Design Methods for Mechanical and Industrial Innovation

A special issue of Machines (ISSN 2075-1702). This special issue belongs to the section "Machines Testing and Maintenance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 13515

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Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Elettronica e Meccanica, Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Rome, Italy
Interests: axiomatic design; material selection; superalloys; mechanical design; design theories; design for six sigma; reliability analysis; magneto-rheological fluids
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Mechanical Engineering Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, USA
Interests: axiomatic design; surface metrology; sports engineering
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Research Centre for Technology and Innovation HU University of Applied Science, 3500AD Utrecht, The Netherlands
Interests: microsystems technology; robotics; lifecycle engineering

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Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
Interests: production technology; Nano/micro; construction machine; failure; creative design

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Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy
Interests: industry 4.0; industry 4.0 for SMEs; smart manufacturing; manufacturing systems; cyber-physical production systems; sustainable production
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Industrial products and machines have to continuously deal with the complexity of the current demands and challenges related to a wide range of changes in technologies, mandatory requirements, market constraints and opportunities.

In this scenario, it is increasingly important to use approaches that favor the use of the potential of specialized design through the integration of innovative methods and tools in the development of machines and systems.

This Special Issue aims to explore new advancements in engineering design theories (such as Axiomatic Design, TRIZ, and Design for Six Sigma) and methodological approaches and tools for the realization of innovative mechanical systems and industrial innovations.

Submissions to the Special Issue could relate but are not limited to the following topics:

  • Advancement in Design Theories and Approaches for Mechanical and Industrial Design
  • Application and Case Study of Design Theories
  • Design Methods for Industry 4.0
  • Complexity and Design of Complex Systems
  • Human-AI Interaction in Machine Design
  • Intelligent System design
  • Model-Based Design
  • Integration of design methods in Product Lifecycle Management
  • Knowledge management approach for Mechanical Design and Industrial Innovation

Prof. Dr. Alessandro Giorgetti
Prof. Dr. Gabriele Arcidiacono
Prof. Dr. Chris Brown
Dr. Erik Puik
Prof. Dr. Nakao Masayuki
Dr. Erwin Rauch
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Machines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 4246 KiB  
Article
Axiomatic Design of a Test Artifact for PBF-LM Machine Capability Monitoring
by Alessandro Giorgetti, Filippo Ceccanti, Niccolò Baldi, Simon Kemble, Gabriele Arcidiacono and Paolo Citti
Machines 2024, 12(3), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines12030199 - 18 Mar 2024
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Powder Bed Fusion Laser Melting (PBF-LM) additive manufacturing technology is expected to have a remarkable impact on the industrial setting, making possible the realization of a metallic component with very complex designs to enhance product performance. However, the industrial use of the PBF-LM [...] Read more.
Powder Bed Fusion Laser Melting (PBF-LM) additive manufacturing technology is expected to have a remarkable impact on the industrial setting, making possible the realization of a metallic component with very complex designs to enhance product performance. However, the industrial use of the PBF-LM system needs a capability monitoring system to ensure product quality. Among the various studies developed, the investigation of methodology for the actual machine capability determination has been faced and still represents an open point. There are multiple authors and institutes proposing different investigation methods, ranging from the realization of samples (ex situ analysis) to installing monitoring devices on the machine (in situ analysis). Compared to other approaches, sample realization allows for assessing how the machine works through specimen analysis, but it is sensitive to the sample design. In this article, we first present an analysis of a well-known test artifact from an Axiomatic Design perspective. Second, based on the customer needs analysis and adjustments with respect to the use of hypothetical additive production lines, a new test artifact with an uncoupled design matrix is introduced. The proposed design has been experimentally tested and characterized using artifact made of Inconel 718 superalloy to evaluate its performance and representativeness in machine capability assessment. The results show an accurate identification of beam offset and scaling factor considering all the building platform positions. In addition, the artifact is characterized by a reduced building time (more than 90% with respect to the reference NIST artifact) and a halved inspection time (from 16 h to 8 h). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Mechanical and Industrial Innovation)
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20 pages, 13925 KiB  
Article
Application of the TRIZ Innovation System Method to Bicycle Handlebars
by Kai-Chao Yao, Wei-Tzer Huang, Jing-Ran Xu, Shu-Hua Huang, Chin-Tang Tsai, Wei-Sho Ho and Chun-Chung Liao
Machines 2023, 11(5), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines11050507 - 23 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
This study investigated the application of the TRIZ innovation system method to bicycle handlebars and used a satisfaction survey to evaluate whether the bicycle handlebars met the users’ requirements, in order to reduce the cost and time needed for product development. First, we [...] Read more.
This study investigated the application of the TRIZ innovation system method to bicycle handlebars and used a satisfaction survey to evaluate whether the bicycle handlebars met the users’ requirements, in order to reduce the cost and time needed for product development. First, we conducted a literature search and expert consultation, to explore the improvement requirements for handlebar design and bicycle motion injury; then, we used a contradiction matrix and the invention principle of the TRIZ method for analysis and design; and finally we used a human–machine system and the human measurement method of human factor engineering to analyze the user and bicycle handlebar operation and related dimensional definitions, as a reference for the design and to make a prototype bicycle handlebar. The SERVQUAL questionnaire was developed to compare the differences between the designed bicycle handlebar prototype and commercially available bicycle handlebars, and a practical analysis of the design was conducted using a two-dimensional quality model (Kano model) and the important–performance analysis method (IPA). Research results: 1. Innovative design of the bicycle handlebars: the development of height adjustment slots, front and rear angle design, front and rear swivel left and right extension mechanism, the user can clearly determine the current position and adjust to the most comfortable position to avoid waist, cervical vertebrae, and arm injuries. 2. Satisfaction assessment of bicycle handlebar innovation design: analyse the importance and satisfaction of bicycle handlebar innovation design, determine the production time and mass production value of the product, use questionnaires to conduct IPA and Kano model cross-analysis matrix, in order to reduce the time and cost required for product development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Mechanical and Industrial Innovation)
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18 pages, 6272 KiB  
Article
Design and Load Distribution Analysis of the Mismatched Cycloid-Pin Gear Pair in RV Speed Reducers
by Xuan Li, Linggao Tang, Haidong He and Lining Sun
Machines 2022, 10(8), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10080672 - 10 Aug 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2401
Abstract
The current loaded tooth contact analysis of cycloid drives based on the assumption of theoretical positions of ring pins ignores the deviations caused by manufacturing errors and elastic deformations, which are not in agreement with reality. To fill this gap, an improved load [...] Read more.
The current loaded tooth contact analysis of cycloid drives based on the assumption of theoretical positions of ring pins ignores the deviations caused by manufacturing errors and elastic deformations, which are not in agreement with reality. To fill this gap, an improved load distribution model of the mismatched cycloid-pin gear pair with ring pin position deviations is presented for a component-level analysis. Firstly, with the cycloid gear tooth profile geometry defined, the unloaded tooth contact analysis is applied as a pre-processor to determine the potential contact points, the gear backlash, and the rotation angle of the cycloid gear. Secondly, due to the statically indeterminate structure of the multi-tooth contact, a varying nonlinear contact stiffness is introduced to establish the relation between force and deformation. Then, the force and moment equilibrium equations with compatibility conditions are solved by using an iterative approach. With this, detailed parametric case studies are presented to verify the correctness of the proposed model by comparing it with those predicted by the current model and to demonstrate the influences of ring pin position deviations on the distributed load, contact stress, loaded transmission error, and instantaneous gear ratio of the mismatched cycloid-pin gear pair. This study provides a deeper investigation into the load distribution characteristics of the cycloid drive and therefore can be employed to assist in gear design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Mechanical and Industrial Innovation)
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27 pages, 7831 KiB  
Article
Multi-Analogy Innovation Design Based on Digital Twin
by Zifeng Nie, Guozhong Cao, Peng Zhang, Qingjin Peng and Zhimin Zhang
Machines 2022, 10(8), 652; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10080652 - 04 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1844
Abstract
Analogy-based design is an effective approach for innovative design. However, existing research on analogy design mainly focuses on methods to form innovative schemes, without considering feasibility or practicality in applications. This research proposes a multi-analogy innovation design (M-AID) model based on analogy in [...] Read more.
Analogy-based design is an effective approach for innovative design. However, existing research on analogy design mainly focuses on methods to form innovative schemes, without considering feasibility or practicality in applications. This research proposes a multi-analogy innovation design (M-AID) model based on analogy in both design-centric complexity (DCC) and solution of inventive problems (TRIZ). To improve practicality, digital twin (DT) is introduced to apply real design information, manufacturing production data, and maintenance information in the design process. The method includes six steps: (1) analyze a target product based on users and market requirements to synthesize general function requirements; (2) acquire analogy function source using knowledge base and patent base; (3) call digital twin resources to obtain real product data for the design; (4) reduce the complexity of the design system after fusion using DCC theory; (5) use TRIZ to solve problems of design conflicts; and (6) evaluate design solutions according to product requirements. The current proposed method enhances the design scheme feasibility and reduces the number of iterations from the conceptual scheme to the final scheme in the design process, thus improving the efficiency of the innovative design process. The applicability of the currently proposed method is demonstrated through exemplification of innovative design of a dust removal system for a solar panel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Mechanical and Industrial Innovation)
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22 pages, 7994 KiB  
Article
Design Theory and Experimental Research of Ultrasonic Fatigue Test
by Ning Feng, Xin Wang, Jiazheng Guo, Qun Li, Jiangtao Yu and Xuecheng Zhang
Machines 2022, 10(8), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10080635 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Ultrasonic fatigue testing is a key technology that is more efficient and energy saving compared to conventional fatigue testing. In order to investigate the behavior of metallic materials at ultra-high frequencies and to verify the validity of ultrasonic fatigue test results, this paper [...] Read more.
Ultrasonic fatigue testing is a key technology that is more efficient and energy saving compared to conventional fatigue testing. In order to investigate the behavior of metallic materials at ultra-high frequencies and to verify the validity of ultrasonic fatigue test results, this paper builds a test apparatus that can be used to conduct ultrasonic fatigue tests, and this paper proposes a complete procedure from theoretical analysis to the investigation of test laws for 20 kHz tensile and the compression test. Firstly, the initial sizes of the sample are calculated with an analytical method, then the three-dimensional model is simulated and optimized with finite element software, and the optimum result for the sample size is then obtained according to the sensitivity of the sample size to the effect of frequency. The next step is to analyze the influenced trend of the sample size, including L1, L2, L3, R1 and R2, on the resonant frequency and maximum stress of the sample. According to the optimized results, the sample was processed, and an ultrasonic fatigue test was carried out to ensure the sample fatigue fracture finally occurred. Finally, the S-N curve of the material was plotted based on the data recorded in the test and compared with the conventional fatigue life curve to verify the feasibility of the ultrasonic fatigue test device and test method. The fracture of the sample was observed using an optical microscope, and its macroscopic fracture morphology was analyzed. The fracture morphology of the sample can be divided into three typical zones: the fatigue crack source zone, the extension zone and the transient zone, where the fatigue cracks all originate from on the surface of the sample. The results demonstrate the validity of the ultrasonic fatigue test results and provide new ideas for the design and optimization of ultrasonic fatigue samples and shorter processing times, providing a reference for subsequent ultrasonic fatigue tests on typical materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Mechanical and Industrial Innovation)
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10 pages, 1330 KiB  
Communication
Optimization Procedure and Toolchain for Roll Dynamic Geometry
by Tuomas Tiainen, Sampo Laine and Raine Viitala
Machines 2022, 10(7), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10070498 - 22 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1165
Abstract
In rolls manufactured from first bent and then welded sheets of steel, the asymmetric distribution of mass due to the weld seam as well as imperfections of the geometry due to the bending may cause the roll cross-section roundness profiles to deform due [...] Read more.
In rolls manufactured from first bent and then welded sheets of steel, the asymmetric distribution of mass due to the weld seam as well as imperfections of the geometry due to the bending may cause the roll cross-section roundness profiles to deform due to centrifugal forces when the roll is accelerated to rotate at its operating speed. This effect is known as the dynamic geometry of the roll. In previous research, it has been shown that it is possible to measure the dynamic geometry in operating speed and compensate for the deformation by grinding a suitable opposite geometry on the roll. This direct approach may work when only little material is removed. Such conditions apply especially for polymer coated rolls, where the dynamic geometry is mostly dependent on the geometry of the much stronger and denser steel body under the roll cover. This paper goes further to investigate the possibilities for compensating the dynamic geometry in cases where the amount of removed material is significant enough to have an effect on the dynamic geometry itself due to altered mass and stiffness. The paper presents a toolchain consisting of a parametric roll CAD model, finite element simulation of the dynamic geometry and a geometry optimization procedure based on minimizing a target function describing roundness errors in cross-sections of the roll. Results of simulation experiments for a case example indicate that the presented optimization procedure can be used to eliminate roundness errors related to dynamic geometry of the roll. Finally, the paper discusses the application of such a toolchain in the manufacturing of rolls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Mechanical and Industrial Innovation)
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29 pages, 7999 KiB  
Article
A Conflict Solving Process Based on Mapping between Physical Parameters and Engineering Parameters
by Peng Zhang, Qianhao Ma, Zifeng Nie and Xindi Li
Machines 2022, 10(5), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines10050323 - 29 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1896
Abstract
With the continuous expansion of system scale, the parameter coupling of the system is prominent. Due to limitations in knowledge and experience, it is difficult for designers to objectively analyze the interaction relationship between parameters, resulting in the low accuracy of engineering parameter [...] Read more.
With the continuous expansion of system scale, the parameter coupling of the system is prominent. Due to limitations in knowledge and experience, it is difficult for designers to objectively analyze the interaction relationship between parameters, resulting in the low accuracy of engineering parameter selection, hence affecting conflict solving. In order to improve the accuracy of engineering parameter selection and the efficiency of conflict solving, this paper proposes a conflict solving process based on mapping between physical parameters and engineering parameters. First, the physical parameters related to the components of the system function model are extracted, and dimensional analysis is used to construct a physical parameter logical network. Secondly, the physical parameter change path related to the problem in the physical parameter logical network is found, and the physical parameter sets corresponding to both conflicting parties are obtained. Then, the engineering parameters corresponding to conflicts can be selected through the mapping model between physical parameters and engineering parameters, which is trained by a neural network with the sample data of physical parameter sets and engineering parameters in existing cases. Finally, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) tools are used to solve conflicts, and the final design scheme is obtained through evaluation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are verified by redesigning a bulk traditional Chinese medicine dispenser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Methods for Mechanical and Industrial Innovation)
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