Topic Editors

Institute of Dentistry, Oral Bioengineering, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK
Dr. Luciana Fávaro Francisconi-dos-Rios
Department of Operative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Clinical and Experimental Research in Dentistry and Bioactive Materials

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
31 March 2024
Viewed by
10672

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

We invite researchers with an expertise in dentistry to contribute to this Special Issue entitled “Clinical and Experimental Research in Dentistry”, with an emphasis on bioactive materials. Innovations in both dental materials and techniques are dynamic in nature, partly driven by various challenges over the last 30 years—for example, environmental issues impacting the clinical use of amalgam restoration, consumer demand for improved aesthetics, and the need for improvements in the materials to prevent marginal leakage, secondary caries and wear in the composite resin restorations, as well as enabling these materials to be bioactive in nature. The development of these products as well as varnishes, glass ionomer cements, fluoride-containing glasses, ACP-CCP, functional tricalcium phosphate, silver diamine fluoride (SDF), resin infiltration and self-assembling proteins, etc., for the treatment of early carious lesions and tooth sensitivity has been a challenge both for manufactures and researchers, and there is a requirement to perform well-designed clinical trials to evaluate these products once they have been successfully evaluated in the laboratory to establish their effectiveness in terms of durability and fluoride release at sustainable levels. The aim of this Special Issue is to review the innovations (including laboratory techniques) for the evaluation and treatment of early carious lesions (remineralization and/or resin infiltration), secondary caries and tooth sensitivity in general as well, as well as including papers that evaluate the bioactivity of these products in both the laboratory and clinical environments.

Dr. David Gillam
Dr. Luciana Fávaro Francisconi-dos-Rios
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • dental materials
  • composite resin restorations
  • innovations in fluoride-releasing materials
  • bioactivity
  • clinical and laboratory evaluations
  • management of early carious lesions (remineralization and/or resin infiltration)
  • marginal leakage (secondary caries)
  • tooth sensitivity

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Dentistry Journal
dentistry
2.6 4.0 2013 27.8 Days CHF 2000 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.4 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Materials
materials
3.4 5.2 2008 13.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Medicina
medicina
2.6 3.6 1920 19.6 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Journal of Functional Biomaterials
jfb
4.8 5.0 2010 13.3 Days CHF 2700 Submit

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Published Papers (9 papers)

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10 pages, 1899 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Gravity on Marginal Integrity of Different Flowable Bulk-Fill Resin Composites
Medicina 2024, 60(3), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina60030396 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 258
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aim of this quantitative research was to investigate the effect of gravitational forces on the marginal integrity of different bulk-fill composites by micro-CT imaging. Materials and Methods: Fifty caries-free human third molars extracted for prophylactic purposes were [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aim of this quantitative research was to investigate the effect of gravitational forces on the marginal integrity of different bulk-fill composites by micro-CT imaging. Materials and Methods: Fifty caries-free human third molars extracted for prophylactic purposes were used in this study. Each tooth was prepared with two proximal box cavities, with dimensions of 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm. Five distinct groups, each comprising 20 cavities, thus totaling 100 cavities for this study: (1, Group CON): Clearfil Majesty Flow + Clearfil Majesty Esthetic (as the control); (2, Group FBR): Filtek Bulk-fill Flowable Restorative + Clearfil Majesty Esthetic; (3, Group XTB): Voco Extrabase + Clearfil Majesty Esthetic; (4, Group SDR): SDR + Clearfil Majesty Esthetic; and (5, Group SNC): Sonicfill. When restoring the mesial cavities, the occlusal surfaces of the teeth in the mold were positioned upwards, counteracting the force of gravity. In contrast, for the restoration of the distal cavities, the occlusal surfaces were aligned downwards, to be parallel with the gravitational pull. After restorative procedures, each tooth was treated with 5000 thermal cycles. A solution of ammoniacal silver nitrate (AgNO3) was employed as a tracing agent. The micro-CT scans were conducted and the total volume of silver nitrate and the total volume of restorations within the relevant region of interest were calculated in “mm3” with software. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were performed at a significance level of p = 0.05 with Graphpad Prism v 8.2.1 software. Results: Both gravity effect and interaction showed no statistical differences (p > 0.05). Statistically significant differences were observed in the restorative materials (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Gravitational forces do not emerge as a major factor affecting the marginal integrity of flowable bulk-fill composites in class II restorations. The chemical composition of the composites plays a more crucial role, with the XTB composite showing higher microleakage ratios compared to the others. Full article
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11 pages, 3705 KiB  
Article
Study on Osseointegration Capability of β-Type Ti–Nb–Zr–Ta–Si Alloy for Orthopedic Implants
Materials 2024, 17(2), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17020472 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 477
Abstract
Osseointegration is the basic condition for orthopedic implants to maintain long-term stability. In order to achieve osseointegration, a low elastic modulus is the most important performance indicator. It is difficult for traditional titanium alloys to meet this requirement. A novel β-titanium alloy (Ti–35Nb–7Zr–5Ta) [...] Read more.
Osseointegration is the basic condition for orthopedic implants to maintain long-term stability. In order to achieve osseointegration, a low elastic modulus is the most important performance indicator. It is difficult for traditional titanium alloys to meet this requirement. A novel β-titanium alloy (Ti–35Nb–7Zr–5Ta)98Si2 was designed, which had excellent strength (a yield strength of 1296 MPa and a breaking strength 3263 MPa), an extremely low elastic modulus (37 GPa), and did not contain toxic elements. In previous in vitro studies, we confirmed the good biocompatibility of this alloy and similar bioactivity to Ti-6Al-4V, but no in vivo study was performed. In this study, Ti-6Al-4V and (Ti–35Nb–7Zr–5Ta)98Si2 were implanted into rabbit femurs. Imaging evaluation and histological morphology were performed, and the bonding strength and bone contact ratio of the two alloys were measured and compared. The results showed that both alloys remained in their original positions 3 months after implantation, and neither imaging nor histological observations found inflammatory reactions in the surrounding bone. The bone–implant contact ratio and bonding strength of (Ti–35Nb–7Zr–5Ta)98Si2 were significantly higher than those of Ti-6Al-4V. The results confirmed that (Ti–35Nb–7Zr–5Ta)98Si2 has a better osseointegration ability than Ti-6Al-4V and is a promising material for orthopedic implants. Full article
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13 pages, 1115 KiB  
Article
Obesity Is Associated with a Weakened Gingival Inflammatory Cytokine Response
Medicina 2023, 59(12), 2089; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59122089 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Background and Objectives: An obesity-related elevated body mass index (BMI) across life is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in blood. CRP is a marker and promoter of inflammation. The objectives of this study were to [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: An obesity-related elevated body mass index (BMI) across life is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in blood. CRP is a marker and promoter of inflammation. The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of obesity on the relationship between peripheral and gingival CRP levels and to examine the effects of gingival CRP levels on gingival fluid inflammatory cytokines in periodontitis-resistant obese individuals. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine participants in good periodontal health were recruited. Twenty patients were classified as lean and nineteen as obese based on their BMI levels. A thorough periodontal assessment was carried out. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and blood samples were collected. Both GCF and blood samples were analyzed for interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), and CRP. Results: GCF CRP levels were significantly higher in the obese than in the lean individuals. No statistically significant differences were noted between the two groups in either GCF or blood in terms of any of the inflammatory cytokine levels. IL-17A was not detected in the GCF of most subjects in both groups. GCF CRP levels were positively associated with blood CRP levels, and the association tended to be stronger in the obese individuals. GCF CRP showed no associations with GCF IL-10 in both groups. Although GCF CRP levels were positively associated with multiple GCF inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) in all subjects, the associations tended to be weaker in the obese individuals (e.g., IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α). Furthermore, the levels of the GCF inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α were decreased in the obese individuals. Conclusions: Obesity unfavorably influences the relationship between blood and GCF CRP levels and promotes increased CRP levels in GCF. Collectively, the findings suggest a weakened inflammatory cytokine response in the gingival tissues of obese individuals. Full article
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11 pages, 1147 KiB  
Article
Sugar Substitute Stevia Inhibits Biofilm Formation, Exopolysaccharide Production, and Downregulates the Expression of Streptococcal Genes Involved in Exopolysaccharide Synthesis
Dent. J. 2023, 11(12), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11120267 - 23 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Background: Acid production by sucrose fermentation disturbs the balance in dental plaque by lowering the oral pH. As a consequence of the profound effect of sucrose on caries initiation and progression, many studies have been directed towards finding non-cariogenic artificial sweeteners that can [...] Read more.
Background: Acid production by sucrose fermentation disturbs the balance in dental plaque by lowering the oral pH. As a consequence of the profound effect of sucrose on caries initiation and progression, many studies have been directed towards finding non-cariogenic artificial sweeteners that can be used as a substitute to sucrose. Existing literature shows that dietary sucrose upregulates the expression of biofilm associated genes involved in exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of the sugar substitute stevia on biofilm formation, EPS secretion, and streptococcal genes encoding glucan-binding proteins (Gbps) and glucosyltransferases (Gtfs), which are essential for the synthesis of EPS. Materials and Methods: Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus gordonii were grown as biofilm cultures with or without stevia and sucrose. Biomass was quantified for biofilm and EPS production by crystal violet staining and the phenol–sulfuric acid method, respectively. Expression of gtfB and gbpB genes was studied by RT-PCR. Results: The quantities of biofilm were significantly lower when grown in the presence of stevia compared to sucrose in both species (p < 0.05). The proportion of EPS in the biofilm pellet decreased with increasing concentrations of stevia in both species but remained nearly unchanged with sucrose with respect to the control. In both streptococcal species, exposure of stevia decreased the expression of gtfB and gbpB genes compared to sucrose (p < 0.05). In comparison to the untreated control, the expression was decreased in the presence of stevia in both species, while it increased 2.5- to 4-fold in S. mutans and 1.5- to 2.5-fold in S. gordonii in the presence of sucrose. Conclusion: The ability of stevia to inhibit biofilm formation, reduce EPS production, and downregulate the expression of gtfB and gbpB genes in S. mutans and S. gordonii may have potential therapeutic applications in controlling dental plaques and caries. Full article
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12 pages, 10520 KiB  
Article
Retrospective Clinical Evaluation of RMGIC/GIC Class V Restorations
Dent. J. 2023, 11(9), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj11090225 - 20 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1873
Abstract
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical performance of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) materials in Class V carious cervical lesions restored by dental students. Ninety-six (96) restorations performed with either GIC (Fuji IX) (n = [...] Read more.
The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical performance of glass-ionomer cement (GIC) and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) materials in Class V carious cervical lesions restored by dental students. Ninety-six (96) restorations performed with either GIC (Fuji IX) (n = 39) or RMGIC (Fuji II LC) (n = 57) were evaluated using the modified USPHS criteria by two independent investigators at two follow-up evaluations (two years apart). The Fisher statistical test was used to compare USPHS criteria and examine significant differences, with a significance level set at p < 0.05. The Kaplan-Meier algorithm was used to calculate the survival probability. The overall success rate of Class V restorations was 72.9% at the second follow-up evaluation, with restorations ranging in age from 2.5 to 3.5 years. The RMGIC (Fuji II LC) restorations exhibited a significantly higher overall success rate compared to the GIC (Fuji IX) restorations (p = 0.0104). Significant differences were observed in retention (p = 0.0034) and color match (p = 0.0023). Full article
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18 pages, 4186 KiB  
Article
Effect of Er:YAG Laser Exposure on the Amorphous Smear Layer in the Marginal Zone of the Osteotomy Site for Placement of Dental Screw Implants: A Histomorphological Study
J. Funct. Biomater. 2023, 14(7), 376; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb14070376 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1329
Abstract
The placement of dental screw implants typically involves the use of rotary techniques and drills to create a bone bed. This study explores the potential benefits of combining this method with an Er:YAG laser. Split osteotomies were performed on 10 jaws of euthanized [...] Read more.
The placement of dental screw implants typically involves the use of rotary techniques and drills to create a bone bed. This study explores the potential benefits of combining this method with an Er:YAG laser. Split osteotomies were performed on 10 jaws of euthanized domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domestica), with 12 mandibular implant osteotomies in each jaw, divided into 4 groups. In order to make a comprehensive assessment of the effect of Er:YAG lasers, histomorphological techniques were used to measure the reduction in amorphous layer thickness after Er:YAG laser treatment, both with and without the placement of dental screw implants from different manufacturers. Following bone decalcification and staining, the thickness of the amorphous layer was measured in four groups: Group A—osteotomy performed without Er:YAG laser treatment—had amorphous layer thicknesses ranging from 21.813 to 222.13 µm; Group B—osteotomy performed with Er:YAG laser treatment—had amorphous layer thicknesses ranging from 6.08 to 64.64 µm; Group C—an implant placed in the bone without laser treatment—had amorphous layer thicknesses of 5.90 to 54.52 µm; and Group D—an implant placed after bone treatment with Er:YAG laser—had amorphous layer thicknesses of 1.29 to 7.98 µm. The examination and photomicrodocumentation was performed using a LEICA DM1000 LED microscope (Germany) and LAS V 4.8 software (Leica Application Suite V4, Leica Microsystems, Germany). When comparing group A to group B and group C to D, statistically significant differences were indicated (p-value = 0.000, p < 0.05). The study demonstrates the synergistic effects and the possibility of integrating lasers into the conventional implantation protocol. By applying our own method of biomodification, the smear layer formed during rotary osteotomy can be reduced using Er:YAG lasers. This reduction leads to a narrower peri-implant space and improved bone-to-implant contact, facilitating accelerated osseointegration. Full article
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11 pages, 1193 KiB  
Article
Efficacy of a New Hemostatic Dental Sponge in Controlling Bleeding, Pain, and Dry Socket Following Mandibular Posterior Teeth Extraction—A Split-Mouth Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(14), 4578; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12144578 - 10 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Aims: This study aimed to clinically evaluate of a novel gelatin-based biodegradable sponge after mandibular posterior teeth extraction to assess its abilities in controlling bleeding, pain, and dry socket compared a commercial sponge. Trial design: In this study, 26 patients who needed the [...] Read more.
Aims: This study aimed to clinically evaluate of a novel gelatin-based biodegradable sponge after mandibular posterior teeth extraction to assess its abilities in controlling bleeding, pain, and dry socket compared a commercial sponge. Trial design: In this study, 26 patients who needed the extraction of two mandibular molar teeth were selected and, in each patient, after tooth extraction, the prepared gelatin sponge was used in the test group and the commercial sponge was used in the control group in the form of a randomized, double-blind, split-mouth clinical trial. The sterile gauzes were used on top of each sponge to absorb the extra blood (unabsorbed blood of sponges) to assess the blood absorption amount. Also, the amount of bleeding was recorded for 1 and 4 h after extraction for two groups. The amount of pain was measured for 12, 24, and 48 h after tooth extraction by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). All patients also returned for examination four days after extraction to assess the occurrence of dry socket. Results: The results showed that the average weight of absorbed blood by sterile gauze in the control group (6.32 ± 1.06 g) was higher than in test group (3.97 ± 1.1 g), e.g., the bleeding control was better for the test group (p < 0.05). Bleeding was observed to be significantly reduced in the test group within 1 h (p = 0.003), within 1–4 h (p = 0.002), and after 4 h (p = 0.042) post-operatively in comparison to the control group. The average pain decreased significantly over time in both groups and the reduction of the pain was significantly higher for the test group (p < 0.05). Just one dry socket case occurred in the control group. Conclusion: The prepared sponge is recommended for use in dental surgeries because of its abilities in bleeding, pain, and dry socket control. Full article
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13 pages, 6636 KiB  
Article
Comparative Investigation of Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Platelet-Rich Fibrin after Mandibular Wisdom Tooth Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Study
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(13), 4250; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12134250 - 25 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 964
Abstract
This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) applied to the extraction socket after impacted mandibular third molar surgery with subjective and objective parameters. Forty-eight patients with impacted wisdom teeth in bilateral and similar positions were included in the study. The [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) applied to the extraction socket after impacted mandibular third molar surgery with subjective and objective parameters. Forty-eight patients with impacted wisdom teeth in bilateral and similar positions were included in the study. The control group was formed with the standard surgery and the PRF group was formed with local PRF application in addition to standard procedure (n = 96). The anti-inflammatory activity of PRF on postoperative 2nd and 7th days was evaluated subjectively by clinical parameters and objectively by biochemical parameters. Postoperative 2nd- and 7th-day follow-up data of pain, edema, and trismus in the PRF group were found to be statistically significantly lower. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were found to be statistically significantly lower in the PRF group than the control in the postoperative 2nd-day follow-up period (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) parameters when the PRF group and the control group were compared in both follow-up periods (p > 0.05). The study has demonstrated the effectiveness of locally applied PRF after ITM surgery via clinical parameters and objective data. The quantitative analysis of CRP and ERS can be an effective parameter in determining the amount of inflammation after ITM surgery. Full article
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13 pages, 5012 KiB  
Article
Using Femtosecond Laser Light-Activated Materials: The Biomimetic Dentin Remineralization Was Monitored by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
Medicina 2023, 59(3), 591; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59030591 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of the antimicrobial agents Moringa oleifera and bioactive glass nanoparticles activated by femtosecond laser light on the biomimetic dentin remineralization using teeth having carious dentin ICDAS code 3. Methods [...] Read more.
Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of the antimicrobial agents Moringa oleifera and bioactive glass nanoparticles activated by femtosecond laser light on the biomimetic dentin remineralization using teeth having carious dentin ICDAS code 3. Methods and Materials: A total of 27 dentin surface samples were divided into three groups: the first group was treated with a Moringa oleifera extract, while the second group was treated with bioactive glass nanoparticles, and as for the control group, the third group received no additional agent. All groups were subjected to femtosecond laser light at three different wavelengths: 390 nm, 445 nm, and 780 nm. The photoactivation of each sample was achieved using the femtosecond laser light for 5 min with an average power rating of 300 mW, a pulse duration of 100 fs, and a pulse repetition rate of 80 Hz. The mineral content of the samples was obtained and analyzed using the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The LIBS analysis was conducted with the following laser light parameters: average power of ~215 mW, wavelength of 532 nm, pulse duration of 10 ns, and a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. Results: Most studied samples exhibited a relative increase in the mineral content that may enhance biomimetic remineralization. Moringa oleifera photoactivated by femtosecond laser light at 445 nm achieved a significant increase in mineral content. Conclusion: Using the femtosecond laser light to activate the relatively cheap and commercially available antimicrobial agent Moringa oleifera supports the strategy of minimal invasive approaches for the treatment and biomimetic remineralization of carious dentin ICDAS code 3. Full article
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