Topic Editors

School of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei University Technology, Tianjin, China
College of Electrical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
State Key Laboratory of Reliability and Intelligence of Electrical Equipment, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130, China

Transportation Electrification Key Applications: Battery Storage System, DC/DC Converter, Wireless Charging, Sensors

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2024
Viewed by
21263

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Transportation electrification has been gaining attention worldwide due to its ability to reduce energy consumption and help halt the pollution crisis. To accelerate electrification development, accurately perceiving and processing various electrification information, confirmation of the safety and reliability of the energy storage systems in electric vehicles, electric ships and electric aircraft is a challenging task. Regarding this task, related systems and techniques such as battery management systems, energy management systems, and wireless charging are proposed and continually innovated, which further enhance the performances of energy storage systems in terms of their safety, reliability and efficiency.The main objective of this Special Issue is to provide a platform to present the latest techniques in this field. Both high-quality original research and review articles that concern advanced battery management systems, intelligent energy management systems and wireless charging designs are welcome. Submission topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Advanced energy storage device design and control in power systems;
  • Battery echelon use and full lifespan management;
  • Big data analysis for the fault diagnosis of battery storage systems;
  • Machine learning and deep learning for battery safety management;
  • Multi-physics field modeling, simulation, and experiments of battery systems;
  • SOX estimation/RUL prediction of battery systems;
  • New topology of DC/DC converters for battery charging;
  • Reliability and safety of battery charging systems;
  • Control strategies and the safety evaluation of wireless chargers;
  • Application of sensors in the field of transportation electrification;
  • Novel technology for electrical machine systems.

Dr. Xiaoyu Li
Dr. Jinhao Meng
Prof. Dr. Xu Liu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • battery storage system
  • energy management system
  • fault diagnosis
  • DC/DC converter
  • wireless charging

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Batteries
batteries
4.0 5.4 2015 17.7 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Machines
machines
2.6 2.1 2013 15.6 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit

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Published Papers (14 papers)

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21 pages, 4396 KiB  
Review
Review, Properties, and Synthesis of Single-Switch Non-Isolated DC-DC Converters with a Wide Conversion Range
by Fernando Lessa Tofoli, Thaís Martins Jajah Carlos and Aniel Silva Morais
Sensors 2024, 24(7), 2264; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24072264 - 02 Apr 2024
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The cascaded connection of power converters extends conversion ranges but requires careful consideration due to high component count and efficiency concerns, as power is processed redundantly. Furthermore, using several active switches that must be turned on simultaneously may introduce significant drive and control [...] Read more.
The cascaded connection of power converters extends conversion ranges but requires careful consideration due to high component count and efficiency concerns, as power is processed redundantly. Furthermore, using several active switches that must be turned on simultaneously may introduce significant drive and control complexity. To overcome this limitation, single-switch quadratic DC-DC converters have been proposed in the literature as a prominent choice for various applications, such as light-emitting diode (LED) drivers. Nevertheless, the motivation behind the conception of such topologies, beyond extending the conversion ratio, remains unclear. Another unexplored issue is the possibility of obtaining single-switch versions of cascaded converters consisting of multiple stages. In this context, this work investigates the synthesis of single-switch non-isolated DC-DC converters for achieving high step-down and/or high step-up based on the graft scheme. Key issues such as the voltage gain, additional stresses on the active switches, component count, and behavior of the input current and output stage current are addressed in detail. An in-depth discussion is presented to identify potential advantages and shortcomings of the resulting structures. Full article
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16 pages, 4856 KiB  
Article
Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Time-Domain-Reflectometry-Based Sensors for Foreign Object Detection in Wireless Power Transfer Systems
by Martin Helwig, Yun Xu, Uwe Hentschel, Anja Winkler and Niels Modler
Sensors 2023, 23(23), 9425; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23239425 - 26 Nov 2023
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Foreign object detection (FOD) is considered a key method for detecting objects in the air gap of a wireless charging system that could pose a risk due to strong inductive heating. This paper describes a novel method for the detection of metallic objects [...] Read more.
Foreign object detection (FOD) is considered a key method for detecting objects in the air gap of a wireless charging system that could pose a risk due to strong inductive heating. This paper describes a novel method for the detection of metallic objects utilizing the principle of electric time domain reflectometry. Through an analytical, numerical and experimental investigation, two key parameters for the design of transmission lines are identified and investigated with respect to the specific constraints of inductive power transfer. For this purpose, a transient electromagnetic simulation model is established to obtain and compare the sensor impedance and reflection coefficients with experimental data. The measurement setup is based on parametrically designed sensors in laboratory scale, using an EUR 2 coin as an exemplary test object. Consequently, the proposed simulation model has been successfully validated in this study, providing a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative analysis of the major transmission line design parameters for such applications. Full article
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18 pages, 7037 KiB  
Article
Bidirectional Six-Pack SiC Boost–Buck Converter Using Droop Control in DC Nano-Grid
by Yeonwoo Kim and Sewan Choi
Sensors 2023, 23(21), 8777; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23218777 - 27 Oct 2023
Viewed by 717
Abstract
This paper proposes a bidirectional boost–buck converter employing a six-pack SiC intelligent power module using droop control in DC nano-grids. The topology is constructed as a cascaded structure of an interleaved boost converter and buck converter. A six-pack SiC intelligent power module (IPM), [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a bidirectional boost–buck converter employing a six-pack SiC intelligent power module using droop control in DC nano-grids. The topology is constructed as a cascaded structure of an interleaved boost converter and buck converter. A six-pack SiC intelligent power module (IPM), which is suitable for the proposed cascaded structure, is adopted for high efficiency and compactness. A hybrid control scheme, in which holding a particular switch always results in a turn-off or turn-on state according to the boost mode and the buck mode, is employed to reduce the switching losses. By applying the hybrid control scheme, the number of switching operations of the switches can be minimized. Since switchover of the current controller is not required, smooth transition is enabled not only from the buck mode to the boost mode but also vice versa. As a parallel control, a secondary control is employed with DC droop control, which has a trade-off relationship between voltage sag and current sharing. It is possible to enhance the accuracy of current sharing while effectively regulating the DC link voltage without voltage sag. This is verified experimentally using two modules as laboratory prototypes, of which the power rating is 20 kW each. Full article
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15 pages, 4551 KiB  
Article
A Data-Driven Comprehensive Battery SOH Evaluation and Prediction Method Based on Improved CRITIC-GRA and Att-BiGRU
by Peng Liu, Cheng Liu, Zhenpo Wang, Qiushi Wang, Jinlei Han and Yapeng Zhou
Sustainability 2023, 15(20), 15084; https://doi.org/10.3390/su152015084 - 20 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1081
Abstract
The state-of-health (SOH) of lithium-ion batteries has a significant impact on the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. However, existing research on battery SOH estimation mainly relies on laboratory battery data and does not take into account the multi-faceted nature of battery aging, [...] Read more.
The state-of-health (SOH) of lithium-ion batteries has a significant impact on the safety and reliability of electric vehicles. However, existing research on battery SOH estimation mainly relies on laboratory battery data and does not take into account the multi-faceted nature of battery aging, which limits the comprehensive and effective evaluation and prediction of battery health in real-world applications. To address these limitations, this study utilizes real electric vehicle operational data to propose a comprehensive battery health evaluation indicator and a deep learning predictive model. In this study, the battery capacity, ohmic resistance, and maximum output power were initially extracted as individual health indicators from actual vehicle operation data. Subsequently, a methodology that combines the improved criteria importance through inter-criteria correlation (CRITIC) weighting method with the grey relational analysis (GRA) method is employed to construct the comprehensive battery health evaluation indicator. Finally, a prediction model based on the attention mechanism and the bidirectional gated recurrent unit (Att-BiGRU) is proposed to forecast the comprehensive evaluation indicator. Experimental results using real-world vehicle data demonstrate that the proposed comprehensive health indicator can provide a thorough representation of the battery health state. Furthermore, the Att-BiGRU prediction model outperforms traditional machine learning models in terms of prediction accuracy. Full article
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19 pages, 1189 KiB  
Article
Uncertainty of Standardized Track Insulation Measurement Methods for Stray Current Assessment
by Sahil Bhagat, Jacopo Bongiorno and Andrea Mariscotti
Sensors 2023, 23(13), 5900; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23135900 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 870
Abstract
Stray current is a relevant phenomenon in particular for DC electrified transportation systems, affecting track and infrastructure within the right of way and other structures and installations nearby. It worsens with time and the level of protection depends on timely maintenance, as well [...] Read more.
Stray current is a relevant phenomenon in particular for DC electrified transportation systems, affecting track and infrastructure within the right of way and other structures and installations nearby. It worsens with time and the level of protection depends on timely maintenance, as well as correct design choices. The assessment of track insulation is the starting point for both stray current monitoring systems and at commissioning or upon major changes. Standardized methods (ref. EN 50122-2 or IEC 62128-2) have been almost unchanged in the last 20 years but suffer from accuracy issues and variability due to parameters and conditions not under the operator’s control. The uncertainty of test methods is increasingly important now that contractual specifications require a high level of insulation for new systems. A critical discussion and analysis of the sources of variability and practical constraints is proposed, followed by an evaluation of uncertainty, with the objective not only to assess the accuracy of the provided results, but also to foster research on innovative, more flexible and accurate methods. Full article
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17 pages, 3731 KiB  
Article
An Optimized Random Forest Regression Model for Li-Ion Battery Prognostics and Health Management
by Geng Wang, Zhiqiang Lyu and Xiaoyu Li
Batteries 2023, 9(6), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9060332 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
This study proposes an optimized random forest regression model to achieve online battery prognostics and health management. To estimate the battery state of health (SOH), two aging features (AFs) are extracted based on the incremental capacity curve (ICC) to quantify capacity degradation, further [...] Read more.
This study proposes an optimized random forest regression model to achieve online battery prognostics and health management. To estimate the battery state of health (SOH), two aging features (AFs) are extracted based on the incremental capacity curve (ICC) to quantify capacity degradation, further analyzed through Pearson’s correlation coefficient. To further predict the remaining useful life (RUL), the online AFs are extrapolated to predict the degradation trends through the closed-loop least square method. To capture the underlying relationship between AFs and capacity, a random forest regression model is developed; meanwhile, the hyperparameters are determined using Bayesian optimization (BO) to enhance the learning and generalization ability. The method of co-simulation using MATLAB and LabVIEW is introduced to develop a battery management system (BMS) for online verification of the proposed method. Based on the open-access battery aging datasets, the results for the mean error of estimated SOH is 1.8152% and the predicted RUL is 32 cycles, which is better than some common methods. Full article
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16 pages, 7868 KiB  
Article
Theoretical and Experimental Investigations on High-Precision Micro-Low-Gravity Simulation Technology for Lunar Mobile Vehicle
by Weijie Hou, Yongbo Hao, Chang Wang, Lei Chen, Guangping Li, Baoshan Zhao, Hao Wang, Qingqing Wei, Shuo Xu, Kai Feng and Libin Zang
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3458; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073458 - 25 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1220
Abstract
With the development of space technology, the functions of lunar vehicles are constantly enriched, and the structure is constantly complicated, which puts forward more stringent requirements for its ground micro-low-gravity simulation test technology. This paper puts forward a high-precision and high-dynamic landing buffer [...] Read more.
With the development of space technology, the functions of lunar vehicles are constantly enriched, and the structure is constantly complicated, which puts forward more stringent requirements for its ground micro-low-gravity simulation test technology. This paper puts forward a high-precision and high-dynamic landing buffer test method based on the principle of magnetic quasi-zero stiffness. Firstly, the micro-low-gravity simulation system for the lunar vehicle was designed. The dynamic model of the system and a position control method based on fuzzy PID parameter tuning were established. Then, the dynamic characteristics of the system were analyzed through joint simulation. At last, a prototype of the lunar vehicle’s vertical constant force support system was built, and a micro-low-gravity landing buffer test was carried out. The results show that the simulation results were in good agreement with the test results. The sensitivity of the system was better than 0.1%, and the constant force deviation was 0.1% under landing impact conditions. The new method and idea are put forward to improve the micro-low-gravity simulation technology of lunar vehicles. Full article
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21 pages, 9894 KiB  
Article
Performance Comparison of Pure Electric Vehicles with Two-Speed Transmission and Adaptive Gear Shifting Strategy Design
by Bolin He, Yong Chen, Qiang Wei, Cong Wang, Changyin Wei and Xiaoyu Li
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3007; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073007 - 25 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1901
Abstract
The two-speed automatic transmission can adjust the drive motor speed of electric vehicles and expand their output torque range. This study proposes a rule-based partitioned gear-shifting strategy for pure electric vehicles equipped with a two-speed dual-clutch transmission, combining economic and dynamic shifting strategies [...] Read more.
The two-speed automatic transmission can adjust the drive motor speed of electric vehicles and expand their output torque range. This study proposes a rule-based partitioned gear-shifting strategy for pure electric vehicles equipped with a two-speed dual-clutch transmission, combining economic and dynamic shifting strategies to ensure low energy consumption and strong power. Specifically, fuzzy logic is applied to adaptively modify the partition shifting strategy online, to reduce invalid gearshifts, increase the service life of the transmission, and improve driving comfort. Finally, we compare the economic performance and dynamic performance of pure electric vehicles equipped with a two-speed dual-clutch transmission and a single-speed final drive. The results show that the vehicle equipped with the two-speed dual-clutch transmission has better economic and dynamic performance. In addition, its maximum climbing ability was verified by rig testing. These results prove that the two-speed dual-clutch automatic transmission and the gear-shifting strategy proposed in this study can comprehensively improve the performance of pure electric vehicles. Full article
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16 pages, 1079 KiB  
Article
Optimal Utilization of Charging Resources of Fast Charging Station with Opportunistic Electric Vehicle Users
by Konara Mudiyanselage Sandun Y. Konara, Mohan Lal Kolhe, Nils Ulltveit-Moe and Indika A. M. Balapuwaduge
Batteries 2023, 9(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries9020140 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2015
Abstract
The key challenge with the rapid proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) is to optimally manage the available energy charging resources at EV fast-charging stations (FCSs). Furthermore, the rapid deployment of fast-charging stations provides a viable solution to the potential driving range anxiety and [...] Read more.
The key challenge with the rapid proliferation of electric vehicles (EVs) is to optimally manage the available energy charging resources at EV fast-charging stations (FCSs). Furthermore, the rapid deployment of fast-charging stations provides a viable solution to the potential driving range anxiety and charging autonomy. Costly grid reinforcements due to extra load caused by fast charging can be omitted using a dedicated energy storage and/or renewable energy system at the FCS. The energy supply and fixed number of EV supply equipment (EVSE) are considered as the limited charging resources of FCS. Amidst various uncertainties associated with the EV charging process, how to optimally utilize limited charging resources with opportunistic ultra-fast charging EV users (UEVs) is studied in this work. This work proposes resource allocation and charging coordination strategies that facilitate UEVs to dynamically exploit these limited charging resources with defined liabilities when pre-scheduled users (SEVs) do not occupy them to utilize limited charging resources maximally. Moreover, the proposed dynamic charging coordination strategies are analyzed with a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The presented numerical results reveal that the major drawbacks of under-utilization of limited charging resources by SEVs can be significantly improved through dynamic charging resource allocation and coordination along with UEVs. With the proposed charging coordination strategies in this study, the maximum charging resource utilization of considered FCS with 10 EVSE has been improved to 90%, which bounds to 78% only with SEVs. Full article
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18 pages, 3178 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Losses in Two Different Control Approaches for S-S Wireless Power Transfer Systems for Electric Vehicle
by Abhay Kumar, Manuele Bertoluzzo, Rupesh Kumar Jha and Amritansh Sagar
Energies 2023, 16(4), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16041795 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
This paper presents the study and detailed analysis of converter losses at different stages together with the series-series (S-S) compensating coils in wireless power transfer (WPT) systems, via two distinct approaches to control the power converters. The two approaches towards wireless DC–DC power [...] Read more.
This paper presents the study and detailed analysis of converter losses at different stages together with the series-series (S-S) compensating coils in wireless power transfer (WPT) systems, via two distinct approaches to control the power converters. The two approaches towards wireless DC–DC power flow control are termed as the Single Active High-Frequency Wireless Power Transfer (SAHFWPT) system and the Dual Active High-Frequency Wireless Power Transfer (DAHFWPT) system. The operation of converters in SAHFWPT and DAHFWPT are controlled by the extended phase shift (EPS) and dual phase shift method respectively. The general schematic of the SAHFWPT system consists of an active bridge and a passive bridge, while the schematic of the DAHFWPT system consists of both active bridges. The efficiency evolutions of ideal SAHFWPT and DAHFWPT are far away from the real ones. Moreover, this article analyzes the operation and losses of the uni-directional power flow of the WPT system, i.e., from the DC bus in the primary side to the battery load in the secondary side. The loss estimation includes high-frequency switching losses, conduction losses, hard turn on and turn off coil losses, etc. Moreover, the efficiency of the WPT system depends on operation of the converter. A 50 W–3600 W Power range system at a resonant frequency of 85 kHz is implemented in MATLAB/SIMULATION to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. Full article
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15 pages, 6357 KiB  
Article
A Fault-Tolerant Strategy for Three-Level Flying-Capacitor DC/DC Converter in Spacecraft Power System
by Haijin Li, Yu Gu, Xiaofeng Zhang, Zhigang Liu, Longlong Zhang and Yi Zeng
Energies 2023, 16(1), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16010556 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
With the development of space exploration, high-power and high-voltage power systems are essential for future spacecraft applications. Because of the effects of space radiation such as single event burnout (SEB), the rated voltage of power devices in converters for a spacecraft power system [...] Read more.
With the development of space exploration, high-power and high-voltage power systems are essential for future spacecraft applications. Because of the effects of space radiation such as single event burnout (SEB), the rated voltage of power devices in converters for a spacecraft power system is limited to a level much lower than that for traditional ground applications. Thus, multi-level DC/DC converters are good choices for high-voltage applications in spacecraft. In this paper, a fault-tolerant strategy is proposed for a three-level flying capacitor DC/DC converter to increase the reliability with minimal cost. There is no extra hardware needed for the proposed strategy; the fault tolerance of the converter is only achieved by changing the software control strategy. A stage analysis of the proposed strategy is provided in detail for different fault locations and ratios between the input and output voltage. Finally, a simulation model and prototype are built to verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Full article
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23 pages, 7486 KiB  
Article
Analytical Estimation of Power Losses in a Dual Active Bridge Converter Controlled with a Single-Phase Shift Switching Scheme
by Marek Turzyński, Serafin Bachman, Marek Jasiński, Szymon Piasecki, Marek Ryłko, Huang-Jen Chiu, Shih-Hao Kuo and Yu-Chen Chang
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8262; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218262 - 04 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Micro-grid solutions around the world rely on the operation of DC/DC power conversion systems. The most commonly used solution for these topologies is the use of a dual active bridge (DAB) converter. Increasing the efficiency and reliability of this system contributes to the [...] Read more.
Micro-grid solutions around the world rely on the operation of DC/DC power conversion systems. The most commonly used solution for these topologies is the use of a dual active bridge (DAB) converter. Increasing the efficiency and reliability of this system contributes to the improvement in the stability of the entire microgrid. This paper discussed an analytical method of energy efficiency and power loss estimation in a single phase dual active bridge (DAB) converter controlled with a single-phase shift (SPS) modulation scheme for microgrid system stability. The presented approach uses conduction and commutation losses of semiconductors and high frequency transformer. All parameters required for the calculation may be obtained from the manufacturers’ datasheets or can be based on a simple measurement. The approach was validated by the comparison of the estimated energy efficiency characteristics with the measured ones for a prototype of a 5 kW single phase DAB converter equipped with silicon carbide metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (SiC MOSFET). Full article
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17 pages, 5669 KiB  
Article
State of Health Estimation Based on the Long Short-Term Memory Network Using Incremental Capacity and Transfer Learning
by Lei Yao, Jishu Wen, Shiming Xu, Jie Zheng, Junjian Hou, Zhanpeng Fang and Yanqiu Xiao
Sensors 2022, 22(20), 7835; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22207835 - 15 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1874
Abstract
Battery state of health (SOH) estimating is essential for the safety and preservation of electric vehicles. The degradation mechanism of batteries under different aging conditions has attracted considerable attention in SOH prediction. In this article, the discharge voltage curve early in the cycle [...] Read more.
Battery state of health (SOH) estimating is essential for the safety and preservation of electric vehicles. The degradation mechanism of batteries under different aging conditions has attracted considerable attention in SOH prediction. In this article, the discharge voltage curve early in the cycle is considered to be strongly characteristic during cell aging. Therefore, the battery aging state can be quantitatively characterized by an incremental capacity analysis (ICA) of the voltage distribution. Due to the interference of vibration noise of the test platform, the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) methods are accustomed to soften the premier incremental capacity curves in different hierarchical decompositions. By analyzing the battery aging mechanism, the peak of the curve and its corresponding voltage are used in the characterization of capacity decay by grey relation analysis (GRA) and to optimize the input of the deep learning model, and finally, the double-layer long short-term memory network (LSTM) model is used to train the data. The results demonstrate that the proposed model can predict the SOH of a single battery cycle using only small batch data and the relative error is less than 2%. Further, by freezing the LSTM layer for transfer learning, it can be used for battery health estimation in different loading modes. The results of training and verification show that this method has high accuracy and reliability in SOH estimation. Full article
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19 pages, 8101 KiB  
Article
Research and Design of LC Series Resonant Wireless Power Transfer System with Modulation Control Method for Supercapacitor Charging in Linear Motion Systems
by Song Xu, Zhenlin Wang, Jingfei Chen and Wei Jiang
Energies 2022, 15(18), 6739; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15186739 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1426
Abstract
With the hot topic of “Carbon Neutrality”, energy efficiency and saving practices such as reducing fuel consumption, vigorously advocating new energy power and modern rail are now becoming the main research topics of energy conversion technologies. Supercapacitors, with their ability of higher power [...] Read more.
With the hot topic of “Carbon Neutrality”, energy efficiency and saving practices such as reducing fuel consumption, vigorously advocating new energy power and modern rail are now becoming the main research topics of energy conversion technologies. Supercapacitors, with their ability of higher power density, fast charging, and instantaneous high current output, have become an indispensable energy storage element in modern traction systems for modern rail. This proposal introduced wireless power transfer technologies by using LC series resonant technology for charging the supercapacitors. To match the voltage and current level of the supercapacitor, a four-switch buck-boost converter was applied on the secondary side of the load-matching converter. To regulate the wireless transfer power and charging power of the supercapacitor, the active modulation control method was introduced on both the primary and secondary sides of the transfer system. On the primary side, the power is controlled by controlling the current in resonant inductance through the phase shift control method, while on the secondary side, the charging power is controlled by regulating the input voltage of the four-switch buck-boost converter followed by inductance current control. The theoretical analysis under phase shift mode for the primary side and pulse width modulation for a four-switch buck-boost converter with a supercapacitor load (voltage source) were proposed in detail, and the state-space model of the load matching converter was established for controller design to obtain precise voltage and current control. Both open loop and closed loop simulation models were built in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment, and simulations were carried out to evaluate the system characteristics and control efficiency. The experimental platform was established based on a dsPIC33FJ64GS606 digital controller. Experiments were carried out, and the results successfully verified the effectiveness of the system. Full article
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