Topic Editors

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University, Irvine, CA 92618, USA
Nanovaccine Institute, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA

Application of Nanomaterials and Nanobiotechnology in Cancer

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2024)
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18308

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnology, involving the use of nanosized particles, is an interdisciplinary field which encompasses aspects of chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, and medicine. The application of nanotechnology is termed nanobiotechnology or nanomedicine, particularly when used in biology and medicine. Due to their similarity in size, nanomaterials can easily interact with cell surface receptors, intracellular proteins and nucleic acids, facilitating their medicinal application. Although nanomedicine is already extensively used in diverse biomedical fields, its major applications have been observed in cancer theranostics. In the preceding decades, many research groups have engaged in developing various nanomaterials such as metal, nonmetal, polymeric, and functionalized nanocomposites, and demonstrated their potential applications in different diagnostic and therapeutic treatment strategies for cancers. To promote these constant efforts, the current topic, “Application of Nanomaterials and Nanobiotechnology in Cancer”, includes different journals such as Biomedicines, Cancers, Micro, Nanomaterials, and Pharmaceutics. These will publish exceptional research and review articles in the related fields. The topics of interest include but are not limited to the following:

  • Functionalized nanomaterials for cancer diagnosis and therapy
  • Targeted drug delivery using nanoplatform approach for the treatment of cancer
  • Gene/Nucleic acid delivery for cancer nanotherapy
  • Photodynamic therapy using nanotechnology for treating cancer
  • Nanotechnology-based antiangiogenic approaches for cancer therapy
  • Bioimaging technologies for early detection of cancer
  • Engineered nanomaterials for cancer immunotherapy
  • Nanobiotechnology approaches for cancer management
  • Nanomedicine application in radiation/sonodynamic/photothermal therapy of cancer
  • Green synthesized nanomaterials for cancer therapy
  • Implication of protein corona in nanodrug delivery system for the treatment of cancer
  • Interaction of nanomaterials with cancer cells and their uptake mechanism

Dr. Ayan Kumar Barui
Dr. Susheel Kumar Nethi
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • nanotechnology
  • nanomedicine
  • cancer
  • drug delivery
  • gene delivery
  • photodynamic therapy
  • immunotherapy
  • antiangiogenic
  • cancer diagnosis
  • bioimaging

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Biomedicines
biomedicines
4.7 3.7 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600
Cancers
cancers
5.2 7.4 2009 17.9 Days CHF 2900
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600
Nanomaterials
nanomaterials
5.3 7.4 2010 13.6 Days CHF 2900
Pharmaceutics
pharmaceutics
5.4 6.9 2009 14.2 Days CHF 2900

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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10 pages, 1437 KiB  
Article
Cancer Immunotherapy with Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with a Stimulator of Interferon Genes Agonist against Renal Tumor Lung Metastasis
by Takashi Nakamura, Shun Sasaki, Yusuke Sato and Hideyoshi Harashima
Pharmaceutics 2024, 16(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics16010031 - 26 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a poor prognosis, and the major organ of metastasis is the lung. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is the first-line therapy, but the response rates are low. Thus, the development of a more effective immunotherapy against [...] Read more.
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a poor prognosis, and the major organ of metastasis is the lung. Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is the first-line therapy, but the response rates are low. Thus, the development of a more effective immunotherapy against metastatic RCC would be highly desirable. We previously demonstrated how a stimulator of an interferon gene (STING) agonist-loaded lipid nanoparticles (STING-LNPs) significantly activates natural killer (NK) cells and induces an antitumor effect against cases of melanoma lung metastasis that have shown ICI resistance. In this study, we evaluated the potential of using STING-LNPs in the treatment of lung metastatic RCC (Renca). An intravenous injection of STING-LNPs drastically decreased the amount of Renca tumor colonies. In contrast, monotherapies using ICIs showed no antitumor effect, and even a combination of ICI and STING-LNP therapies failed to enhance the antitumor effects. The main effector cells would be NK cells, and the activation of NK cells by the STING-LNPs may avoid the increased expression of immune checkpoint molecules. These findings provide useful insights into the development of an effective immunotherapy against metastatic RCC. Full article
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14 pages, 7040 KiB  
Article
Gold Nanoparticles Enhance the Tumor Growth-Suppressing Effects of Cetuximab and Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo
by Takumi Sato, Yasumasa Kakei, Takumi Hasegawa, Masahiko Kashin, Shun Teraoka, Akinobu Yamaguchi, Ryohei Sasaki and Masaya Akashi
Cancers 2023, 15(23), 5697; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15235697 - 03 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy with the aim of eradicating cancer cells without affecting normal tissues. HNSCC expresses epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cetuximab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, [...] Read more.
Introduction: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment includes surgery, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy with the aim of eradicating cancer cells without affecting normal tissues. HNSCC expresses epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and cetuximab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting epidermal growth factor receptor, has been approved for the treatment of HNSCC. However, cetuximab has low reactivity and induces serious side effects. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were reported to enhance the local antitumor effects of radiotherapy without damaging normal cells. Methods and Results: This study investigated the in vitro effects of single and combination therapy with AuNPs (1.0 nM), cetuximab (30 nM), and radiotherapy (4 Gy) on a human HNSCC cell line, HSC-3. Combination treatment of AuNPs + cetuximab + radiotherapy markedly reduced HSC-3 numbers and proliferation and enhanced apoptosis compared with single and double combination treatments. Furthermore, the in vivo combination treatment (AuNPs + cetuximab + radiotherapy) of a xenograft model of HSC-3 cells transplanted into nude mice (BALB/cAJcl-nu/nu) reduced the tumor volume compared with the controls. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of AuNPs in tumor tissues and toxicity analysis indicated that AuNPs had no toxic effect on normal tissues. Conclusions: This study showed that AuNPs alone do not have a tumor-suppressing effect, but they sensitize tumors to radiotherapy and bind to cetuximab, leading to enhanced antitumor effects. Full article
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22 pages, 2129 KiB  
Review
Resveratrol-Laden Nano-Systems in the Cancer Environment: Views and Reviews
by Muhammad Sarfraz, Mosab Arafat, Syeda Huma H. Zaidi, Lina Eltaib, Muhammad Irfan Siddique, Mehnaz Kamal, Abuzer Ali, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq, Abida Khan, Shams Aaghaz, Mohammed Sanad Alshammari and Mohd Imran
Cancers 2023, 15(18), 4499; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15184499 - 10 Sep 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1490
Abstract
The genesis of cancer is a precisely organized process in which normal cells undergo genetic alterations that cause the cells to multiply abnormally, colonize, and metastasize to other organs such as the liver, lungs, colon, and brain. Potential drugs that could modify these [...] Read more.
The genesis of cancer is a precisely organized process in which normal cells undergo genetic alterations that cause the cells to multiply abnormally, colonize, and metastasize to other organs such as the liver, lungs, colon, and brain. Potential drugs that could modify these carcinogenic pathways are the ones that will be used in clinical trials as anti-cancer drugs. Resveratrol (RES) is a polyphenolic natural antitoxin that has been utilized for the treatment of several diseases, owing to its ability to scavenge free radicals, control the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, and have effects on inflammation, cancer, aging, diabetes, and cardioprotection. Although RES has a variety of pharmacological uses and shows promising applications in natural medicine, its unpredictable pharmacokinetics compromise its therapeutic efficacy and prevent its use in clinical settings. RES has been encapsulated into various nanocarriers, such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, lipidic nanocarriers, and inorganic nanoparticles, to address these issues. These nanocarriers can modulate drug release, increase bioavailability, and reach therapeutically relevant plasma concentrations. Studies on resveratrol-rich nano-formulations in various cancer types are compiled in the current article. Studies relating to enhanced drug stability, increased therapeutic potential in terms of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and reduced toxicity to cells and tissues are the main topics of this research. To keep the readers informed about the current state of resveratrol nano-formulations from an industrial perspective, some recent and significant patent literature has also been provided. Here, the prospects for nano-formulations are briefly discussed, along with machine learning and pharmacometrics methods for resolving resveratrol’s pharmacokinetic concerns. Full article
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21 pages, 4008 KiB  
Review
Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Approaches of Mangiferin: Promises, Reality and Challenges in Cancer Chemotherapy
by Muhammad Sarfraz, Abida Khan, Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Ammara Saleem, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Mehnaz Kamal, Abuzer Ali, Nawaf M. Alotaibi, Shams Aaghaz, Muhammad Irfan Siddique and Mohd Imran
Cancers 2023, 15(16), 4194; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15164194 - 21 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Mangiferin (MGF), a xanthone derived from Mangifera indica L., initially employed as a nutraceutical, is now being explored extensively for its anticancer potential. Scientists across the globe have explored this bioactive for managing a variety of cancers using validated in vitro and in [...] Read more.
Mangiferin (MGF), a xanthone derived from Mangifera indica L., initially employed as a nutraceutical, is now being explored extensively for its anticancer potential. Scientists across the globe have explored this bioactive for managing a variety of cancers using validated in vitro and in vivo models. The in vitro anticancer potential of this biomolecule on well-established breast cancer cell lines such as MDA-MB-23, BEAS-2B cells and MCF-7 is closer to many approved synthetic anticancer agents. However, the solubility and bioavailability of this xanthone are the main challenges, and its oral bioavailability is reported to be less than 2%, and its aqueous solubility is also 0.111 mg/mL. Nano-drug delivery systems have attempted to deliver the drugs at the desired site at a desired rate in desired amounts. Many researchers have explored various nanotechnology-based approaches to provide effective and safe delivery of mangiferin for cancer therapy. Nanoparticles were used as carriers to encapsulate mangiferin, protecting it from degradation and facilitating its delivery to cancer cells. They have attempted to enhance the bioavailability, safety and efficacy of this very bioactive using drug delivery approaches. The present review focuses on the origin and structure elucidation of mangiferin and its derivatives and the benefits of this bioactive. The review also offers insight into the delivery-related challenges of mangiferin and its applications in nanosized forms against cancer. The use of a relatively new deep-learning approach to solve the pharmacokinetic issues of this bioactive has also been discussed. The review also critically analyzes the future hope for mangiferin as a therapeutic agent for cancer management. Full article
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17 pages, 8994 KiB  
Article
Effects of Albumin–Chlorogenic Acid Nanoparticles on Apoptosis and PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway Inhibitory Activity in MDA-MB-435s Cells
by Badr Alzahrani, Abozer Y. Elderdery, Abdullah Alsrhani, Nasser A. N. Alzerwi, Maryam Musleh Althobiti, Musaed Rayzah, Bandar Idrees, Ahmed M. E. Elkhalifa, Suresh K. Subbiah and Pooi Ling Mok
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(9), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13091438 - 22 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1573
Abstract
In this study, we synthesized, characterized, and explored the anti-microbial and anti-cancer effects of albumin–chlorogenic acid nanoparticles (NPs). Characterization studies with a UV-vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, PL spectrum, TEM, FESEM, XRD, and DLA analysis showed patterns confirming the physio–chemical nature of biogenic nanocomposites. Further, [...] Read more.
In this study, we synthesized, characterized, and explored the anti-microbial and anti-cancer effects of albumin–chlorogenic acid nanoparticles (NPs). Characterization studies with a UV-vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, PL spectrum, TEM, FESEM, XRD, and DLA analysis showed patterns confirming the physio–chemical nature of biogenic nanocomposites. Further, anti-microbial studies using bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, and fungal strain Candida albicans showed significant (p < 0.05) anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities. Next, we used MDA-MB-435s, a human cell line, to evaluate the anti-cancer effects of albumin–chlorogenic acid NPs. Cytotoxic studies revealed its IC50 concentration at 24 μg/mL after a 24 h treatment of MDA-MB-435s cells. We chose this IC50 dose to analyze albumin–chlorogenic acid NPs anti-cancer effects in vitro. MDA-MB-435s cells exposed to our NPs were studied via AO/EtBr staining, cell cycle analyses via PI staining, the status of whole genomic damage via comet assay, levels of apoptotic cells via annexin V/PI staining, ROS generation via DCFH-DA staining, an assay of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and antioxidant GSH, via ELISA analyses of apoptotic markers caspase-3, 8, 9, Bax, Bcl-2, CytC, and p53, PI3/AKT/mTOR pathway. Our results collectively showed albumin–chlorogenic acid NPs induced apoptosis via p53-dependent and PI3/AKT/mTOR inhibition in MDA-MB-435s cells. Our results denote albumin–chlorogenic acid NPs can be used as an effective candidate for anti-microbial and anti-cancer applications; however, further in vivo confirmatory studies are warranted. Full article
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21 pages, 8457 KiB  
Review
Natural Compounds: Co-Delivery Strategies with Chemotherapeutic Agents or Nucleic Acids Using Lipid-Based Nanocarriers
by Patrícia V. Teixeira, Eduarda Fernandes, Telma B. Soares, Filomena Adega, Carla M. Lopes and Marlene Lúcio
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(4), 1317; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15041317 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1523
Abstract
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and latest predictions indicate that cancer- related deaths will increase over the next few decades. Despite significant advances in conventional therapies, treatments remain far from ideal due to limitations such as lack of selectivity, [...] Read more.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, and latest predictions indicate that cancer- related deaths will increase over the next few decades. Despite significant advances in conventional therapies, treatments remain far from ideal due to limitations such as lack of selectivity, non-specific distribution, and multidrug resistance. Current research is focusing on the development of several strategies to improve the efficiency of chemotherapeutic agents and, as a result, overcome the challenges associated with conventional therapies. In this regard, combined therapy with natural compounds and other therapeutic agents, such as chemotherapeutics or nucleic acids, has recently emerged as a new strategy for tackling the drawbacks of conventional therapies. Taking this strategy into consideration, the co-delivery of the above-mentioned agents in lipid-based nanocarriers provides some advantages by improving the potential of the therapeutic agents carried. In this review, we present an analysis of the synergistic anticancer outcomes resulting from the combination of natural compounds and chemotherapeutics or nucleic acids. We also emphasize the importance of these co-delivery strategies when reducing multidrug resistance and adverse toxic effects. Furthermore, the review delves into the challenges and opportunities surrounding the application of these co-delivery strategies towards tangible clinical translation for cancer treatment. Full article
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50 pages, 1545 KiB  
Review
Organic Nanodelivery Systems as a New Platform in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Review from Preclinical to Clinical Studies
by Salma T. Rafik, Jayant S. Vaidya, Alexander J. MacRobert and Elnaz Yaghini
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(7), 2648; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12072648 - 02 Apr 2023
Viewed by 2119
Abstract
Breast cancer accounts for approximately 25% of cancer cases and 16.5% of cancer deaths in women, and the World Health Organization predicts that the number of new cases will increase by almost 70% over the next two decades, mainly due to an ageing [...] Read more.
Breast cancer accounts for approximately 25% of cancer cases and 16.5% of cancer deaths in women, and the World Health Organization predicts that the number of new cases will increase by almost 70% over the next two decades, mainly due to an ageing population. Effective diagnostic and treatment strategies are, therefore, urgently required for improving cure rates among patients since current therapeutic modalities have many limitations and side effects. Nanomedicine is evolving as a promising approach for cancer management, including breast cancer, and various types of organic and inorganic nanomaterials have been investigated for their role in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Following an overview on breast cancer characteristics and pathogenesis and challenges of the current treatment strategies, the therapeutic potential of biocompatible organic-based nanoparticles such as liposomes and polymeric micelles that have been tested in breast cancer models are reviewed. The efficacies of different drug delivery and targeting strategies are documented, ranging from synthetic to cell-derived nanoformulations together with a summary of the interaction of nanoparticles with externally applied energy such as radiotherapy. The clinical translation of nanoformulations for breast cancer treatment is summarized including those undergoing clinical trials. Full article
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19 pages, 3208 KiB  
Review
Insights into Gold Nanoparticles Possibilities for Diagnosis and Treatment of the Head and Neck Upper Aerodigestive Tract Cancers
by Lídia M. Andrade and Guilherme M. J. Costa
Cancers 2023, 15(7), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15072080 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2257
Abstract
Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer affecting people and accounts for more than 300,000 deaths worldwide. Improvements in treatment modalities, including immunotherapy, have demonstrated promising prognoses for eligible patients. Nevertheless, the five-year overall survival rate [...] Read more.
Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer affecting people and accounts for more than 300,000 deaths worldwide. Improvements in treatment modalities, including immunotherapy, have demonstrated promising prognoses for eligible patients. Nevertheless, the five-year overall survival rate has not increased significantly, and the tumor recurrence ratio remains at 50% or higher, except for patients with HPV-positive HNSCC. Over the last decades, nanotechnology has provided promising tools, especially for biomedical applications, due to some remarkable physicochemical properties of numerous nanomaterials, particularly gold nanoparticles. This review addresses the features and some applications of gold nanoparticles reported in the literature over the last five years regarding the diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer, highlighting the exciting possibilities of this nanomaterial in oncology. Methods: The scientific papers selected for this review were obtained from the PubMed Advanced, Web of Science, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar platforms. Conclusions: Results from papers applying gold nanoparticles have suggested that their application is a feasible approach to diagnostics, prognostics, and the treatment of HNC. Moreover, phase I clinical trials suggest that gold nanoparticles are safe and can potentially become theranostic agents for humans. Full article
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15 pages, 4618 KiB  
Review
Nanoplatform for the Delivery of Topotecan in the Cancer Milieu: An Appraisal of its Therapeutic Efficacy
by Mohammed Kanan Alshammari, Mohammed Khalid Alghazwni, Abrar Saleh Alharbi, Ghayda Ghazi Alqurashi, Mehnaz Kamal, Salman Rahim Alnufaie, Salem Sayer Alshammari, Bandar Ali Alshehri, Rami Hatem Tayeb, Rashad Jameel M. Bougeis, Alaa Adel Aljehani, Nawaf M. Alotaibi, Abida Abida and Mohd. Imran
Cancers 2023, 15(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers15010065 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2284
Abstract
Chemotherapy has been the predominant treatment modality for cancer patients, but its overall performance is still modest. Difficulty in penetration of tumor tissues, a toxic profile in high doses, multidrug resistance in an array of tumor types, and the differential architecture of tumor [...] Read more.
Chemotherapy has been the predominant treatment modality for cancer patients, but its overall performance is still modest. Difficulty in penetration of tumor tissues, a toxic profile in high doses, multidrug resistance in an array of tumor types, and the differential architecture of tumor cells as they grow are some of the bottlenecks associated with the clinical usage of chemotherapeutics. Recent advances in tumor biology understanding and the emergence of novel targeted drug delivery tools leveraging various nanosystems offer hope for developing effective cancer treatments. Topotecan is a topoisomerase I inhibitor that stabilizes the transient TOPO I-DNA cleavable complex, leading to single-stranded breaks in DNA. Due to its novel mechanism of action, TOPO is reported to be active against various carcinomas, namely small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. Issues of cross-resistance with numerous drugs, rapid conversion to its inactive form in biological systems, appended adverse effects, and higher water solubility limit its therapeutic efficacy in clinical settings. Topotecan nanoformulations offer several benefits for enhancing the therapeutic action of this significant class of chemotherapeutics. The likelihood that the target cancer cells will be exposed to the chemotherapeutic drug while in the drug-sensitive s-phase is increased due to the slow and sustained release of the chemotherapeutic, which could provide for a sustained duration of exposure of the target cancer cells to the bioavailable drug and result in the desired therapeutic outcome. This article explores nanoenabled active and passive targeting strategies and combinatorial therapy employing topotecan to ameliorate various cancers, along with a glimpse of the clinical studies utilizing the said molecule. Full article
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12 pages, 825 KiB  
Article
Urinary Exosomal Tissue TIMP and Angiopoietin-1 Are Preoperative Novel Biomarkers of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
by Chih-Yuan Wang, Shyang-Rong Shih, Kuen-Yuan Chen and Pei-Jie Huang
Biomedicines 2023, 11(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11010024 - 22 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Finding non-invasive and sensitive biomarkers for early screening of high-risk patients remains important in clinical practice. A higher concentration of urine exosomal thyroglobulin protein was found in late-stage patients with thyroid carcinoma compared to those with early stage in our previous study. This [...] Read more.
Finding non-invasive and sensitive biomarkers for early screening of high-risk patients remains important in clinical practice. A higher concentration of urine exosomal thyroglobulin protein was found in late-stage patients with thyroid carcinoma compared to those with early stage in our previous study. This prospective study aims to find new prognostic biomarkers before surgery for decision-making with this platform. We enrolled patients newly diagnosed with papillary and follicular cancer from 2017 to 2018. Preoperative urine samples were collected and the exosomal proteins were analyzed. The association of the concentration of urine exosomal proteins with lymph node metastasis and MACIS score (metastasis, age, completeness of resection, invasion, and size) was analyzed with multiple logistic regression. In total, 21 patients were included, with a mean age of 51.29 ± 10.29 years and a majority of female patients (85.71%). The concentration of urine exosomal TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase) was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed association of urine exosomal TIMP (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99–9.6, p = 0.052), angiopoietin-1 (aOR: 2.24, 95% CI: 0.97–5.15, p = 0.058) with lymph node metastasis. However, no association was noted between MACIS score and various urine exosomal protein candidates. Preoperative urine exosomal data could suggest certain peptides having the potential as prognostic indicators for screening patients with high-risk before surgery. Further study with a large cohort and long follow-up is needed to identify the application of urine exosomal proteins on prognostic prediction. Full article
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