCBN tools in the interrupted cutting of hardened steels at low and high speed conditions in milling experiments. Experimental results show that the failure forms of PCBN tools include chipping and flank wear at low speed, and the failure modes at high speed are flank wear, the surface spalling of the rake face, and the fatigue failure on the flank face. The failure mechanism of different failure forms is analyzed by observing the surface morphology of the tool and using the theory of fracture mechanics. The results show that a high cutting speed should be selected to avoid the early damage of low speed and achieve better application of PCBN tools. At high cutting speed, tool failure is mainly caused by mechanical wear, diffusion wear, and oxidation wear. Moreover, a fatigue crack will occur at the cutting edge on the chamfered tool under thermal–mechanical coupling because of the intergranular fracture of the CBN grain and binder. A large area of accumulated fatigue damage may appear due to the influence of alternating mechanical stress and thermal stress. Finally, the control method to avoid tool failure is presented. Full article
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15 pages, 4336 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of a New Nonlinear Twist Extrusion Process
Metals 2019, 9(5), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9050513 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3417
Abstract
Severe plastic deformation (SPD) can produce ultrafine grained (UFG) and nanocrystalline (NC) materials by imposing intense plastic strain. One of the many options for inducing large plastic strains is to pass the material through a torsional/twist extrusion. The high-strength materials fabricated by SPD [...] Read more.
Severe plastic deformation (SPD) can produce ultrafine grained (UFG) and nanocrystalline (NC) materials by imposing intense plastic strain. One of the many options for inducing large plastic strains is to pass the material through a torsional/twist extrusion. The high-strength materials fabricated by SPD has no limit in dimension, and they can even be applied to load-carrying structural materials. Even though the method is quite successful, the industrial transfer has been limited so far because of low production efficiency and high cost. To remedy such difficulties, a new torsional extrusion process called nonlinear twist extrusion (NLTE) is introduced in this study, which has been designed based on two principles; (1) linear arrangement of the production line and (2) effective die geometry resulting in higher and more homogeneous plastic strain evolution which would give better grain refinement. The initial computational study of the designed geometry for the new extrusion process is addressed in the current study. The obtained results are discussed in detail with respect to conventional extrusion process, which is referred to as linear twist extrusion (LTE). The method is expected to offer a great potential for industrial use. Full article
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Review

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19 pages, 1704 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in the Laser Forming Process: A Review
Metals 2020, 10(11), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/met10111472 - 04 Nov 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4146
Abstract
Laser forming is an emerging manufacturing process capable of producing either uncomplicated and complicated shapes by employing a concentrated heating source. The heat source movement creates local softening, and a plastic strain will be induced during the rise of temperature and the subsequent [...] Read more.
Laser forming is an emerging manufacturing process capable of producing either uncomplicated and complicated shapes by employing a concentrated heating source. The heat source movement creates local softening, and a plastic strain will be induced during the rise of temperature and the subsequent cooling. This contactless forming process may be used for the simple bending of sheets and tubes or fabrication of doubly-curved parts. Different studies have been carried out over recent years to understand the mechanism of forming and predicting the bending angle. The analysis of process parameters and search for optimized manufacturing conditions are among the most discussed topics. This review describes the main recent findings in the laser forming of single and multilayer sheets, composite and fiber-metal laminate plates, force assisted laser bending, tube bending by laser beam, the optimization technique implemented for process parameters selection and control, doubly-curved parts, and the analytical solutions in laser bending. The main focus is set to the researches published since 2015. Full article
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