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Machines, Volume 12, Issue 3 (March 2024) – 64 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Abrasive brushing processes are used for deburring, edge rounding, and roughness reduction. However, industrial brushing processes have historically relied on empirical knowledge due to the complex motion, chipping, and wear behavior of abrasive filaments. To better understand filament interactions, a physical model based on the discrete element method was developed to simulate process forces, contact areas, and interaction frequencies. Filament patterns of round brushes were determined through laser line triangulation and image processing. When used in brushing simulations, these experimental patterns yielded more accurate results than the oversimplified square patterns of previous research. The model could potentially be used to predict work results, dynamics, and tool wear. View this paper
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19 pages, 5284 KiB  
Article
Using the AIDA Method in the Design of New Elements for the Photovoltaic Mounting Structures
by Vlad Andrei Ciubotariu, Cosmin Constantin Grigoras, Valentin Zichil and Bogdan Alexandru Chirita
Machines 2024, 12(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030211 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 598
Abstract
To address diverse challenges and accelerate the adoption of PV technology, innovative and cost-effective PV assemblies are essential. The Analysis of Interconnected Decision Areas—the AIDA method—offers a promising approach to achieving this goal by providing a structured framework for identifying, assessing, and optimizing [...] Read more.
To address diverse challenges and accelerate the adoption of PV technology, innovative and cost-effective PV assemblies are essential. The Analysis of Interconnected Decision Areas—the AIDA method—offers a promising approach to achieving this goal by providing a structured framework for identifying, assessing, and optimizing the design of PV assemblies. The aim is to demonstrate how AIDA can be effectively used to identify and assess potential improvements in PV assembly design, leading to the development of more efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly PV systems. For this, out of 54 combinations, 10 of them were retained, so that in the end only two possible solutions obtained by applying AIDA remained. Both structures were assessed by applying FEM, analysing data regarding equivalent von Mises stresses and displacements but also the existence of stress hotspots. A design insight study was also carried out. Also, the models were first built by additive manufacturing (3D printing). These models were evaluated by a manufacturer so that the evaluation matrix and criteria satisfaction matrix could be successfully completed. Therefore, AIDA can be successfully used in solving problems in product design in the field of mounting structures for PV panels. Depending on the manufacturer’s capabilities, the intended functions can be adapted quickly, because AIDA is quite simple to apply if the data of the problem are known very well. Following the application of the FEM it was concluded that the surfaces as simple as possible are to be followed in the design of components. Also, an assessment of environmental impact was successfully undertaken by means of software assistance. The decision to use one option or another is a subjective one. If the technical data are followed, then one type of structure is the one that the manufacturer should adopt as a solution to the problem. However, if the manufacturer considers that the impact on the environment is important and dedicates resources in this direction, then a different type of structure should be adopted. Full article
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19 pages, 23101 KiB  
Article
A Structural Reliability Analysis Method Considering Multiple Correlation Features
by Xiaoning Bai, Yonghua Li, Dongxu Zhang and Zhiyang Zhang
Machines 2024, 12(3), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030210 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 541
Abstract
The paper analyzes the correlation features between stress strength, multiple failure mechanisms, and multiple components. It investigates the effects of different correlation features on reliability and proposes a method for structural reliability analysis that considers the joint effects of multiple correlation features. To [...] Read more.
The paper analyzes the correlation features between stress strength, multiple failure mechanisms, and multiple components. It investigates the effects of different correlation features on reliability and proposes a method for structural reliability analysis that considers the joint effects of multiple correlation features. To portray the stress–strength correlation structure, the Copula function is utilized and the influence of the correlation degree parameter on reliability is clarified. The text describes the introduction of time-varying characteristics of structural strength and correlation parameters. A time-varying Copula is then constructed to calculate the structural reliability under the stress–strength correlation characteristics. Additionally, a time-varying hybrid Copula is constructed to characterize the intricate and correlation features of multiple failure mechanisms and components. The article proposes the variational adaptive sparrow search algorithm (VASSA) to obtain optimal parameters for the time-varying hybrid Copula. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method are verified through actual cases. The results indicate that multiple correlation features significantly influence structural reliability. Incorporating multiple correlation features into the solution of structural reliability yields safer results that align with engineering practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machines Testing and Maintenance)
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17 pages, 7493 KiB  
Article
Anti-Swaying Control Strategy of Ship-Mounted 3-RCU Parallel Platform Based on Dynamic Gravity Compensation
by Zhiyuan Lv, Pengfei Liu, Donghong Ning and Shuqing Wang
Machines 2024, 12(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030209 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 574
Abstract
It is essential to ensure stability during marine transportation or the installation of high center of gravity loads. The heavy loads increase gravity disturbance, affecting the steady-state-error control of the multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) motion compensation platform. In this paper, we propose [...] Read more.
It is essential to ensure stability during marine transportation or the installation of high center of gravity loads. The heavy loads increase gravity disturbance, affecting the steady-state-error control of the multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) motion compensation platform. In this paper, we propose a proportional derivative (PD) controller with dynamic gravity compensation (PDGC) for a 3-RCU (revolute–cylindrical–universal) parallel platform to improve the control effect of marine motion compensation for high center of gravity loads. We introduce an evaluation parameter of load stability and a weighting coefficient of anti-swaying control to tune the controller performance. The controller can set its control target between the two, keeping the load contact surface level and allowing the load center of gravity with the least movement. By deriving the Jacobian matrix, the gravity disturbance in the joint space is calculated and is compensated in the controller. First, we verify the control superiority of this controller over the PD controller under sinusoidal excitation in simulation and validate the effectiveness of the proposed anti-swing strategy. Then, the experiments are conducted with random excitation. The root mean square (RMS) value of the load’s residual angle with the proposed controller is reduced to 32.2% and 17.6% in two directions, respectively, compared with the PD controller under class 4 sea state excitation. The proposed method is effective for the anti-swaying control of ship-mounted 3-RCU parallel platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control and Mechanical System Engineering)
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25 pages, 1404 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Lagrangian Modeling Method for Mechanical Systems with Memory Elements
by Jia-Mei Nie, Xiang-Bo Liu and Xiao-Liang Zhang
Machines 2024, 12(3), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030208 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 596
Abstract
Mechanical memory elements cannot be accurately modeled using the Lagrangian method in the classical sense, since these elements are nonconservative in the plane of their non-constitutive relationships, and the system differential equations are not self-adjoint and therefore do not allow a Lagrangian formulation. [...] Read more.
Mechanical memory elements cannot be accurately modeled using the Lagrangian method in the classical sense, since these elements are nonconservative in the plane of their non-constitutive relationships, and the system differential equations are not self-adjoint and therefore do not allow a Lagrangian formulation. To overcome this problem, the integrated Lagrangian modeling method is introduced, in which the associated conventional energies in the system are replaced by the corresponding memory state functions of the memory elements. An example, a vehicle shimmy system equipped with fluid mem-inerters, is presented to verify the improvement of modeling accuracy of mechanical systems with memory elements via the integrated Lagrangian method. The simulation results show that under pulse and random excitation, using the Lagrangian method to model the system, the values of system response indicators exhibit significant errors ranging from 5.17% to 24.54% compared with the values obtained by the integrated Lagrangian method, namely, the accurate values. In addition, the influencing factors of the error and are discussed and the fractional-order memory elements and their modeling are also briefly generalized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machine Design and Theory)
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12 pages, 2429 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the WPT Function for Pattern Optimization to Detect Defects in Bearings
by Marta Zamorano, María Jesús Gómez and Cristina Castejon
Machines 2024, 12(3), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030207 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 580
Abstract
New trends in maintenance techniques are oriented to digitization and prognosis. The new electronic devices based on IoT (Internet of Things) technology among others that support the industry 4.0 paradigm let enhance the traditional condition monitoring techniques to better understand and predict the [...] Read more.
New trends in maintenance techniques are oriented to digitization and prognosis. The new electronic devices based on IoT (Internet of Things) technology among others that support the industry 4.0 paradigm let enhance the traditional condition monitoring techniques to better understand and predict the state of a machine in service. Related to maintenance applications, one of the important steps in condition monitoring tasks for fault diagnosis is the selection of the optimal pattern to provide accurate results (avoiding fault positives/negatives) with adequate computation time. When implementing this, the selection of optimal parameters and thresholds for setting alarms are important to detect problems in the machine before the failure occurs. Vibratory signals have been proved to be a good variable to determine their mechanical behavior. Nevertheless, parameters obtained from time domain measurements are not computationally efficient nor good patterns to compare different machine conditions. In this sense, tools that represent the frequency domain or time–frequency domain have been useful to detect defects in rotating elements such as bearings. In this work, defects in ball bearings are studied using wavelet packet transform. For this, a methodology will be developed for the optimal selection of the mother wavelet, incorporating intelligent classification systems, and using a medium Gaussian support vector machine model. In this way, it will be verified that the correct selection of this function influences both the results and the ease and reliability of detection. The results using the selected mother wavelet will be compared to those using Daubechies 6, since it is the mother wavelet that has been used in previous works and which was selected based on experience. For it, vibratory signals are obtained from a testbench with different bearing conditions: healthy bearings and defective bearings (inner and outer race). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery)
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33 pages, 11734 KiB  
Article
Optimization Method of Sheet Metal Laser Cutting Process Parameters under Heat Influence
by Yeda Wang, Xiaoping Liao, Juan Lu and Junyan Ma
Machines 2024, 12(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030206 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 603
Abstract
To address the issues of workpiece distortion and excessive material melting caused by heat accumulation during laser cutting of thin-walled sheet metal components, this paper proposes a segmented optimization method for process parameters in sheet metal laser cutting considering thermal effects. The method [...] Read more.
To address the issues of workpiece distortion and excessive material melting caused by heat accumulation during laser cutting of thin-walled sheet metal components, this paper proposes a segmented optimization method for process parameters in sheet metal laser cutting considering thermal effects. The method focuses on predetermined perforation points and machining paths. Firstly, an innovative temperature prediction model Tpr,t is established for the nth perforation point during the cutting process, with a prediction error of less than 10%. Secondly, using the PSO-BP-constructed prediction model for laser cutting quality features and an empirical model for processing efficiency features, a multi-objective model for quality and efficiency is generated. The NSGA II algorithm is employed to solve the objective optimization model and obtain the Pareto front. Next, based on the predicted temperature at the perforation point using the model Tpr,t, the TOPSIS decision-making method is applied. Different weights for quality and efficiency are set during the cutting stages where the temperature is below the lower threshold and above the upper threshold. Various combinations of machining parameters are selected, and by switching the parameters during the cutting process, the thermal accumulation (i.e., temperature) during processing is controlled within a given range. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified through actual machining experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing and Industrial Automation)
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22 pages, 1358 KiB  
Article
Adaptive Sliding Mode Resilient Control of Multi-Robot Systems with a Leader–Follower Model under Byzantine Attacks in the Context of the Industrial Internet of Things
by Muhammad Nasir and Ananda Maiti
Machines 2024, 12(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030205 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 686
Abstract
In this paper, an adaptive and resilient consensus control mechanism for multi-robot systems under Byzantine attack, based on sliding mode control, is proposed. The primary aim of the article is to develop a finite-time consensus control strategy even in the presence of a [...] Read more.
In this paper, an adaptive and resilient consensus control mechanism for multi-robot systems under Byzantine attack, based on sliding mode control, is proposed. The primary aim of the article is to develop a finite-time consensus control strategy even in the presence of a Byzantine attack. In the start, a finite-time consensus control mechanism is proposed to identify the essential conditions required for ensuring consensus accuracy in multi-robot systems, even when faced with Byzantine attacks using Lyapunov theory. Subsequently, a sliding mode control is combined with an adaptive technique for multi-robot systems that lack prior knowledge of Byzantine attack. Later, an attack observer is proposed to estimate the performance of multi-robot systems in the presence of a Byzantine attack. Additionally, chattering effects are mitigated by employing integral sliding mode control. As a result, resilient consensus performance of multi-robot systems can be achieved in a finite time interval. A simulation example is also presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed model. Furthermore, we delve into the data structure of the proposed method and explore its integration with Artificial Intelligence for seamless incorporation into the Industrial Internet of Things applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimization and AI of Autonomous Multi-Agents)
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16 pages, 5577 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis of a Moment of Inertia Adjustment Device
by Liping Zeng, Zihao Wan and Gang Li
Machines 2024, 12(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030204 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 603
Abstract
The vibration frequency characteristics of a rotor system are directly related to its moment of inertia. In this paper, a moment of inertia adjustment device is proposed to adjust the frequency characteristics of a rotor system and better reduce vibration by changing the [...] Read more.
The vibration frequency characteristics of a rotor system are directly related to its moment of inertia. In this paper, a moment of inertia adjustment device is proposed to adjust the frequency characteristics of a rotor system and better reduce vibration by changing the moment of inertia. First, a mathematical model of the moment of inertia and the temperature field are established. A finite element simulation model of the electromagnetic field of the electromagnetic control unit in the device is established. The influence of current and air gap on the electromagnetic forces is discussed. Then, the validity of the finite element simulation for the electromagnetic control unit is verified using experimental results. In addition, the variations in the displacement and force of the moving mass and the moment of inertia of the device with speed are analyzed. The results show that the proposed moment of inertia adjustment device can be used to significantly adjust the moment of inertia, which provides a reference for better controlling vibrations in rotor systems. Finally, a finite element simulation model for an electromagnetic field analysis of the electromagnetic control unit in the device is established. The results show that the maximum temperature of the electromagnetic control device is 332 K in 60 min, which is in accordance with the requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machine Design and Theory)
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21 pages, 11275 KiB  
Article
Digital Ergonomics—The Reliability of the Human Factor and Its Impact on the Maintenance of Aircraft Brakes and Wheels
by Michal Hovanec, Peter Korba, Samer Al-Rabeei, Martin Vencel and Branislav Racek
Machines 2024, 12(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030203 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 647
Abstract
This paper presents the development and use of digital tools in the maintenance processes and ergonomics of work systems in the aerospace industry. The Industry 4.0 strategy aims to ensure the reliability of the human factor throughout the entire lifecycle of the maintenance [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development and use of digital tools in the maintenance processes and ergonomics of work systems in the aerospace industry. The Industry 4.0 strategy aims to ensure the reliability of the human factor throughout the entire lifecycle of the maintenance process in the aerospace industry. Based on the requirement placed on the digital model of the working environment obtained from the 3D scanner data, an advanced software solution from TECNOMATIX, namely the TX JACK software 16.1.0 module, was used. The investigated digital ergonomic model, with two variants of workers with anthropometrically different weights, is the subject of analysis and simulation of the maintenance work process in an aerospace organization. Furthermore, the research also shows how the workers of maintenance and repair organizations are willing to develop their own knowledge and skills. The aviation industry should invest in the development of reliable software and hardware, improve safety at the level of digital ergonomics and the quality of jobs involving digitalization, and offer appropriate training for safety and quality personnel. The aim of this paper is to ensure the reliability of the human factor in the maintenance process and, consequently, to ensure technical safety by means of innovative tools in practice. The findings suggest that the investigated TESTER-STEND model with high-end adjustable pistons will improve ergonomics, worker performance, and work safety as a whole. Full article
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20 pages, 7249 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Real-Time Kinematic Relative Positioning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
by Yujin Shin, Chanhee Lee and Euiho Kim
Machines 2024, 12(3), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030202 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 649
Abstract
Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) is used to provide centimeter-level positioning accuracy. There are several ways to implement RTK but a Kalman filter-based RTK is preferred because of its superior capability to resolve GNSS carrier phase integer [...] Read more.
Real-time kinematic (RTK) positioning of the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) is used to provide centimeter-level positioning accuracy. There are several ways to implement RTK but a Kalman filter-based RTK is preferred because of its superior capability to resolve GNSS carrier phase integer ambiguities. However, the positioning performance of the Kalman filter-based RTK is often compromised by various factors when it comes to determining a precise relative position vector between moving unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with low-cost GNSS receivers and antennas, where the locations of both GNSS antennas are not accurately known and change over time. Some of the critical factors that lead to a high rate of incorrect resolutions of carrier phase integer ambiguities are measurement time differences between GNSS receivers, frequent cycle slips with high noise in code and carrier phase measurements, and an improper Kalman filter gain due to a newly risen satellite. In this paper, effective methods to deal with those factors to achieve a seamless Kalman filter-based RTK performance in moving UAVs are presented. Using our extensive 45 flight tests data sets, conducted over a duration of 3 to 12 min, the RTK positioning results showed that the root-mean-square position error (RMSE) decreased by up to 95.13%, with an average of 65.31%, and that the percentage of epochs that passed the ratio test, which is the most common method for validating double differenced carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution, increased by up to 130%, with an average of 23.54%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autonomous Navigation of Mobile Robots and UAV)
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24 pages, 1679 KiB  
Article
Trajectory Tracking Control Based on a Composite Disturbance Observer for Unmanned Autonomous Helicopters under Multiple Disturbances
by Shihao Pan, Ting Wang, Haoran Zhang and Tao Li
Machines 2024, 12(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030201 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
This paper studies the trajectory tracking anti-disturbance control of unmanned autonomous helicopters (UAHs) under matched disturbances and mismatched ones. Firstly, the six-degrees-of-freedom UAH nonlinear system is simplified via feedback linearization to handle strong coupling, in which the multiple disturbances are composed of modeled [...] Read more.
This paper studies the trajectory tracking anti-disturbance control of unmanned autonomous helicopters (UAHs) under matched disturbances and mismatched ones. Firstly, the six-degrees-of-freedom UAH nonlinear system is simplified via feedback linearization to handle strong coupling, in which the multiple disturbances are composed of modeled disturbances and time-varying bounded ones. Secondly, in order to estimate these disturbances, a new design method of a composite disturbance observer is proposed. On the one hand, for the mismatched disturbances, a normal disturbance observer (DO) combined with a backstepping control are utilized to handle their negative effect. On the other hand, two refined disturbance observers (RDOs) are constructed to estimate the matched disturbances, in which the coupling estimations are involved. Then, by designing two anti-disturbance composite controllers, the boundedness of the tracking errors is guaranteed by using the Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, some numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed control scheme. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vehicle Engineering)
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27 pages, 10349 KiB  
Article
Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Collaboration for Coverage Path Planning in Partially Known Dynamic Environments
by Gabriel G. R. de Castro, Tatiana M. B. Santos, Fabio A. A. Andrade, José Lima, Diego B. Haddad, Leonardo de M. Honório and Milena F. Pinto
Machines 2024, 12(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030200 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 899
Abstract
This research presents a cooperation strategy for a heterogeneous group of robots that comprises two Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and one Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) to perform tasks in dynamic scenarios. This paper defines specific roles for the UAVs and UGV within the [...] Read more.
This research presents a cooperation strategy for a heterogeneous group of robots that comprises two Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and one Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) to perform tasks in dynamic scenarios. This paper defines specific roles for the UAVs and UGV within the framework to address challenges like partially known terrains and dynamic obstacles. The UAVs are focused on aerial inspections and mapping, while UGV conducts ground-level inspections. In addition, the UAVs can return and land at the UGV base, in case of a low battery level, to perform hot swapping so as not to interrupt the inspection process. This research mainly emphasizes developing a robust Coverage Path Planning (CPP) algorithm that dynamically adapts paths to avoid collisions and ensure efficient coverage. The Wavefront algorithm was selected for the two-dimensional offline CPP. All robots must follow a predefined path generated by the offline CPP. The study also integrates advanced technologies like Neural Networks (NN) and Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) for adaptive path planning for both robots to enable real-time responses to dynamic obstacles. Extensive simulations using a Robot Operating System (ROS) and Gazebo platforms were conducted to validate the approach considering specific real-world situations, that is, an electrical substation, in order to demonstrate its functionality in addressing challenges in dynamic environments and advancing the field of autonomous robots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Mobile Robotics Navigation, 2nd Volume)
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19 pages, 4246 KiB  
Article
Axiomatic Design of a Test Artifact for PBF-LM Machine Capability Monitoring
by Alessandro Giorgetti, Filippo Ceccanti, Niccolò Baldi, Simon Kemble, Gabriele Arcidiacono and Paolo Citti
Machines 2024, 12(3), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030199 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 718
Abstract
Powder Bed Fusion Laser Melting (PBF-LM) additive manufacturing technology is expected to have a remarkable impact on the industrial setting, making possible the realization of a metallic component with very complex designs to enhance product performance. However, the industrial use of the PBF-LM [...] Read more.
Powder Bed Fusion Laser Melting (PBF-LM) additive manufacturing technology is expected to have a remarkable impact on the industrial setting, making possible the realization of a metallic component with very complex designs to enhance product performance. However, the industrial use of the PBF-LM system needs a capability monitoring system to ensure product quality. Among the various studies developed, the investigation of methodology for the actual machine capability determination has been faced and still represents an open point. There are multiple authors and institutes proposing different investigation methods, ranging from the realization of samples (ex situ analysis) to installing monitoring devices on the machine (in situ analysis). Compared to other approaches, sample realization allows for assessing how the machine works through specimen analysis, but it is sensitive to the sample design. In this article, we first present an analysis of a well-known test artifact from an Axiomatic Design perspective. Second, based on the customer needs analysis and adjustments with respect to the use of hypothetical additive production lines, a new test artifact with an uncoupled design matrix is introduced. The proposed design has been experimentally tested and characterized using artifact made of Inconel 718 superalloy to evaluate its performance and representativeness in machine capability assessment. The results show an accurate identification of beam offset and scaling factor considering all the building platform positions. In addition, the artifact is characterized by a reduced building time (more than 90% with respect to the reference NIST artifact) and a halved inspection time (from 16 h to 8 h). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Mechanical and Industrial Innovation)
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47 pages, 36235 KiB  
Article
Research on Running Performance Optimization of Four-Wheel-Driving Ackerman Chassis by the Combining Method of Quantitative Experiment with Dynamic Simulation
by Xiangyu Zhang, Bowen Xie, Yang Yang, Yongbin Liu and Pan Jiang
Machines 2024, 12(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030198 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 723
Abstract
The wheeled chassis, which is the carrying device of the existing handling robot, is mostly only suitable for flat indoor environments and does not have the ability to work on outdoor rugged terrain, greatly limiting the development of chassis driven handling robots. On [...] Read more.
The wheeled chassis, which is the carrying device of the existing handling robot, is mostly only suitable for flat indoor environments and does not have the ability to work on outdoor rugged terrain, greatly limiting the development of chassis driven handling robots. On this basis, this paper innovatively designs a four-wheel-driving Ackerman chassis with strong vibration absorption and obstacle surmounting capabilities and conducts performance research and optimization on it through quantitative experiments and dynamic simulation. Firstly, based on the introduction of the working principle and structure of the four-wheel-driving Ackerman carrier chassis, a multi-sensor distributed dynamic performance test system is constructed through the analysis of the chassis performance evaluation index. Then, according to the quantitative operation experiment of the chassis, the vibration and acceleration characteristics of the chassis at different positions of the chassis, the amount of slip and straightness of the chassis under different running distance, and the operating characteristics of the chassis under different road conditions and different damping springs conditions were analyzed respectively, which verified the rationality of the chassis design. Finally, by constructing the chassis dynamics simulation model; the influence law of chassis structure; and performance parameters such as chassis wheelbase, guide rod structure, and parameters, wheel friction coefficient and assembly error on the dynamic characteristics of the chassis is studied, and the optimal structure of the four-wheel-driving Ackerman chassis is determined while it is verified based on the simulation results. The research shows that the four-wheel-driving Ackerman chassis has good vibration performance and stability and has strong adaptability to different roads. After optimization, the vibration performance, stability, amount of slip, and straightness of the chassis structure are significantly improved, and the straightness is reduced to 0.399%, which is suitable for precise carriage applications on the chassis. The research has important guiding significance for promoting the development and application of wheeled chassis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vehicle Engineering)
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21 pages, 3032 KiB  
Article
Forecasting Emerging Technologies in Intelligent Machine Tools: A Novel Framework Based on Community Analysis
by Cunxiang He, Yufei Liu and Yuhan Liu
Machines 2024, 12(3), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030197 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Having emerged as strategic focal points in industrial transformation and technological innovation, intelligent machine tools are pivotal in the field of intelligent manufacturing. Accurately forecasting emerging technologies within this domain is crucial for guiding intelligent manufacturing’s evolution and fostering rapid innovation. However, prevailing [...] Read more.
Having emerged as strategic focal points in industrial transformation and technological innovation, intelligent machine tools are pivotal in the field of intelligent manufacturing. Accurately forecasting emerging technologies within this domain is crucial for guiding intelligent manufacturing’s evolution and fostering rapid innovation. However, prevailing research methodologies exhibit limitations, often concentrating on popular topics at the expense of lesser-known yet significant areas, thereby impacting the accurate identification of research priorities. The complex, systemic, and interdisciplinary nature of intelligent machine tool technology challenges traditional research approaches, particularly in assessing technological maturity and intricate interactions. To overcome these challenges, we propose a novel framework that leverages technological communities for a comprehensive analysis. This approach clusters data into specific topics which are reflective of the technology system, facilitating detailed investigations within each area. By refining community analysis methods and integrating structural and interactive community features, our framework significantly improves the precision of emerging technology predictions. Our research not only validates the framework but also projects key emerging technologies in intelligent machine tools, offering valuable insights for business leaders and scholars alike. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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11 pages, 3796 KiB  
Article
Introduction of Collaborative Robotics in the Production of Automotive Parts: A Case Study
by Mirco Polonara, Alessandra Romagnoli, Gianfranco Biancini and Luca Carbonari
Machines 2024, 12(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030196 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 731
Abstract
Incorporating collaborative applications constitutes a challenging and increasingly intricate objective within the context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This challenge stems from the shortage of highly specialized personnel in these types of companies when it comes to adopting cutting-edge technologies. The lack [...] Read more.
Incorporating collaborative applications constitutes a challenging and increasingly intricate objective within the context of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This challenge stems from the shortage of highly specialized personnel in these types of companies when it comes to adopting cutting-edge technologies. The lack of innovation in production processes, however, increases the risk that SMEs will not be able to adapt to rapid changes in the market and the growing needs of consumers, who today are evolving at an unprecedented pace. The importance of adopting collaborative applications can be found in their capacity to harmonize human adaptability with the precision of robotic technology. This synergy contributes to the establishment of a safer work environment while guaranteeing effective and efficient performance. These features not only lead to improved production line performance compared to traditional manual or stationary operations, but also highlight new perspectives in the design, production, and customization of new products. This, in turn, helps companies strengthen their competitiveness in the global market. In this scenario, the primary challenge centers around effectively putting these solutions into practice. Our research aims to highlight how significant benefits can be achieved, both in terms of performance improvements and economically, through the analysis of a simple yet illuminating case study. Full article
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16 pages, 6424 KiB  
Article
Making Cognitive Ergonomics in the Human–Computer Interaction of Manufacturing Execution Systems Assessable: Experimental and Validation Approaches to Closing Research Gaps
by Andreas Dörner, Marek Bures, Michal Simon and Gerald Pirkl
Machines 2024, 12(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030195 - 16 Mar 2024
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Cognitive ergonomics and the mental health of production workers have attracted increasing interest in industrial companies. However, there is still not much research available as it is regarding physical ergonomics and muscular load. This paper designs an experiment to analyze the cognitive ergonomics [...] Read more.
Cognitive ergonomics and the mental health of production workers have attracted increasing interest in industrial companies. However, there is still not much research available as it is regarding physical ergonomics and muscular load. This paper designs an experiment to analyze the cognitive ergonomics and mental stress of shop floor production workers interacting with different user interfaces of a Manufacturing Execution System (MES) that is adjustable for analyzing the influence of other assistive systems, too. This approach is going to be designed with the Design of Experiments (DoE) method. Therefore, the respective goals and factors are going to be determined. The environment will be the laboratories of the University of Applied Sciences Amberg-Weiden and its Campus for Digitalization in Amberg. In detail, there will be a sample assembly process from the automotive supplier industry for demonstration purposes. At this laboratory, the MES software from the European benchmark SAP is installed, and the respective standard Production Operator Desk is going to be used with slight adaptions. In order to make the cognitive ergonomics measurable, different approaches are going to be used. For instance, body temperature, heart rate and skin conductance as well as subjective methods of self-assessment are planned. The result of this paper is a ready-to-run experiment with sample data for each classification of participants. Further, possible limitations and adjustments are going to be discussed. Finally, an approach to validating the expected results is going to be shown and future intentions are going to be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Automation and Control Systems)
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21 pages, 14532 KiB  
Article
Applying the MIMO BP Neural Network and Cloud-Based Monitoring of Thermal Behavior for High-Speed Motorized Spindle Units
by Milos Knezev, Robert Cep, Luka Mejic, Branislav Popovic, Aco Antic, Branko Strbac and Aleksandar Zivkovic
Machines 2024, 12(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030194 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 667
Abstract
Understanding the temperature–working condition relationship is crucial for optimizing machining processes to ensure dimensional accuracy, surface finish quality, and overall spindle longevity. Monitoring and controlling spindle temperature through appropriate cooling systems and operational parameters are essential for efficient and reliable machining operations. This [...] Read more.
Understanding the temperature–working condition relationship is crucial for optimizing machining processes to ensure dimensional accuracy, surface finish quality, and overall spindle longevity. Monitoring and controlling spindle temperature through appropriate cooling systems and operational parameters are essential for efficient and reliable machining operations. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the thermal equilibrium and deformation characteristics of a high-speed motorized spindle unit utilized in grinding machine tools. Through a series of thermal equilibrium experiments and meticulous data acquisition, the study investigates the nuanced influence of various working conditions, including spindle speeds, coolant types, and coolant flow rates, on spindle temperatures and thermal deformations. Leveraging the power of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), predictive models are meticulously developed to accurately forecast spindle behavior. Subsequently, the models are seamlessly transitioned to a cloud computing infrastructure to ensure remote accessibility and scalability, facilitating real-time monitoring and forecasting of spindle performance. The validity and reliability of the predictive models are rigorously assessed through comparison with experimental data, demonstrating excellent agreement and high accuracy in forecasting spindle thermal behavior. Furthermore, the study underscores the critical role of key working condition variables as precise predictors of spindle temperature and thermal deformation, emphasizing their significance in optimizing overall spindle efficiency and performance. This comprehensive analysis offers valuable insights and practical implications for enhancing spindle operation and advancing the field of grinding machine tools. Full article
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15 pages, 4336 KiB  
Article
Vibration Characteristics of Asymmetric Flexible Cantilever Beams Connected to a Central Rigid Body
by Dehuang Gong, Xueqian Wei, Hongli Liu and Fengming Li
Machines 2024, 12(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030193 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 663
Abstract
A satellite with two solar wings can be modeled using a pair of symmetric flexible cantilever beams connected to a central rigid body. Due to certain reasons, the symmetric flexible cantilever beams may be turned into asymmetric ones, which will inevitably influence the [...] Read more.
A satellite with two solar wings can be modeled using a pair of symmetric flexible cantilever beams connected to a central rigid body. Due to certain reasons, the symmetric flexible cantilever beams may be turned into asymmetric ones, which will inevitably influence the vibration properties of the structural system. By changing the structural sizes and adding local mass on one side of the two beams, a structural system with asymmetric mass distribution is obtained and its vibration characteristics are investigated. Hamilton’s principle with the assumed mode method is employed to establish the equation of motion of the asymmetric structural system. The natural frequencies, mode shapes, frequency response curves and displacement time histories of the system are calculated, and they are compared with those of the structural system with a symmetric mass distribution. The correctness and feasibility of the present analytical method are verified by means of the finite element method (FEM) and a vibration experiment. The analytical results show that the mass asymmetry of the two beams leads to the mode localization phenomenon, and the coupling effect between the two beams and the central rigid body is enhanced. The larger the mass asymmetry is and the closer the position of the added local mass to the end of the cantilever beam is, the more obvious of the mode localization phenomenon is and the more obvious of the coupling effect between the two beams and the central rigid body is. The present investigation results are helpful for the dynamic analysis and design of spacecraft structures composed of flexible solar wings and a central rigid body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machine Design and Theory)
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27 pages, 7659 KiB  
Article
An Internet-of-Things-Based Dynamic Scheduling Optimization Method for Unreliable Flexible Manufacturing Systems under Complex Operational Conditions
by Abdulmajeed Dabwan, Husam Kaid, Abdulrahman Al-Ahmari, Khaled N. Alqahtani and Wadea Ameen
Machines 2024, 12(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030192 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 700
Abstract
The dynamic scheduling problem (DSP) in unreliable flexible manufacturing systems (UFMSs) with concurrency, conflicts, resource sharing, and sequential operations is a complex optimization problem that requires the use of efficient solution methodologies. The effectiveness of scheduling UFMSs relies on the quality of equipment [...] Read more.
The dynamic scheduling problem (DSP) in unreliable flexible manufacturing systems (UFMSs) with concurrency, conflicts, resource sharing, and sequential operations is a complex optimization problem that requires the use of efficient solution methodologies. The effectiveness of scheduling UFMSs relies on the quality of equipment maintenance. Currently, UFMSs with consistently large queues of parts awaiting service employ a repair-after-failure approach as a standard maintenance procedure. This method may require unexpected resources, incur costs, consume time, and potentially disrupt the operations of other UFMSs, either partially or fully. This study suggests using a predictive maintenance (PdM) strategy that utilizes the Internet of Things (IoT) to predict and avoid early mechanical equipment failures before they happen in UFMSs, thereby reducing unplanned downtime and enhancing reliability. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to construct timed Petri net (TPN) models using the IoT for the PdM configuration of mechanical equipment in the dynamic scheduling problem of UFMSs. This necessitates that users represent the specific problem using TPNs. The process of PN modeling requires the utilization of domain knowledge pertaining to the target problems as well as to machine information. However, it is important to note that the modeling rules for PNs are straightforward and limited in number. Consequently, the TPN model is applied to generate and formulate mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) instances accurately. This is done to identify the optimal production cycle time, which may be implemented in real-life scenarios. Several UFMS instances are used to demonstrate the applications and effectiveness of the proposed method. The computational results demonstrate that the proposed method shows superior solution quality, effectively solves instances for a total of 10 parts and 6 machines, and achieves a solution in a reasonable CPU time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Smart Design and Manufacturing Technology)
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21 pages, 4115 KiB  
Article
Kinematics Analysis and Trajectory Planning of 6-DOF Hydraulic Robotic Arm in Driving Side Pile
by Mingjie Feng, Jianbo Dai, Wenbo Zhou, Haozhi Xu and Zhongbin Wang
Machines 2024, 12(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030191 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Given the difficulty in manually adjusting the position and posture of the pile body during the pile driving process, the improved Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameter method is used to establish the kinematics equation of the mechanical arm, based on the motion characteristics of each [...] Read more.
Given the difficulty in manually adjusting the position and posture of the pile body during the pile driving process, the improved Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameter method is used to establish the kinematics equation of the mechanical arm, based on the motion characteristics of each mechanism of the mechanical arm of the pile driver, and forward and inverse kinematics analysis is carried out to solve the equation. The mechanical arm of the pile driver is modeled and simulated using the Robotics Toolbox of MATLAB to verify the proposed kinematics model of the mechanical arm of the pile driver. The Monte Carlo method is used to investigate the working space of the mechanical arm of the pile driver, revealing that the arm can extend from the nearest point by 900 mm to the furthest extension of 1800 mm. The actuator’s lowest point allows for a descent of 1000 mm and an ascent of up to 1500 mm. A novel multi-strategy grey wolf optimizer (GWO) algorithm is proposed for robotic arm three-dimensional (3D) path planning, successfully outperforming the basic GWO, ant colony algorithm (ACA), genetic algorithm (GA), and artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA) in simulation experiments. Comparative results show that the proposed algorithm efficiently searches for optimal paths, avoiding obstacles with shorter lengths. In robotic arm simulations, the multi-strategy GWO reduces path length by 16.575% and running time by 9.452% compared to the basic GWO algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Robotics, Mechatronics and Intelligent Machines)
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19 pages, 3011 KiB  
Article
Modeling for Hysteresis Contact Behavior of Bolted Joint Interfaces with Memory Effect Penalty Constitution
by Di Yuan, Dong Wang and Qiang Wan
Machines 2024, 12(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030190 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
A novel penalty contact constitution was developed to replicate the hysteresis memory effect observed in contact interfaces. On this basis, a refined finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to study the stick–slip friction contact behavior of bolted joint interfaces. The analysis was validated [...] Read more.
A novel penalty contact constitution was developed to replicate the hysteresis memory effect observed in contact interfaces. On this basis, a refined finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to study the stick–slip friction contact behavior of bolted joint interfaces. The analysis was validated by comparing it with the experimental hysteresis loops in the literature. The simulated hysteresis loops were subsequently used to identify four parameters of the Iwan model. Additionally, the effects of bolt clamping, friction coefficient, and excitation amplitude were individually examined. It was found that the deterioration in bolt clamping performance resulted in a decrease in both the equivalent joint stiffness and energy dissipation. Similarly, the reduction in the friction coefficient yielded a comparable impact. Furthermore, the identified model parameters of critical stick–slip force and displacement exhibited a quasi-linear relationship to the bolt preload and friction coefficient. Full article
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25 pages, 13022 KiB  
Article
Design and Optimization of Production Line Layout Using Material Flows
by Michal Bučko, Lucie Krejčí, Ivo Hlavatý and Jiří Lorenčík
Machines 2024, 12(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030189 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
Businesses are constantly trying to improve their production by looking for bottlenecks to improve their market position. The introduction and innovation of automated production lines is necessary for both labor shortages and productivity and quality reasons. A combination of precision, fluidity, and speed, [...] Read more.
Businesses are constantly trying to improve their production by looking for bottlenecks to improve their market position. The introduction and innovation of automated production lines is necessary for both labor shortages and productivity and quality reasons. A combination of precision, fluidity, and speed, that is the basic definition of a production line. With the advent of new technologies, production lines have also begun to continuously speed up and innovate. Innovation is the subject of this paper, where the problem of designing a completely new layout for a new production line in the food industry has been addressed. The aim of this paper was to create a design for the optimal layout of the production line in preselected production areas. Optimal use of the space allocated for production is very important for every company today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Manufacturing and Machine Tools)
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23 pages, 9912 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Correlation between the Monitored Operating Parameters and Bearing Life in the Milling Head of a CNC Computer Numerical Control Machining Center
by Petr Baron, Oleksandr Pivtorak, Ján Ivan and Marek Kočiško
Machines 2024, 12(3), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030188 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 650
Abstract
The present paper describes a study conducted at the request of the operator of machining center equipment. The operator observed undesirable indicators in terms of increased backlash and vibration of the milling head and poor quality of the machined surfaces. Vibration measurements and [...] Read more.
The present paper describes a study conducted at the request of the operator of machining center equipment. The operator observed undesirable indicators in terms of increased backlash and vibration of the milling head and poor quality of the machined surfaces. Vibration measurements and vibrodiagnostics were carried out before disassembling the milling head in the idle state. The bearings, lubricant, and friction regime were analyzed in the next step. The vibrodiagnostic methods used included VEL, ACC, EN2, EN3, and EN4, with recommended limits conforming to STN ISO 10816-3. The vibration values obtained indicated a problem with the bearings, exceeding the limit values. After disassembly of the bearings, abrasive wear, corrosion, and improper lubricant conditions were detected. Lubricant analysis showed the presence of abrasive and corrosive particles, indicating an unsatisfactory friction regime. Determining the optimum lubricant temperature and the effect on friction torque constituted other aspects of the study. Inspection of the bearing microgeometry confirmed unsatisfactory roundness. Furthermore, the assembly of tapered roller bearings with axial preload was analyzed with a focus on bearing stiffness, accuracy, and life. The results showed that preload improves shaft guidance accuracy and load distribution, promoting reliable operation and extending bearing life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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19 pages, 6234 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of Quadcopter Chassis Using Generative Design and Lightweight Materials to Advance Precision Agriculture
by Anurag Balayan, Rajnish Mallick, Stuti Dwivedi, Sahaj Saxena, Bisheshwar Haorongbam and Anshul Sharma
Machines 2024, 12(3), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030187 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
This research addresses the imperative challenge of a lightweight design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) chassis to enhance the thrust-to-weight and power-to-weight ratios, crucial for optimal flight performance, focused on developing an intriguing lightweight yet robust quadcopter chassis. Advanced generative design techniques, [...] Read more.
This research addresses the imperative challenge of a lightweight design for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) chassis to enhance the thrust-to-weight and power-to-weight ratios, crucial for optimal flight performance, focused on developing an intriguing lightweight yet robust quadcopter chassis. Advanced generative design techniques, integrated with topology optimization, using Autodesk Fusion 360 software (v. 16.5. 0.2083), 3D-printing methods and lightweight materials like Polylactic Acid (P.L.A.), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (A.B.S.), and Nylon 6/6 play a significant role in achieving the desired balance between structural integrity and weight reduction. The study showcases successful outcomes, presenting quadcopter chassis designs that significantly improve structural efficiency and overall performance metrics. The findings contribute to aerial robotics and hold promise for precision agriculture applications with relevant performed simulations, emphasizing the importance of tailored design methodologies for other engineering domains. In conclusion, this research provides a foundational step toward advancing drone technology, with weight reductions of almost 50%, P/W and T/W ratios increment of 6.08% and 6.75%, respectively, at least an 11.8% increment in Factor of Safety, at least a 70% reduction in stress values and reduced manufacturing time from its comparative DJI F450 drone, demonstrating the critical role of innovative design approaches in optimizing operational efficiency for targeted applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machine Design and Theory)
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33 pages, 13465 KiB  
Article
An Adapted NURBS Interpolator with a Switched Optimized Method of Feed-Rate Scheduling
by Xiaoyang Zhou
Machines 2024, 12(3), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030186 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
With the increasing demand for processing precision in the manufacturing industry, feed-rate scheduling is a crucial component in achieving the processing quality of complex surfaces. A smooth feed-rate profile not only guarantees machining quality but also improves machining efficiency. Although the typical offline [...] Read more.
With the increasing demand for processing precision in the manufacturing industry, feed-rate scheduling is a crucial component in achieving the processing quality of complex surfaces. A smooth feed-rate profile not only guarantees machining quality but also improves machining efficiency. Although the typical offline feed-rate scheduling method possesses good processing efficiency, it may not provide an optimal solution due to the NP-hard problem caused by the feed-rate scheduling of continuous curve segments, which easily results in excess kinetic limitations and feed-rate fluctuations in a real-time interpolation. Instead, the FIR (Finite Impulse Response) method is widely used to realize interpolation in real-time processing. However, the FIR method will filter out a large number of high-frequency signals, leading to a low-processing efficiency. Further, greater acceleration or deceleration is required to ensure the interpolation passes through the segment end at a predefined feed rate and the deceleration in the feed rate profile appears earlier, which allows the interpolation to easily exceed the kinetic limitation. At present, a simple offline or online method cannot realize the global optimization of the feed-rate profile and guarantee the machining efficiency. Moreover, the current feed-rate scheduling that considers both offline and online methods does not consider the situation that the call of offline data and online prediction data will lead to a decrease in the real-time performance of the CNC system. Further, real-time feed-rate scheduling data tend to dominate the whole interpolation process, thus reducing the effect of the offline feed-rate scheduling data. Hence, based on the tool path with C3 continuity (Cubic Continuously Differentiable), this paper first presents a basic interpolation unit relevant to the S-type interpolation feed-rate profile. Then, an offline local smooth strategy is proposed to smooth the feed-rate profile and reduce the exceeding of kinetic limitations and feed-rate fluctuations caused by frequent acceleration and deceleration. Further, a global online smoothing strategy based on the data generated by offline pre-interpolation is presented. What is more, FIR login and logout conditions are proposed to further smooth the feed-rate profile and improve the real-time performance and machining efficiency. The case study validates that the proposed method performs better in kinetic results compared with the typical offline and FIR methods in both the simulation experiment and actual machining experiments. Especially, in actual processing experiments, the proposed method obtains a 28% reduction in contour errors. Further, the proposed method compared with the FIR method obtains a 15% increase in machining efficiency but only a 4% decrease compared with the typical offline method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Manufacturing)
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22 pages, 13118 KiB  
Article
An Improved Fault Localization Method for Direct Current Filters in HVDC Systems: Development and Application of the DRNCNN Model
by Xiaohui Liu, Haofeng Liu, Hui Qiao, Sihan Zhou and Liang Qin
Machines 2024, 12(3), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030185 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 683
Abstract
This paper focus on direct current (DC) filter grounding faults to propose a novel dilated normalized residual convolutional neural network (DRNCNN) fault diagnosis model for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems. To address the insufficiency of the traditional model’s receptive field in dealing [...] Read more.
This paper focus on direct current (DC) filter grounding faults to propose a novel dilated normalized residual convolutional neural network (DRNCNN) fault diagnosis model for high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems. To address the insufficiency of the traditional model’s receptive field in dealing with high-dimensional and nonlinear data, this paper incorporates dilated convolution and batch normalization (BN), significantly enhancing the CNN’s capability to capture complex spatial features. Furthermore, this paper integrates residual connections and parameter rectified linear units (PReLU) to optimize gradient propagation and mitigate the issue of gradient vanishing during training. These innovative improvements, embodied in the DRNCNN model, substantially increase the accuracy of fault detection, achieving a diagnostic accuracy rate of 99.28%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Electromechanical Energy Conversion Systems)
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19 pages, 8123 KiB  
Article
Tool Wear State Identification Based on the IWOA-VMD Feature Selection Method
by Xing Shui, Zhijun Rong, Binbin Dan, Qiangjian He and Xin Yang
Machines 2024, 12(3), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030184 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Complex, thin-walled components are the most important load-bearing structures in aircraft equipment. Monitoring the wear status of milling cutters is critical for enhancing the precision and efficiency of thin-walled item machining. The cutting force signals of milling cutters are non-stationary and non-linear, making [...] Read more.
Complex, thin-walled components are the most important load-bearing structures in aircraft equipment. Monitoring the wear status of milling cutters is critical for enhancing the precision and efficiency of thin-walled item machining. The cutting force signals of milling cutters are non-stationary and non-linear, making it difficult to detect wear stages. In response to this issue, a system for monitoring milling cutter wear has been presented, which is based on parameterized Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) Multiscale Permutation Entropy. Initially, an updated whale optimization technique is used, with the joint correlation coefficient serving as the fitness value for determining the VMD parameters. The improved VMD technique is then used to break down the original signal into a series of intrinsic mode functions, and the Multiscale Permutation Entropy of each effective mode is determined to generate a feature vector. Finally, a 1D Convolutional Neural Network (1D CNN) is employed as the input model for state monitoring using the feature vector. The experimental findings show that the suggested technique can efficiently extract characteristics indicating the wear condition of milling cutters, allowing for the precise monitoring of milling cutter wear states. The recognition rate is as high as 98.4375%, which is superior to those of comparable approaches. Full article
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13 pages, 7923 KiB  
Article
Studying the Performance of Reinforced Polymer Gear Wheels: Development of an Advanced Test Bench for Wear Analysis
by Luca Landi, Giulia Morettini, Massimiliano Palmieri, Stefano Benicchi, Filippo Cianetti and Claudio Braccesi
Machines 2024, 12(3), 183; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030183 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 746
Abstract
In recent years, polymeric materials have gained prominence as a competitive option for gear manufacturing. Nevertheless, the absence of comprehensive literature addressing the wear due to the coupling of these materials presents a real challenge in response to this innovative trend. Wear of [...] Read more.
In recent years, polymeric materials have gained prominence as a competitive option for gear manufacturing. Nevertheless, the absence of comprehensive literature addressing the wear due to the coupling of these materials presents a real challenge in response to this innovative trend. Wear of plastic gearwheels represents, in fact, a key issue, traditionally assessed using standard formulations under optimal dry operating conditions. These calculations often rely on coefficients derived from specialized gear tests, but their applicability is constrained to specific polymer–metal combinations. This research was dedicated to the development of a test bench tailored to evaluate the wear of glass fiber-reinforced self-lubricating polymer gearwheels under different operating conditions. This study commenced with a comprehensive exploration of wear phenomena in thermoplastic gearwheels and the inherent challenges associated with utilizing existing standards and the scientific literature for wear analysis. This was followed by a careful evaluation of the operational needs of the test bench, which, starting from a basic solution already implemented, improved its use in various aspects. Finally, this study introduced an optical-based methodology for average linear wear control. This research strived to establish a testing approach that minimizes uncertainties when assessing the wear of thermoplastic gears. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Machines Testing and Maintenance)
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20 pages, 5903 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Geared Planar Linkage Mechanisms through the Segmentation of Multiloop Mechanisms into Discrete Chains
by Sean Mather and Arthur Erdman
Machines 2024, 12(3), 182; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030182 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Gears are foundational tools used to transmit or modify mechanical energy or motion. Implementing gears into planar linkage mechanisms is less common but can be a similarly valuable technique that takes advantage of the high efficiency of gears while producing complex and precise [...] Read more.
Gears are foundational tools used to transmit or modify mechanical energy or motion. Implementing gears into planar linkage mechanisms is less common but can be a similarly valuable technique that takes advantage of the high efficiency of gears while producing complex and precise motions. While recent numerical methods for designing these geared planar linkage mechanisms (GPLMs) have proliferated in the literature, analytical approaches have their merits and have received less attention. Here, an analytical alternative is presented as a modification of the complex-number loop-based synthesis method for designing multiloop mechanisms. Some of the base topologies for geared dyad, triad, and quadriad chains are presented, along with a numerical example demonstrating the solution procedure’s effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Robotics, Mechatronics and Intelligent Machines)
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