Topic Editors

Dr. Yongliang Xie
School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Department of Fire Protection Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Dr. Chang’e Cai
School of Petroleum Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing, China

Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
Viewed by
17677

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas have contributed the most to the sustainable economic development for the industrial sectors in the past few decades. The negative environmental and economic impacts, however, should be considered since fossil fuels will trigger many problems, such as environmental pollution, global warming, and economic security. For example, CO2 and other pollutant emissions, due to the burning of hydrocarbon fossil fuels, are among the main contributors to atmospheric pollution and climate change. In order to cope with the energy and environment crisis, the energy systems, which generate fewer CO2 and pollutant emissions, are becoming one of the hot spots in the industry and academia. For both traditional and renewable energy systems, advanced technologies and methods are investigated in order to improve the efficiency of the energy system. Artificial intelligence and other technologies could be used in the energy system. An increasing number of researchers have entered the field in the recent years, and the number of related papers has grown significantly. Thus, we are committed to providing the platform for high-quality papers in this field. This topic focuses on advanced technologies and methods in the energy system. The topic includes but is not limited to: 

  • Hydrogen energy systems;
  • Fuel cell technologies;
  • Advanced combustion theory;
  • Methanol and other clean alternative fuels;
  • Solar photovoltaic and thermal systems;
  • Safety issues in the use of clean energies;
  • Energy management systems;
  • Advanced test technologies in energy systems;
  • Energy conversion in the aerospace field;
  • Measurement.

Dr. Yongliang Xie
Dr. Liang Gong
Dr. Chang’e Cai
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • energy management
  • hydrogen fuel cell
  • safety
  • solar energy
  • aerospace
  • alternative fuel
  • combustion
  • measurement
  • propulsion system

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Aerospace
aerospace
2.6 3.0 2014 22.3 Days CHF 2400
Clean Technologies
cleantechnol
3.8 4.5 2019 26.6 Days CHF 1600
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Sensors
sensors
3.9 6.8 2001 17 Days CHF 2600
Solar
solar
- - 2021 16.9 Days CHF 1000

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Published Papers (16 papers)

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16 pages, 10761 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Study on the Performance and Emissions of an 8% Water-in-Diesel Emulsion Stabilized by a Hydrophilic Surfactant Blend
by Pedro Oliveira and Francisco Brójo
Energies 2024, 17(6), 1328; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17061328 - 10 Mar 2024
Viewed by 457
Abstract
Diesel engines are known for their excellent efficiency and are therefore used in a variety of applications. However, they are also one of the main sources of hazardous emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke. Water-in-Diesel Emulsion (WiDE) is an [...] Read more.
Diesel engines are known for their excellent efficiency and are therefore used in a variety of applications. However, they are also one of the main sources of hazardous emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke. Water-in-Diesel Emulsion (WiDE) is an alternative fuel that can possibly reduce some of the pollutant emissions without compromising engine performance. The surfactant formulation for WiDE usually follows the one used in water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions, where low hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) emulsifiers are preferred for better solubility in the diesel phase and stabilization at storage temperatures. However, by using a hydrophilic blend with a non-ionic surfactant, it is possible to develop an optimized formulation at higher fuel temperatures, which occur during an engine’s operating condition, achieving possibly higher benefits. Across the different speeds, the results for the emulsion show 7.57% mean improvement in specific fuel consumption (SFC), 19.14% mean improvement in thermal efficiency (TE), 5.54% mean reduction in carbon dioxide (CO2), 20.50% mean reduction in nitric oxide (NO) and 75.19% mean reduction in smoke levels. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) emissions were higher, with a mean increase of 81.09% and 93.83%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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18 pages, 5232 KiB  
Article
An Optimization Control Method of IEH Considering User Thermal Comfort
by Huankun Zheng and Kaidi Yu
Energies 2024, 17(4), 948; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17040948 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 399
Abstract
In this paper, a user thermal comfort criterion based on predicted mean vote (PMV) values is introduced to realize the optimal operation of an improved energy hub (IEH) while considering thermal inertia and user thermal behavior. A three-layer optimization model based on user [...] Read more.
In this paper, a user thermal comfort criterion based on predicted mean vote (PMV) values is introduced to realize the optimal operation of an improved energy hub (IEH) while considering thermal inertia and user thermal behavior. A three-layer optimization model based on user thermal comfort is constructed which fully considers user thermal comfort demand, IEH operating costs, and energy network constraints. Moreover, since IEH optimization considering user thermal comfort is a multi-objective bilevel optimization (MNBO) problem, this paper proposes an improved multilayer nested quantum genetic algorithm (IMNQGA) to solve it. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed optimization model and algorithm is verified through the analysis of the four modes. The examples show that the proposed optimal control method can reduce the system’s operating costs and improve energy efficiency while satisfying user thermal comfort demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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13 pages, 4233 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of the Energy Harvesting Capabilities of a Novel Three-Dimensional Super-Cell Phononic Crystal with a Local Resonance Structure
by Hang Xiang, Zhemin Chai, Wenjun Kou, Huanchao Zhong and Jiawei Xiang
Sensors 2024, 24(2), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/s24020361 - 07 Jan 2024
Viewed by 600
Abstract
Using the piezoelectric (PZT) effect, energy-harvesting has become possible for phononic crystal (PnC). Low-frequency vibration energy harvesting is more of a challenge, which can be solved by local resonance phononic crystals (LRPnCs). A novel three-dimensional (3D) energy harvesting LRPnC is proposed and further [...] Read more.
Using the piezoelectric (PZT) effect, energy-harvesting has become possible for phononic crystal (PnC). Low-frequency vibration energy harvesting is more of a challenge, which can be solved by local resonance phononic crystals (LRPnCs). A novel three-dimensional (3D) energy harvesting LRPnC is proposed and further analyzed using the finite element method (FEM) software COMSOL. The 3D LRPnC with spiral unit-cell structures is constructed with a low initial frequency and wide band gaps (BGs). According to the large vibration deformation of the elastic beam near the scatterer, a PZT sheet is mounted in the surface of that beam, to harvest the energy of elastic waves using the PZT effect. To further improve the energy-harvesting performance, a 5 × 5 super-cell is numerically constructed. Numerical simulations show that the present 3D super-cell PnC structure can make full use of the advantages of the large vibration deformation and the PZT effect, i.e., the BGs with a frequency range from 28.47 Hz to 194.21 Hz with a bandwidth of 142.7 Hz, and the maximum voltage output is about 29.3 V under effective sound pressure with a peak power of 11.5 µW. The present super-cell phononic crystal structure provides better support for low-frequency vibration energy harvesting, when designing PnCs, than that of the traditional Prague type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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18 pages, 4573 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Investigation of the Emissions of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine under World Harmonized Transient Cycle and Road Spectrum Cycle
by Banglin Deng, Weijiao Yu, Lili Zhou and Chengqi Sun
Energies 2024, 17(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17010007 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 572
Abstract
In the present study, detailed comparative experiments on a heavy-duty diesel engine used in the world harmonized transient cycle (WHTC) and road spectrum reversely deduced cycle (RSRDC, which was derived from a road test) were carried out. Fuel consumption and gaseous and particulate [...] Read more.
In the present study, detailed comparative experiments on a heavy-duty diesel engine used in the world harmonized transient cycle (WHTC) and road spectrum reversely deduced cycle (RSRDC, which was derived from a road test) were carried out. Fuel consumption and gaseous and particulate pollutants, along with some engine operation parameters, were measured transiently; thus, specific emissions can be calculated. Results showed that the BSFC of WHTC and RSRDC was 201.8 and 210 g/kW·h, respectively, because the real road driving cycle (RSRDC) had wider operating point distributions and more points located in the low-efficiency zone relative to WHTC. Thus, WHTC operations exhibited higher raw CO (abundant CO formation needed a specific temperature threshold) and NOx but lower HC. Furthermore, with aftertreatment, all pollutants met the newest China regulation limit. Finally, transient emissions were analyzed in detail. Although the specific emissions of some pollutants were similar in value for both cycles, transient processes may largely be different. Therefore, the current study is meaningful, and we not only provide broad and detailed information but also directly compare two types of operations (one is a real road driving cycle) in the laboratory: this is rarely discussed in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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17 pages, 3015 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Emergency Alternatives for Hydrogen Leakage and Explosion Accidents Based on Improved VIKOR
by Fangming Cheng, Zhuo Li, Chang Su, Jiao Qu, Meng Jiang, Hanzhang Ge, Linan Wang and Ziyan Gou
Energies 2023, 16(22), 7631; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16227631 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Hydrogen leakage and explosion accidents have obvious dangers, ambiguity of accident information, and urgency of decision-making time. These characteristics bring challenges to the optimization of emergency alternatives for such accidents. Effective emergency decision making is crucial to mitigating the consequences of accidents and [...] Read more.
Hydrogen leakage and explosion accidents have obvious dangers, ambiguity of accident information, and urgency of decision-making time. These characteristics bring challenges to the optimization of emergency alternatives for such accidents. Effective emergency decision making is crucial to mitigating the consequences of accidents and minimizing losses and can provide a vital reference for emergency management in the field of hydrogen energy. An improved VIKOR emergency alternatives optimization method is proposed based on the combination of hesitant triangular fuzzy set (HTFS) and the cumulative prospect theory (CPT), termed the HTFS-CPT-VIKOR method. This method adopts the hesitant triangular fuzzy number to represent the decision information on the alternatives under the influence of multi-attributes, constructs alternatives evaluation indicators, and solves the indicator weights by using the deviation method. Based on CPT, positive and negative ideal points were used as reference points to construct the prospect matrix, which then utilized the VIKOR method to optimize the emergency alternatives for hydrogen leakage and explosion accidents. Taking an accident at a hydrogen refueling station as an example, the effectiveness and rationality of the HTFS-CPT-VIKOR method were verified by comparing with the existing three methods and conducting parameter sensitivity analysis. Research results show that the HTFS-CPT-VIKOR method effectively captures the limited psychological behavior characteristics of decision makers and enhances their ability to identify, filter, and judge ambiguous information, making the decision-making alternatives more in line with the actual environment, which provided strong support for the optimization of emergency alternatives for hydrogen leakage and explosion accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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17 pages, 6976 KiB  
Article
Study on Gasoline–Air Mixture Explosion Overpressure Characteristics and Flame Propagation Behaviors in an Annular Cylindrical Confined Space with a Circular Arch
by Xinsheng Jiang, Ri Chen, Peili Zhang, Yunxiong Cai, Dongliang Zhou, Donghai He, Xizhuo Qin and Shijie Zhu
Energies 2023, 16(19), 6944; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16196944 - 04 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 700
Abstract
Gasoline–air mixture explosions mostly occur in buried tank rooms, which are annular cylindrical confined spaces with circular arches. In this paper, explosion experiments at different gasoline–air mixture volume fractions are carried out in an annular cylindrical steel bench with a circular arch curvature [...] Read more.
Gasoline–air mixture explosions mostly occur in buried tank rooms, which are annular cylindrical confined spaces with circular arches. In this paper, explosion experiments at different gasoline–air mixture volume fractions are carried out in an annular cylindrical steel bench with a circular arch curvature radius of 900 mm and an annular half-perimeter to radial width ratio of 12π. The results show that the development process of explosion overpressure is clearly divided into four stages after first-order differentiation treatment. Compared with other types of confined spaces, 1.70% is still the most dangerous gasoline–air mixture volume fraction. However, this type of confined space has a larger inner surface area in the same volume condition, which will inevitably increase the heat absorption rate, reduce the chemical reaction rate, and slow down the flame propagation speed. Meanwhile, this spatial structure will inevitably make the explosion flames collide, which will promote positive feedback coupling between explosion flames and pressure waves, making the explosion more violent and dangerous. These results can provide theoretical and technical support for the explosion prevention design of buried tank rooms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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21 pages, 5901 KiB  
Article
A Non-Invasive Circuit Breaker Arc Duration Measurement Method with Improved Robustness Based on Vibration–Sound Fusion and Convolutional Neural Network
by Ning Guo, Kevin Whitmore, Morris Cohen, Raheem Beyah and Lukas Graber
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6551; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186551 - 12 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that the contact wear estimation of circuit breakers can be based on the accumulative arc duration. However, one problem that remains unresolved is how to reliably measure the arc duration. Existing methods encounter difficulties in implementation and suffer from [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that the contact wear estimation of circuit breakers can be based on the accumulative arc duration. However, one problem that remains unresolved is how to reliably measure the arc duration. Existing methods encounter difficulties in implementation and suffer from limited accuracy owing to the impact of the substation environment. To overcome these issues, this article presents a novel, non-invasive method for measuring arc duration that combines vibration–sound fusion and convolutional neural network. The proposed method demonstrates excellent performance, achieving errors below 0.1 ms under expected noise conditions and less than 1 ms in the presence of various forms of noise, transient interference, and even sensor failure. Its advantages include its ability to accurately measure arc duration and its robustness against noise and interference with unknown patterns and varying intensity as well as sensor failure. These features make it highly suitable for practical deployment in substation environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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22 pages, 7060 KiB  
Article
Accurate Active and Reactive Power Sharing Based on a Modified Droop Control Method for Islanded Microgrids
by Zhi Zhang, Sheng Gao, Caomao Zhong and Zhaoyun Zhang
Sensors 2023, 23(14), 6269; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23146269 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 978
Abstract
When multiple paralleled distributed generation (DG) units operate in an islanded microgrid, accurate power sharing of each DG unit cannot be achieved with a conventional droop control strategy due to mismatched feeder impedance. In this paper, a small AC signal (SACS)-injection-based modified droop [...] Read more.
When multiple paralleled distributed generation (DG) units operate in an islanded microgrid, accurate power sharing of each DG unit cannot be achieved with a conventional droop control strategy due to mismatched feeder impedance. In this paper, a small AC signal (SACS)-injection-based modified droop control method is presented for accurate active and reactive power sharing among DG units. The proposed control method adjusts the voltage amplitude of each DG unit by injecting small AC signals to form a reactive power control loop. This strategy does not need communication links or to specifically obtain the physical parameter of the feeder impedance and only requires the local information. Moreover, the parameter design procedure and stability analysis are given full consideration. Finally, simulation and experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, and accurate active and reactive power sharing can be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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23 pages, 5975 KiB  
Article
Mars One-Year Mission Craft
by Claudio Bruno, Antonella Ingenito and Domenico Simone
Aerospace 2023, 10(7), 610; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10070610 - 30 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1142
Abstract
A human Mars mission is more challenging to astronauts than the Apollo mission because of travel time, life support requirements, and the space environment. Although plans for Mars exploration by NASA and SpaceX based on conventional rockets have been presented, there are considerations [...] Read more.
A human Mars mission is more challenging to astronauts than the Apollo mission because of travel time, life support requirements, and the space environment. Although plans for Mars exploration by NASA and SpaceX based on conventional rockets have been presented, there are considerations that suggest alternatives for the mid- or long-term. The purpose of this paper is to outline a fast mission enabled by advanced (nuclear) propulsion and by internationally shared technology. Whether the destination is the Mars surface or Phobos, for a chemical powered spacecraft, the round trip takes about 990 days, including a 480-day surface stay, compared to only 370 days, including a 41-day surface stay, for the nuclear-powered spacecraft assumed here. Since nuclear propulsion can provide higher speed than chemical, the radiation dose can be drastically reduced. The logistics of such a mission involve one or more cargo craft that must precede the astronauts. Ballistic entry into Mars’ atmosphere depends on accurate knowledge of its features, to date poorly known, that may result in uncertainty in landing coordinates. For a single vehicle, this is not critical, but for a human crew ballistic landing kilometers away from cargo is unacceptable: walking for anything but the shortest distance cannot be afforded with current space suits. In this context, the concept of a modest L/D maneuvering cargo glider based on the past Russian “Kliper” is recommended and developed to ensure landing within a hundred meters of each spacecraft. The crewed lander vehicle is based on the high L/D, inherently stable USAF FDL-7C/D hypersonic glider experience. In a similar approach, an exploration vehicle powered by in situ manufactured CO2 and silane is described that can explore the Martian surface much faster and efficiently than with rovers or rocket-powered ‘hoppers’. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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20 pages, 910 KiB  
Article
Reducing Energy Consumption and CO2 Emissions in Natural Gas Preheating Stations Using Vortex Tubes
by Jaime Guerrero, Antonio Alcaide-Moreno, Ana González-Espinosa, Roberto Arévalo, Lev Tunkel, María Dolores Storch de Gracia and Eduardo García-Rosales
Energies 2023, 16(13), 4840; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16134840 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
This work proposes an innovative method for adjusting the natural gas from the grid to the consumer pipeline requirements in a full-scale pressure reduction station. The use of two counterflow vortex tubes instead of the traditional boiler to preheat the gas before throttling [...] Read more.
This work proposes an innovative method for adjusting the natural gas from the grid to the consumer pipeline requirements in a full-scale pressure reduction station. The use of two counterflow vortex tubes instead of the traditional boiler to preheat the gas before throttling is demonstrated as a powerful alternative. Thus, a reduction of fossil fuel consumption is reached, which amounts to 7.1% less CO2 emitted. To ensure the optimal configuration, the vortex tube was thoroughly characterized in laboratory facilities using nitrogen as the working fluid. Various operating conditions were tested to determine the most efficient setup. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted with nitrogen to validate the behavior of the vortex tube. Subsequently, the working fluid was switched to methane to assess the performance differences between the two gases. Finally, the vortex tubes were deployed at a full-scale installation and tested under real consumption demand. The results obtained from this study offer promising insights into the practical implementation of the proposed method for adjusting the natural gas flow, highlighting its potential for reducing fossil fuel consumption and minimizing CO2 emissions. Further improvements and refinements can be made based on these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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16 pages, 13843 KiB  
Article
Two-Phase Flow Visualization and Heat Transfer Characteristics Analysis in Ultra-Long Gravity Heat Pipe
by Feng Li, Juanwen Chen, Jiwen Cen, Wenbo Huang, Zhibin Li, Qingshan Ma and Fangming Jiang
Energies 2023, 16(12), 4709; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16124709 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1407
Abstract
The ultra-long gravity heat pipe has a long heat transfer distance and narrow working fluid flow channel within its tube. Due to these unique design features, the vapor–liquid counter-flow and heat transfer characteristics of these heat pipes are more complex than those found [...] Read more.
The ultra-long gravity heat pipe has a long heat transfer distance and narrow working fluid flow channel within its tube. Due to these unique design features, the vapor–liquid counter-flow and heat transfer characteristics of these heat pipes are more complex than those found in conventional-size heat pipes. This paper innovatively proposes the design of a segmented visualization window structure of an ultra-long gravity heat pipe, which successfully overcomes the challenge of visualizing the internal flow during operations. A visualization experimental platform, measuring 40 m in height with an inner diameter of 7 mm and the aspect ratio up to 5714, was built to investigate the evolving characteristics of two-phase flows with an increasing heat input and the impact of the phase change flow characteristics on the thermal performance of ultra-long gravity heat pipes. The results obtained can provide guidance for the development of the internal structure of ultra-long gravity heat pipes that are being applied in exploiting geothermal energy. The results show that, at low heat input (200 W, 250 W), there are separate flow paths between the condensate return and the steam, but the high hydrostatic pressure due to the height of the liquid injection results in the presence of an unsaturated working fluid with a higher temperature in the liquid pool area, which has a lower evaporation rate, limiting the heat transfer through the heat pipe. It is found that if increasing the heat input up to 300 W, the evaporative phase change in the heating section becomes intense and stable. At the same time, despite the intermittent formation of liquid columns in the adiabatic section due to the vapor–liquid rolls, which increases the resistance to the vapor–liquid counter-flow, the liquid columns are blocked for a short period of time, and the path of steam rises and the condensate return is smooth, which does not seriously affect the steam condensation and liquid return evaporation. At this point, the overall temperature of the heat pipe is evenly distributed along the tube and the heat transfer performance is optimal. When the heat input further increases (350 W, 400 W), a large amount of condensate is trapped in the upper part of the adiabatic section and the condensing section by long liquid plugs for a long time. At this point, the condensate flow back to the heating section is significantly reduced, and the steam is seriously prevented from entering the condensation section, resulting in a significant increase in the temperature gradient between the lower part of the evaporating section and the upper part of the adiabatic section and deterioration of the heat transfer performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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16 pages, 5238 KiB  
Article
Buckling Analysis and Structure Improvement for the Afterburner Cylinder of an Aero-Engine
by Xiaoxia Zheng, Yu Zou, Bohan He, Jixin Xiang, Zhiqiang Li and Qiao Yang
Aerospace 2023, 10(5), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/aerospace10050484 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 955
Abstract
The buckling failure of the afterburner cylinder is a serious safety concern for aero-engines. To tackle this issue, the buckling simulation analysis of the afterburner cylinder was carried out by using finite element method (FEM) software to obtain the buckling mode and critical [...] Read more.
The buckling failure of the afterburner cylinder is a serious safety concern for aero-engines. To tackle this issue, the buckling simulation analysis of the afterburner cylinder was carried out by using finite element method (FEM) software to obtain the buckling mode and critical buckling loads. It was found that the afterburner cylinder was susceptible to buckling when subjected to differential pressure or the compressive force of the rear flange. Buckling would occur when the differential pressure reached 0.4 times the atmospheric pressure or when the axial compressive force on the rear flange reached 222.8 kN. Buckling was also found at the front of the cylinder under the auxiliary mount load. Additionally, under various loads on the rear flange, buckling occurred in the rear section, with the buckling mode being closely related to the load characteristics. Based on the simulation results and structural design requirements, two structural improvements were proposed, including the wall-thickening scheme and the grid reinforcement scheme. FEM simulation analysis results showed that both schemes would improve the rigidity and stability of the afterburner cylinder. For the 0.3 mm increase in the wall thickness scheme, the critical buckling load increased by 17.86% to 66.4%; for the grid reinforcement scheme, the critical buckling load increased by 169% to 619%. Therefore, the grid reinforcement scheme had a stronger anti-buckling ability and was deemed the optimal solution. The findings of this paper could provide technical support for the structural design of large-sized and thin-walled components of aero-engines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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37 pages, 14217 KiB  
Article
An Overall Linearized Modeling Method and Associated Delay Time Model for the PV System
by Xianping Zhu, Shaowu Li and Jingxun Fan
Energies 2023, 16(10), 4202; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16104202 - 19 May 2023
Viewed by 728
Abstract
There are some significant nonlinearity and delay issues in photovoltaic (PV) system circuits. Therefore, it is very difficult for the existing classic linear control theories to be used in PV systems; this hinders the design of the optimal energy dispatch by considering real-time [...] Read more.
There are some significant nonlinearity and delay issues in photovoltaic (PV) system circuits. Therefore, it is very difficult for the existing classic linear control theories to be used in PV systems; this hinders the design of the optimal energy dispatch by considering real-time generation power forecasting methods. To solve this problem, an overall linearized model with variable weather parameters (OLM-VWP) of the PV system is proposed on the basis of small-signal modeling. Meanwhile, a corresponding simplified overall linearized model with variable weather parameters (SOLM-VWP) is presented. The SOLM-VWP avoids analyzing delay characteristics of the complex high-order PV system. Moreover, it can reduce hardware cost and computation time, which makes analysis of the transient performance index of the PV system more convenient. In addition, on the basis of the OLM-VWP and SOLM-VWP, a delay-time model with variable weather parameters (DTM-VWP) of the PV system is also proposed. The delay time of the system can be accurately calculated using the DTM-VWP, and it provides a preliminary theoretical basis for carrying out real-time energy scheduling of the PV system. Finally, simulations are implemented using the MATLAB tool, and experiments are conducted. The results verify that the proposed linearization model of the PV system is accurate and reasonable under varying irradiance and temperature conditions. Meanwhile, the results also verify that the proposed SOLM-VWP and DTM-VWP of the PV system are feasible. Additionally, the results show that some transient performance indexes (delay time, rise time, settling time, and peak time) can be solved by means of equations when the circuit parameters and real-time weather parameters are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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14 pages, 6039 KiB  
Article
Application of Magnetic Adaptive Testing for Nondestructive Investigation of 2507 Duplex Stainless Steel
by Gábor Vértesy, István Mészáros and Bálint Bögre
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3702; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073702 - 03 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
Duplex stainless steels are two-phase alloys, which contain ferritic and austenitic phases in their microstructure. Their duplex structure provides exceptional resistance to pitting and chloride stress corrosion cracking, and their strength is about twice that of austenitic stainless steels. Due to their good [...] Read more.
Duplex stainless steels are two-phase alloys, which contain ferritic and austenitic phases in their microstructure. Their duplex structure provides exceptional resistance to pitting and chloride stress corrosion cracking, and their strength is about twice that of austenitic stainless steels. Due to their good properties, they are widely used in chemical and petrochemical industries as a base material in pressure vessels, pipelines and containers. Duplex stainless steel samples were nondestructively investigated by measuring sets of magnetic minor hysteresis loops using the method called magnetic adaptive testing (MAT). Several series of heat-treated and cold-rolled 2507 duplex stainless steels were measured, and the magnetic parameters were compared with the results of the DC magnetometry of the samples. It was found that the changes in the material properties that were generated by heat treatment and mechanical deformation could easily be followed by magnetic measurements. In contrast to DC magnetic measurements, good correlation was found with the magnetic parameters determined by MAT method and Vickers hardness. Based on our experiments, MAT seems to be a powerful tool for the nondestructive characterization of duplex stainless steels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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16 pages, 3826 KiB  
Article
DiffNILM: A Novel Framework for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring Based on the Conditional Diffusion Model
by Ruichen Sun, Kun Dong and Jianfeng Zhao
Sensors 2023, 23(7), 3540; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23073540 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2393
Abstract
Non-intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a critical technology that enables detailed analysis of household energy consumption without requiring individual metering of every appliance, and has the capability to provide valuable insights into energy usage behavior, facilitate energy conservation, and optimize load management. Currently, [...] Read more.
Non-intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a critical technology that enables detailed analysis of household energy consumption without requiring individual metering of every appliance, and has the capability to provide valuable insights into energy usage behavior, facilitate energy conservation, and optimize load management. Currently, deep learning models have been widely adopted as state-of-the-art approaches for NILM. In this study, we introduce DiffNILM, a novel energy disaggregation framework that utilizes diffusion probabilistic models to distinguish power consumption patterns of individual appliances from aggregated power. Starting from a random Gaussian noise, the target waveform is iteratively reconstructed via a sampler conditioned on the total active power and encoded temporal features. The proposed method is evaluated on two public datasets, REDD and UKDALE. The results demonstrated that DiffNILM outperforms baseline models on several key metrics on both datasets and shows a remarkable ability to effectively recreate complex load signatures. The study highlights the potential of diffusion models to advance the field of NILM and presents a promising approach for future energy disaggregation research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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16 pages, 2429 KiB  
Article
Fault Detection and Classification of CIGS Thin-Film PV Modules Using an Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Scheme
by Reham A. Eltuhamy, Mohamed Rady, Eydhah Almatrafi, Haitham A. Mahmoud and Khaled H. Ibrahim
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1280; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031280 - 22 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2135
Abstract
The use of artificial intelligence to automate PV module fault detection, diagnosis, and classification processes has gained interest for PV solar plants maintenance planning and reduction in expensive inspection and shutdown periods. The present article reports on the development of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy [...] Read more.
The use of artificial intelligence to automate PV module fault detection, diagnosis, and classification processes has gained interest for PV solar plants maintenance planning and reduction in expensive inspection and shutdown periods. The present article reports on the development of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for PV fault classification based on statistical and mathematical features extracted from outdoor infrared thermography (IRT) and I-V measurements of thin-film PV modules. The selection of the membership function is shown to be essential to obtain a high classifier performance. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensions to speed up the classification process. For each type of fault, effective features that are highly correlated to the PV module’s operating power ratio are identified. Evaluation of the proposed methodology, based on datasets gathered from a typical PV plant, reveals that features extraction methods based on mathematical parameters and I-V measurements provide a 100% classification accuracy. On the other hand, features extraction based on statistical factors provides 83.33% accuracy. A novel technique is proposed for developing a correlation matrix between the PV operating power ratio and the effective features extracted online from infrared thermal images. This eliminates the need for offline I-V measurements to estimate the operating power ratio of PV modules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Technologies and Methods in the Energy System)
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