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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.

Medicina, Volume 47, Issue 7 (July 2011) – 8 articles

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387 KiB  
Article
Application of Acetylcholinesterase Histochemistry for the Diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s Disease in Neonates and Infants: a Twenty-year Experience
by Robertas Bagdzevičius, Sigita Gelman, Ligita Gukauskienė and Vytautas Vaičekauskas
Medicina 2011, 47(7), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47070053 - 6 Aug 2011
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1330
Abstract
Background. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemical staining of intestinal mucosal-submucosal biopsy specimens is believed to be the most reliable diagnostic method for Hirschsprung’s disease (HD). The aim of our study was to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of this method for HD diagnosis in infants [...] Read more.
Background. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemical staining of intestinal mucosal-submucosal biopsy specimens is believed to be the most reliable diagnostic method for Hirschsprung’s disease (HD). The aim of our study was to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of this method for HD diagnosis in infants and neonates.
Material and Methods. The results of AChE histochemistry of rectal biopsy specimens, obtained from 11 neonates and 29 infants treated in the Clinic of Pediatric Surgery, Hospital of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, from 1991 to 2010 were analyzed. AChE activity of neural structures was evaluated using Karnovsky–Roots method modified by El-Badawi and Schenk.
Results.
Two neonates were diagnosed with HD. The diagnosis was not confirmed in 9 cases, but clinical symptoms progressed in 3 cases, and HD was diagnosed after the repeated biopsy performed in infancy. The results of primary biopsy were rated as false negative. Test sensitivity and specificity in neonates were 40.0% and 100%, respectively. A total of 21 infants were diagnosed with HD. All of them underwent surgery. The diagnosis of HD was confirmed in 20 cases; in one case, intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B was diagnosed. The diagnosis was not confirmed in 8 cases. In infants, the test had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 88.8%.
Conclusions.
The analysis of AChE activity in r ectal biopsy specimens is a reliable method for diagnosing HD in infancy. This test is less valuable in neonates. If test results are negative, infants should be observed, and if symptoms persist, the biopsy should be repeated at the age of 3 months. Rectal biopsy specimens in neonates should include mucosa and submucosa. Full article
137 KiB  
Article
Occupational Effects on the Family Well-being of Dentists in Lithuania: A Survey of Dentists
by Alina Pūrienė, Jolanta Aleksejūnienė, Jadvyga Petrauskienė, Irena Balčiūnienė and Vilija Janulytė
Medicina 2011, 47(7), 399; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47070057 - 3 Aug 2011
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Background and Objective. Work-related commitments unavoidably interfere with the dentist’s everyday life. Therefore, the objective of our study was to assess the impact that a dentist’s occupation might have on the family well-being.
Material and Methods.
The questionnaire was sent to all [...] Read more.
Background and Objective. Work-related commitments unavoidably interfere with the dentist’s everyday life. Therefore, the objective of our study was to assess the impact that a dentist’s occupation might have on the family well-being.
Material and Methods.
The questionnaire was sent to all (N=2449) licensed dentists registered in the Lithuanian Dental Association (response rate, 68.2%). The data were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression analysis.
Results
. Most dentists reported difficulties in reconciliation of their professional activities and family life, i.e., insufficient time to spend with a family, necessity to reduce family leisure activities, neglected duties to the family, limited time for hobbies, and work-related anxiety and nervousness at home. These hazardous occupational effects were mainly related to long working hours, which negatively affected all areas of family life.
Conclusions
. Occupational hazards, particularly long working hours of dental practitioners, had negative effects on all areas of the dentist’s family life. Although dentists frequently faced difficulties in reconciliation of their professional activities and their family interests, in general, they had quite a harmonious family life. The findings suggest that the focus should be on finding the ways to reduce working hours in order to facilitate the reconciliation of a successful dental practice and family life. Additionally, there might be other effective means, e.g., to cope with stress or to develop better working and leisure time management skills. Full article
435 KiB  
Article
Gaucher’s Disease in Lithuania: Its Diagnosis and Treatment
by Gražina Kleinotienė, Anna Tylki-Szymanska and Barbara Czartoryska
Medicina 2011, 47(7), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47070058 - 1 Aug 2011
Viewed by 903
Abstract
Gaucher’s disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the lack of beta-glucocerebrosidase enzyme, leading to the accumulation of glucocerebroside. Gaucher’s disease is the most frequent type of sphingolipidosis as well as the most frequent lysosomal disease. Clinically, two forms of Gaucher’s disease [...] Read more.
Gaucher’s disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by the lack of beta-glucocerebrosidase enzyme, leading to the accumulation of glucocerebroside. Gaucher’s disease is the most frequent type of sphingolipidosis as well as the most frequent lysosomal disease. Clinically, two forms of Gaucher’s disease are defined: nonneuronopathic form, so-called type 1, characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and osteopenia, and neuronopathic form, known as types 2 and 3, which are also characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, hematological and bone changes; however, involvement of the central nervous system dominates in the clinical picture. Severe deficiency of beta-glucocerebrosidase activity allows confirming the diagnosis based on the clinical picture or the findings of bone marrow examination. Treatment with human glucocerebrosidase was introduced in 1991. Clinically good results are achieved: not only accumulation of glucocerebroside is stopped, but also positive changes in the reticuloendothelial system and an improvement in development and hematological parameters of children are observed as well as the development of bone lesions is reduced. To date, Gaucher’s disease has been diagnosed in 8 patients in Lithuania: 3 persons have type 3 and 5 have type 1 disease. Enzyme replacement therapy was started in 2001, and currently 6 persons are being treated. In majority of patients, Gaucher’s disease was suspected after exclusion of other possible proliferative diseases. All patients within the first or second year of treatment achieved the therapeutic goals, namely: normalization of hematological parameters, reduction in liver and spleen volumes, and bone pain relief. Full article
140 KiB  
Article
Associations Between Chronic Pain and Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Trigeminal Neuralgia
by Diana Mačianskytė, Gintaras Janužis, Ričardas Kubilius, Virginija Adomaitienė and Arūnas Ščiupokas
Medicina 2011, 47(7), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47070055 - 1 Aug 2011
Cited by 51 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare neuropathic disorder with an excruciating facial pain. The unpredictable pain attacks may result in anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to determine and to evaluate the level of chronic facial pain and its association [...] Read more.
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare neuropathic disorder with an excruciating facial pain. The unpredictable pain attacks may result in anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to determine and to evaluate the level of chronic facial pain and its association with the appearance of anxiety and depression.
Materials and Methods
. A total of 30 patients with TN and chronic facial pain (group A, 25 women and 5 men; mean age, 64.2±3.2 years) and 30 with atypical facial pain (group B, 26 women and 4 men; mean age, 64.8±1.9 years) were examined. A standardized diagnostic protocol was applied to all of them, which consisted of the following: 1) demographic data and estimation of overall pain on a visual analog scale; and 2) evaluation of emotional status using the Sheehan Disability Scale, Covi’s Anxiety Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory.
Results. The intensity of facial pain was much higher in the group A than the group B (89.7±2.5 versus 44.0±2.9, P<0.0001). Besides, the group A reported increased scores on the disability and anxiety symptom scales (17.4±1.3 and 9.7±0.3 vs. 6.4±0.7 and 3.6±0.1, respectively, P<0.0001). Severe (46.7%) or moderate (30%) levels of depression were documented in the majority of patients in the group A, while the group B did not show depressive symptoms (P<0.0001).
Conclusions.
Patients with TN and chronic facial pain had a significantly higher level of pain perception, and they presented the higher level for anxiety and depression than those with atypical facial pain. A multidisciplinary approach is needed for the additional assessment of emotional status of patients in order to improve the efficacy of treatment and patients’ quality of life. Full article
236 KiB  
Article
The Significance of HLA DRB1*1501 and Oligoclonal Bands in Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical Features and Disability
by Renata Balnytė, Daiva Rastenytė, Ingrida Ulozienė, Dalia Mickevičienė, Erika Skrodenienė and Astra Vitkauskienė
Medicina 2011, 47(7), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47070052 - 1 Aug 2011
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 869
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine the value of immunogenetic risk factors and to estimate their relationship with the clinical features and disability status of patients with multiple sclerosis in a Lithuanian population.
Materials and Methods
. This was a [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study was to determine the value of immunogenetic risk factors and to estimate their relationship with the clinical features and disability status of patients with multiple sclerosis in a Lithuanian population.
Materials and Methods
. This was a prospective study of 80 patients with multiple sclerosis. The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis was based on the revised McDonald criteria. Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) of immunoglobulin G (IgG) were tested using isoelectric focusing and IgG specific immunofixation. HLA DRB1 alleles were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction.
Results
. Of all patients, 55% were positive for OCBs and 56% for HLA DRB1*1501. OCBpositive patients with multiple sclerosis had higher EDSS scores than their OCB-negative counterparts at onset of the disease (3.93±1.21 and 3.36±0.96 points, respectively; P=0.02) and during the last visit (4.31±2.06 and 3.09±1.98 points, respectively; P=0.009). The mean relapse rate was higher in the OCB-positive group compared with OCB-negative group (1.45±0.69 and 0.58±0.64, respectively; P=0.001). OCB-positive patients had higher IgG index compared with OCB-negative patients (P=0.0001). No relationship was found between HLA DRB1*1501 antigen status and the clinical features or EDSS score, and presence or absence of OCB in the present subset of patients with multiple sclerosis.
Conclusions.
The presence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid of the patients with multiple sclerosis was associated with the greater number of exacerbations, higher degree of disability, and higher IgG index. There were no significant associations between the presence of HLA DRB1*1501 allele and the clinical symptoms, course of disease, or disability score. Full article
146 KiB  
Article
Changes in the Dependence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa O Serogroup Strains and Their Resistance to Antibiotics in a University Hospital During a 5-year Period
by Astra Vitkauskienė, Erika Skrodenienė, Daiva Jomantienė, Andrius Macas and Raimundas Sakalauskas
Medicina 2011, 47(7), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47070051 - 29 Jul 2011
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1082
Abstract
The aim of our study was to determine the changes in antibiotic resistance and O serogroup dependence of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from lower respiratory tract specimens of patients in 2003 and 2008; the patients were treated in intensive care units of the [...] Read more.
The aim of our study was to determine the changes in antibiotic resistance and O serogroup dependence of P. aeruginosa strains isolated from lower respiratory tract specimens of patients in 2003 and 2008; the patients were treated in intensive care units of the biggest treatment facility in Lithuania (Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, HLUHS, former Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine)
Material and Methods
. The study included 90 P. aeruginosa strains serotyped in 2003 and 101 P. aeruginosa strains serotyped in 2008, which were randomly selected. The resistance of P. aeruginosa strains was determined by the disc diffusion method based on the standard guidelines. The sizes of inhibition zones were interpreted according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (M2-A6). Isolates were serotyped using sera with specific antibodies against the O antigens of P. aeruginosa (Bio-Rad, France).
Results.
Comparison of changes in the distribution of P. aeruginosa serogroups in 2003 and 2008 showed that P. aeruginosa strains of serogroups O:1, O:2, and O:3 were more prevalent in 2003 as compared with 2008 (23.3%, n=21; 27.8%, n=25; 12.2%, n=11 vs. 9.9%, n=10; 10.9%, n=11; 4.0%, n=4, P<0.05). P. aeruginosa strains of serogroups O:6 and O:11 were isolated more frequently in 2008 than 2003 (26.7%, n=27; 34.7%, n=35 vs. 4.4%, n=4; 10.0%, n=9, P<0.001). The results showed that 18 of the 90 P. aeruginosa strains in 2003 and 25 of the 101 P. aeruginosa strains in 2008 were resistant to three or more antibiotics tested, i.e., they were multidrug-resistant. Analysis of the distribution of serogroups among these P. aeruginosa strains isolated in 2003 and 2008 revealed a significantly higher frequency of O:11 serogroup than other serogroups. Meanwhile, in the group of nonmultidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains, P. aeruginosa O:11 serogroup strains were identified less frequently and accounted only for 2.8% (n=2, P<0.001) of the isolates in 2003 and 27.6% (n=21, P<0.01) in 2008.
Conclusions.
During the 5-year period, the isolation rate of P. aeruginosa strains belonging to serogroup O:11 increased. P. aeruginosa strains isolated in 2003 and 2008 belonging to serogroup O:11 were more frequently multidrug resistant. The increasing resistance of P. aeruginosa to reserve antibiotics of carbapenem group was observed. Full article
131 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of Etiological Factors for Traumatic Mandibular Osteomyelitis
by Algirdas Lukošiūnas, Ričardas Kubilius, Gintautas Sabalys, Tadas Keizeris and Dalius Sakavičius
Medicina 2011, 47(7), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47070054 - 28 Jul 2011
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that were associated with the development of osteomyelitis during the treatment of mandibular fractures.
Material and Methods
. The data of 3188 patients with mandibular fractures treated during 2002–2009 were analyzed. [...] Read more.
Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that were associated with the development of osteomyelitis during the treatment of mandibular fractures.
Material and Methods
. The data of 3188 patients with mandibular fractures treated during 2002–2009 were analyzed. Traumatic osteomyelitis of the mandible was diagnosed in 207 patients. The background factors of complications were studied and compared with the control group (100 patients) not having complications after treatment of mandibular fractures. The data of clinical, roentgenologic, microbiological, and immunological investigations were analyzed. A logistic regression model was developed to identify the factors for osteomyelitis development.
Results. The treatment in 6.5% of patients was complicated with osteomyelitis; 88.5% of these patients were men, and more than 80% of patients were younger than 50 years. In 86.8% of cases, Staphylococcus species were isolated, with Staphylococcus aureus accounting for 69.1% of cases. The following factors were found to be associated with osteomyelitis development: immunity dysfunction, caries-affected teeth at the fracture line, mobile fractured bones, bone fixation after more than 7 days following trauma, healthy teeth at the fracture line, insufficient bone reposition, and bone fixation after 3–7 days following trauma.
Conclusion. Comparative analysis of factors influencing the treatment results revealed a great importance of immunological and dental status and microflora at the affected site. Insufficient or late reposition and fixation of fractured bone fragments play a significant role in the healing process. Full article
153 KiB  
Article
Complexity, Coordination, and Health: Avoiding Pitfalls and Erroneous Interpretations in Fractal Analyses
by Vivien Marmelat and Didier Delignières
Medicina 2011, 47(7), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47070056 - 26 Jul 2011
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 811
Abstract
Background and Objective. The analysis of fractal fluctuation has become very popular because of the close relationships between health, adaptability, and long-range correlations. 1/f noise is considered a “magical” threshold, characterizing optimal functioning, and a decrease or conversely and increase of serial correlations, [...] Read more.
Background and Objective. The analysis of fractal fluctuation has become very popular because of the close relationships between health, adaptability, and long-range correlations. 1/f noise is considered a “magical” threshold, characterizing optimal functioning, and a decrease or conversely and increase of serial correlations, with respect to 1/f noise, is supposed to sign a kind of disadaptation of the system. Empirical results, however, should be interpreted with caution. In experimental series, serial correlations often present a complex pattern, resulting from the combination of long-range and short-term correlated processes. We show, in the present paper, that an increase in serial correlations cannot be directly interpreted as an increase in long-range correlations.
Material and Methods
. Eleven participants performed four walking bouts following 4 individually determined velocities (slow, comfortable, high, and critical). Series of 512 stride intervals were collected under each condition. The strength of serial correlation was measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis. The effective presence of 1/f fluctuation was tested through ARFIMA modeling.
Results.
The strength of serial correlations tended to increase with walking velocity. However, the ARFIMA modeling showed that long-range correlations were significantly present only at slow and comfortable velocities.
Conclusions.
The strength of correlations, as measured by classical methods, cannot be considered as predictive of the genuine presence of long-range correlations. Sometimes systems can present the moderate levels of effective long-range correlations, whereas in others cases, series can present high correlation levels without being long-range correlated. Full article
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