Topic Editors

Department of Business Administration, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan
Department of Business Administration, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan

Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 February 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
30 April 2024
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14034

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

“Net-zero emissions” and “sustainability” were often regarded as environmental issues and ethical actions in the past. However, at the conclusion of the UN Climate Change Conference, COP26, net-zero carbon emissions was set as a priority issue for future global governments and organizations. What exactly is net-zero emissions? It does not refer to no emissions at all but, rather, to offsetting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions through their removal, adding up to zero. The International Energy Agency (IEA) pointed out in the report Net Zero 2050: A Roadmap for the Global Energy Sector, published in 2021, that achieving net-zero emissions in 2050 will depend on the introduction of clean technologies with unprecedented strength before 2030, which will mean greatly expanding solar energy. The installed capacity of photovoltaic and wind power generation, making electricity cleaner, is an important path, and electrification has become a key method for reducing emissions in the entire economy. Milestones that must also be met by 2030 include universal access to energy, zero-carbon readiness for all new buildings, phasing out coal without abatement measures, and large-scale demonstrations of several new clean technologies for heavy industry.

In fact, the technologies needed to significantly reduce emissions by 2030 are now in place, but to achieve net-zero emissions beyond 2050, more than 90% of heavy industrial production must be low-emission production, global electricity generation. Nearly 70% of the total comes from sources such as solar and wind energy. Achieving these conditions will rely on newer technologies that are currently under development, including technologies such as advanced batteries, hydrogen electrolyzer, direct air capture storage, etc. The IEA has called on countries to start investing, now, to meet the goals for 2030. The subsequent construction of infrastructure such as hydrogen energy, carbon capture, utilization, and storage technology (CCUS) will also be required.

At present, governments of various countries have successively formulated carbon management policies and regulations, requiring organizations to be responsible for the carbon emissions caused by them and pay the corresponding fees to reflect the environmental costs caused by carbon emissions on the operating costs of enterprises. Among them, “carbon pricing” is widely used in all walks of life. This so-called carbon pricing involves setting a price for emitted carbon dioxide, with each ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e) set as the price unit for calculating the cost of carbon emissions. It is hoped that by increasing the cost of greenhouse gas emissions, the use of coal, oil, natural gas, etc., will be reduced while encouraging the development of low-carbon technologies and increasing energy efficiency. For example, Europe, China, Singapore, South Korea, Canada, Tokyo, Japan, and California in the United States all use carbon emission price information as the basis for carbon trading or carbon fee collection. The intangible income (carbon rights trading) of Tesla, the leader in the electric vehicle industry, was valued at $1.46 billion for the fiscal year of 2021.

As “internalization of the external costs” of carbon becomes imperative, companies will also formulate internal carbon pricing mechanisms in order to assess the impact of carbon emissions on themselves, respond to government policies in advance, and prepare for net-zero emissions. Contributions are invited to this present Topic on, but not limited to, the following topics of interest: net-zero emissions; carbon emissions in various industries; solar generation; wind energy; bioenergy; green hydrogen; electric vehicles (EVs); carbon emission reduction technologies; carbon footprint; carbon tax, cap, and trade; carbon capture, utilization, and storage; carbon trading market; Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM); circular economy (CE); carbon rights purchasing; massive electrifications; internal carbon pricing; and enterprise carbon accounting. We welcome both original research articles as well as review articles.

Prof. Dr. Wen-Hsien Tsai
Dr. Chu-Lun Hsieh
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • net-zero emissions
  • carbon emissions in various industries
  • carbon dioxide removal (CDR)
  • renewable energy
  • clean energy
  • transportation technologies
  • energy storage technologies
  • new energy technologies/sources
  • carbon emission reduction technologies
  • carbon footprint
  • carbon tax, cap, and trade
  • carbon capture, utilization, and storage technology (CCUS)
  • carbon trading market
  • Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM)
  • EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS)

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400 Submit

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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24 pages, 1620 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Decision Model for Circular Economy towards Net Zero Emissions under Industry 4.0
Processes 2023, 11(12), 3412; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11123412 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 580
Abstract
The world produces more than 20 billion pairs of shoes every year, and the greenhouse gas emissions of the shoe industry account for 1.4% of the world. This research, taking the knitted footwear industry as an example, combines the concepts of mathematical programming [...] Read more.
The world produces more than 20 billion pairs of shoes every year, and the greenhouse gas emissions of the shoe industry account for 1.4% of the world. This research, taking the knitted footwear industry as an example, combines the concepts of mathematical programming and carbon emissions to discuss the impact of a circular economy sustainable decision-making model (including four carbon tax functions) to achieve net zero emissions under Industry 4.0 on company profits and product structure. The findings suggest that using activity-based costing to measure the attribution of various costs during process improvement allows companies to more accurately capture the carbon cost of producing each pair of shoes. In addition, under the trend of global efforts to reduce carbon emissions, if the price of carbon taxes or carbon rights is not enough to affect companies’ profits, companies will not pay attention to the impact of carbon emissions. To ensure a sustainable production model, the shoe industry should work with brand customers to reduce the effects of products on the environment, coordinate with brand customers’ sustainable development milestones, and formulate a carbon reduction path to achieve zero carbon emission growth goals. Future research can apply these research models, incorporating the carbon tax and carbon rights proposed by this paper to the other industries. In addition, the research also can be extended to explore the consumer behavior for the newly developed knitted footwear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050)
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18 pages, 902 KiB  
Article
Towards Carbon Neutrality and Circular Economy in the Glass Industry by Using the Production Decision Model
Energies 2023, 16(22), 7570; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16227570 - 14 Nov 2023
Viewed by 625
Abstract
In the modern age, where global warming is intensifying year by year, carbon reduction has long been an issue that countries all over the world must pay attention to. Therefore, governments have established a carbon tax and trading system to control the total [...] Read more.
In the modern age, where global warming is intensifying year by year, carbon reduction has long been an issue that countries all over the world must pay attention to. Therefore, governments have established a carbon tax and trading system to control the total carbon emissions of each country. According to the European Container Glass Federation (FEVE), every 10% recycled waste glass can reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 5%. Recycling waste glass will not only save the cost of raw materials but also make a significant contribution to sustainable development. This study uses the circular economy concept in the glass industry to recycle waste glass. It combines activity-based costing (ABC) and the Theory of Constraints (TOCs) to establish a production decision-making model, including carbon tax and trading. The objectives of this study are to solve the problem through mathematical programming to explore the impact of the carbon tax and carbon rights cost on corporate profits and to provide the government with the results as a reference for establishing a carbon tax system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050)
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30 pages, 1137 KiB  
Article
Balancing Profit and Environmental Sustainability with Carbon Emissions Management and Industry 4.0 Technologies
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6175; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176175 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
The environmental pollution issue in the textile industry has gained significant attention recently as one of the world’s most polluting industries. This paper aims to optimize product mixes for profit, tax, carbon, and resource efficiency. It employs mathematical models based on Activity-Based Costing [...] Read more.
The environmental pollution issue in the textile industry has gained significant attention recently as one of the world’s most polluting industries. This paper aims to optimize product mixes for profit, tax, carbon, and resource efficiency. It employs mathematical models based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC) and the Theory of Constraints (TOC) to address carbon emissions, waste reuse, and energy recovery. Industry 4.0 technologies are integrated with real-time sensing and detection in production, and data are analyzed in the ERP system for optimal responses to production issues. The study explores different carbon emission cost models, including balancing environmental protection and green production with maximizing corporate profits. Additionally, a new environmentally friendly brick is proposed, combining cement with emitted coal slag to create a cost-effective and eco-friendly product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050)
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19 pages, 2299 KiB  
Article
A Study of Carbon Emission Driving Factors of a Metal Chemical Enterprise in China Based on the LMDI Model
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2230; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082230 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 727
Abstract
The chemical industry is a typical high-carbon emitting industry, and achieving the goal of net zero emissions by 2050 is challenging. Therefore, metal chemical enterprises have to explore a special path of low-carbon development. This article conducted a case study on a Chinese [...] Read more.
The chemical industry is a typical high-carbon emitting industry, and achieving the goal of net zero emissions by 2050 is challenging. Therefore, metal chemical enterprises have to explore a special path of low-carbon development. This article conducted a case study on a Chinese metal chemical production enterprise with a processing scale of 28,000 t/year. Starting from the analysis of energy consumption carbon emissions, this article used available statistical data at the enterprise level to build a carbon emission estimation model for the enterprise combining different emission categories. Moreover, we also calculated the carbon emissions and carbon emission intensity of the enterprise from 2014 to 2022. Further quantitative analyses on the impact of production scale, energy efficiency, energy structure, and emission coefficient on carbon increment were also conducted using a logarithmic mean divisia index (LMDI) model. The results showed that the reduction in carbon emissions of the enterprise during the research period was due to the improvement of energy efficiency, while the production scale and energy structure served as important driving factors. Based on the results, this article proposes some policy suggestions on the future direction and focus of the enterprise’s carbon reduction work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050)
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21 pages, 2240 KiB  
Article
Multi-Period Production Optimization Decision Models under Net-Zero Transformation
Processes 2023, 11(5), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11051439 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Facing the goal of net-zero emissions in 2050, the EU will pilot the European Carbon Boundary Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) in 2023 and formally implement it in 2026. The scope of control includes cement, electricity, fertilizer, steel, aluminum, and five high-carbon emission industries. In [...] Read more.
Facing the goal of net-zero emissions in 2050, the EU will pilot the European Carbon Boundary Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) in 2023 and formally implement it in 2026. The scope of control includes cement, electricity, fertilizer, steel, aluminum, and five high-carbon emission industries. In response to global net-zero emissions and CBAM trends, net-zero transformation is not only an environmental issue but also a major economic issue related to Taiwan’s aluminum wheel frame industry. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing novel decision-making models that consider the unique requirements and constraints of net-zero transition, leading to more efficient and sustainable production optimization strategies based on activity-based costing (ABC). This study proposes four possible multi-period production optimization decision-making models (carbon tax and credit combination models) under the net-zero emission transformation of the aluminum wheel frame industry, and it compares the models to test their differences. The results of the study point out that, due to the different roles of carbon tax and carbon credit, the profit and product structure under the net-zero transformation will be very different. Enterprises should formulate carbon emission reduction targets and carbon inventories as soon as possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050)
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14 pages, 1660 KiB  
Article
Carbon Footprint of a Large Yellow Croaker Mariculture Models Based on Life-Cycle Assessment
Sustainability 2023, 15(8), 6658; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15086658 - 14 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1283
Abstract
According to the life-cycle assessment method, in this study, we took the traditional plate cage (TPC) mariculture and deep water wind wave-resistant cage (DWWWRC) mariculture of large yellow croaker in China as the research object. We counted and calculated the carbon footprint of [...] Read more.
According to the life-cycle assessment method, in this study, we took the traditional plate cage (TPC) mariculture and deep water wind wave-resistant cage (DWWWRC) mariculture of large yellow croaker in China as the research object. We counted and calculated the carbon footprint of the whole life cycle of large yellow croaker cultured in Zhoushan. By analyzing and comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the two according to a perspective of carbon emissions, we found that the carbon footprint of DWWWRC was smaller than that of TPC, which is more suitable for China’s large yellow croaker mariculture. We proposed corresponding measures to reduce carbon emissions, such as using clean energy, extending cage life, and improving feed utilization. This study fills the gap in the current research direction of the carbon footprint of large yellow croaker farming in China and provides strong technical support for the sustainable development of China’s large yellow croaker cage farming industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050)
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26 pages, 2677 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Legacies of a Climate Positive Olympic Games: An Assessment of Carbon Offsets and Renewable Energy for Brisbane 2032
Sustainability 2023, 15(2), 1207; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15021207 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3234
Abstract
Brisbane, Australia will host the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2032—the first to be contractually obliged to be Climate Positive. This commitment can be achieved through a combination of two levers: emission reduction measures and carbon offsets. The objective of this study is [...] Read more.
Brisbane, Australia will host the Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2032—the first to be contractually obliged to be Climate Positive. This commitment can be achieved through a combination of two levers: emission reduction measures and carbon offsets. The objective of this study is to determine which combination of these levers is likely to maximise sustainability and its social, economic, and ecological dimensions. Based on these dimensions and the perspective of technology determinism, a novel sustainability assessment model is developed. Then, through a document analysis, this study uses emissions data to analyse and evaluate three different combinations of carbon offsets and renewable energy. Results showed that a higher reliance on carbon offsets resulted in poorer sustainability outcomes for this mega-event. The most sustainable scenario, involving large-scale investment in renewable energy infrastructure, involved significant cost implications but is likely to create greater legacy outcomes. Key recommendations include improving the governance and socialisation of Climate Positive delivery, and increasing partnerships with the private sector. Doing so will help enhance the authenticity and legacy of Climate Positive commitments for host regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050)
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27 pages, 1538 KiB  
Article
Tell Me What You Waste and I’ll Tell You Who You Are: An Eight-Country Comparison of Consumers’ Food Waste Habits
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 430; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010430 - 27 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
Using an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, the UK, and the USA), this study explored the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits through a cross-country comparative perspective. In total, 8000 questionnaires were [...] Read more.
Using an original survey conducted in eight countries in 2021 (Canada, China, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, the UK, and the USA), this study explored the relationship between household food waste and dietary habits through a cross-country comparative perspective. In total, 8000 questionnaires were recorded from samples representative of the adult population of each country through an online survey conducted between the 13th and the 24th of August. The questionnaires were developed from the Waste Watcher International Observatory on Food and Sustainability, an international study of the social, behavioral, and lifestyle dynamics behind household food waste. The relationships between the per capita self-reported amount of food waste (expressed in kilocalories) and self-declared dietary habits (traditional, healthy and sustainable, vegetarian, smart, and confused) were estimated using multiple linear regression models. The results showed that smart diets are associated with higher values of food waste in Canada, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Vegetarian diets are associated with lower food waste values in China, Germany, the UK, and the USA, but not in Italy, Russia, and Spain. The share of the population adopting a smart diet was, on average, 2.7% of the sample; therefore, interventions for food waste reduction should focus on these specific types of consumers, who are often associated with larger amounts of food waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050)
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20 pages, 1209 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Green Purchase Intention: The Roles of Green Enjoyment, Green Intrinsic Motivation, and Green Brand Love
Sustainability 2023, 15(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/su15010132 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2404
Abstract
This study investigated the relationship among green enjoyment, green brand love, green intrinsic motivation, and green purchase intention. Data were collected from 26 August to 16 September 2022, through a questionnaire survey distributed online, and quantitative instruments were applied to analyze the data. [...] Read more.
This study investigated the relationship among green enjoyment, green brand love, green intrinsic motivation, and green purchase intention. Data were collected from 26 August to 16 September 2022, through a questionnaire survey distributed online, and quantitative instruments were applied to analyze the data. A total of 302 randomly selected samples from consumers with experience of green consumption were analyzed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and confirmatory factor analysis. The results revealed that the content, discriminant, and convergent validity and reliability of the model were satisfactory. Global model analysis of green intrinsic motivation revealed acceptable results. Moreover, structural equation modeling indicated a satisfactory model fit to the standard sample data. Finally, the study revealed that green intrinsic motivation positively influences green enjoyment, green brand love, and green purchase intention. Green enjoyment positively affects green brand love and green purchase intention. Furthermore, green enjoyment and green brand love mediate the positive relationship between green intrinsic motivation and green purchase intention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Multiple Roads to Achieve Net-Zero Emissions by 2050)
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