Environmental Hydrogeology and Groundwater Modelling

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 December 2023) | Viewed by 5841

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Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu, India
Interests: hydrogeology; environmental hydrogeology; hydrogeochemistry; groundwater modelling
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The field of environmental hydrogeology has been rapidly advancing over the last three decades. The environmental aspects of hydrogeology are at the forefront due to continued degradation of groundwater quality by several geogenic and anthropogenic causes. The continued overuse of groundwater and degradation of its quality threatens sustainable management. Adding to the existing woes is climate change, wherein its impact on water quality and groundwater environment is now being looked into by researchers. Further, newer and newer contaminants are being reported; hence, it is important to understand the fate and transport of the emerging contaminants in the porous media. Advanced subsurface investigation methods to characterize aquifer geometry have become an indispensable tool to plan for contaminant remediation, capture zone analysis, dewatering strategies and other environmental hydrogeological problems. The contaminant transport and remediation technologies require groundwater modelling for proper planning and efficient clean-up operations. The environmental issues affect society and economics and the solutions could be possible only through thorough investigation and modelling. Realising these emerging issues on environmental hydrogeology, this Special Issue was planned. 

The aim of this Special Issue is to bring together the research work on advances in subsurface characterization, groundwater contamination, impact of climate change in groundwater resources, water quality, emerging contaminants and modelling related to environmental hydrogeology, mining and hydrogeology. The Issue will focus on (i) advanced newer techniques of subsurface characterisation, (ii) identify new techniques in groundwater contamination and remediation, (iii) make groundwater resources more sustainable and (iv) develop and suggest modelling tools for accurate prediction of flow and transport for efficient management. This Special Issue is, therefore, open to experimental, analytical, algorithm, theoretical, numerical studies, field work and case studies. This special will cover the following research themes:

  • new tools and techniques in aquifer characterization;
  • groundwater contamination and transport of solutes;
  • organic and inorganic contamination;
  • transport of virus and microbes;
  • climate change and groundwater quality;
  • AI and ML in environmental hydrogeology;
  • groundwater modelling and uncertainty analysis.

Prof. Dr. Elango Lakshmanan
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • groundwater
  • water quality
  • contamination
  • flow and transport
  • emerging contaminants
  • remediation
  • bacteria and virus
  • modelling
  • AI and ML
  • uncertainty

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

23 pages, 9318 KiB  
Article
Geophysical Investigation, Quality, and Sustainability Analysis of Groundwater in Mewat (Nuh) District, Haryana, India
by Amandeep Kaur and Gopal Krishan
Water 2024, 16(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16010038 - 21 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1148
Abstract
This study utilizes geophysical investigations, combining both surface and subsurface methods, assessing quality and mapping aquifers in Haryana’s Mewat district, India. The primary objectives are to delineate the interface between freshwater and saline water, both horizontally and vertically and to perform a quality [...] Read more.
This study utilizes geophysical investigations, combining both surface and subsurface methods, assessing quality and mapping aquifers in Haryana’s Mewat district, India. The primary objectives are to delineate the interface between freshwater and saline water, both horizontally and vertically and to perform a quality and sustainability analysis. It has been observed that topsoil, approximately 12 m thick, has resistivity values ranging from 11 to 35 ohm-m, where higher values indicate lower soil saturation. Resistivity exceeding 15 ohm-m correlates with granular zones housing fresh groundwater, while values below 15 ohm-m signal saline to brackish groundwater. Approximately 55% of the region features saline groundwater, mainly in central, western, and southern areas. Freshwater resources within a depth of 30 m cover 26–30% of the area, mainly in the northwest and southwest parts. Beyond 40 m, freshwater availability drops significantly, with depths exceeding 100 m likely encountering hard rock or saline horizons. This study also highlights low freshwater yield challenges due to thin granular zones and variable bedrock depths, some as shallow as 90 m. Additionally, the research examines infiltration rates, ranging from 90 mm/h to 660 mm/h initially and 5 mm/h to 164 mm/h ultimately, with an average rate of 151 mm/h, highlighting sandy soils with some clay limitations. Utilizing available data, a three-dimensional hydrogeological model was constructed, shedding light on groundwater-related issues, such as depletion, waterlogging, water quality, and excess salinity. Groundwater development reached ~80%, categorized as semi-critical. Depletion affects areas with fresh groundwater, and waterlogging is a concern in central and north-eastern regions. In addition to salinity, other water quality issues are higher nitrate, sodium, and chloride concentrations, leading to salt-affected soils in specific blocks like Nuh and Nagina. In summary, this study offers a comprehensive assessment of groundwater resources in Mewat, Haryana, emphasizing sustainable utilization and tailored management of localized challenges. This underscores the importance of integrated water resource management to ensure prudent use while preserving the environment for future generations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydrogeology and Groundwater Modelling)
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14 pages, 3298 KiB  
Article
Models and Interpretation Methods for Single-Hole Flowmeter Experiments
by Gerard Lods and Delphine Roubinet
Water 2023, 15(16), 2960; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15162960 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Subsurface and groundwater flow characterization is of great importance for various environmental applications, such as the dispersion of contaminants and their remediation. For single-hole flowmeter measurements, key characteristics, such as wellbore storage, skin factor heterogeneities, and variable pumping and aquifer flow rates, have [...] Read more.
Subsurface and groundwater flow characterization is of great importance for various environmental applications, such as the dispersion of contaminants and their remediation. For single-hole flowmeter measurements, key characteristics, such as wellbore storage, skin factor heterogeneities, and variable pumping and aquifer flow rates, have a strong impact on the system characterization, whereas they are not fully considered in existing models and interpretation methods. In this study, we develop a new semi-analytical solution that considers all these characteristics in a physics-based consistent manner. We also present two new interpretation methods, the Double Flowmeter Test with Transient Flow rate (DFTTF) and the Transient Flow rate Flowmeter Test (TFFT), for interpreting data collected during single and multiple pumping tests, respectively. These solution and methods are used as follows. (i) The impact of wellbore storage, transient pumping rate, and property heterogeneities on the interpretation of data collected during single pumping tests are studied over 49 two-aquifer cases. (ii) The effect of the skin factor heterogeneity on transmissivity and storativity estimates, as well as the variability range of the (non-unique) corresponding solutions, are analyzed for the interpretation of multiple-pumping experiments. The results presented in this work show the importance of the various properties and processes that are considered, and the need for the new models and methods that are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydrogeology and Groundwater Modelling)
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20 pages, 7787 KiB  
Article
Comparing Deterministic and Stochastic Methods in Geospatial Analysis of Groundwater Fluoride Concentration
by K. Brindha, Majid Taie Semiromi, Lamine Boumaiza and Subham Mukherjee
Water 2023, 15(9), 1707; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15091707 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1787
Abstract
Dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by consuming high-fluoride groundwater has been reported over several decades globally. Prediction maps to estimate the fluoride contaminated area rely on interpolation methods. This study presents a comparison of the accuracy of nine spatial interpolation methods in predicting [...] Read more.
Dental and skeletal fluorosis caused by consuming high-fluoride groundwater has been reported over several decades globally. Prediction maps to estimate the fluoride contaminated area rely on interpolation methods. This study presents a comparison of the accuracy of nine spatial interpolation methods in predicting the fluoride in groundwater. Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV), hold-out validation and validation with an independent dataset were used to assess the precision of the interpolation methods. This is the first study on fluoride with a large dataset (N = 13,585) applied at the regional level in India. Our findings showed that the inverse distance weighted (IDW) algorithm outperformed other methods in terms of less discrepancy between measured and predicted fluoride. IDW and local polynomial interpolation (LPI) were the only methods to predict contaminated areas (fluoride > 1.5 mg/L). However, the area estimated by the typical assessment of the percentage of unsuitable samples was much higher (6.1%) compared to that estimated by IDW (0.2%) and LPI (0.2%). LOOCV provided viable results than the other two validation methods. Interpolation methods are accompanied with uncertainty which are regulated by the sample size, sample density, sample distribution, minimum and maximum measured concentrations, smoothing and border effects. Drawing a comparison among variegated interpolation methods capturing a wide range of prediction uncertainty is suggested rather than relying on one method exclusively. The high-fluoride areas identified in this study can be used by the Government in planning remediation actions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Hydrogeology and Groundwater Modelling)
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