Application of Integrated Geophysical, Hydrogeological and Geospatial Approach to Groundwater Exploration and Contamination

A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441). This special issue belongs to the section "Hydrogeology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2024) | Viewed by 3921

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Geology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
Interests: near surface geophysics; theoretical modelling and inversion of geophysical data; integrated geophysical research; exploration and environmental geophysics; geospatial techniques

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Guest Editor
Department of Geology, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India
Interests: GIS; spatial analysis; geostatistical modeling; spatial interpolation; health risk assessment; hydrogeochemical characterization; water quality assessment

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Guest Editor
Department of Earth Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Muscat 123, Oman
Interests: theoretical and applied geophysics; mineral and groundwater exploration; processing and interpretation of geophysical data; earthqauke hazard assessment studies

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Guest Editor
Hydraulics and Water Resources Engineering Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036, Tamil Nadu, India
Interests: hydrogeology; environmental hydrogeology; hydrogeochemistry; groundwater modelling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Geology, Presidency University, Kolkata 700073, India
Interests: mining hydrogeology and hydrogeophysics; sustainable aquifer development and management; groundwater movement; pollutant transport pathways; medical geology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is one of the most essential commodities for mankind, and the largest available source of fresh water lies underground. It is a significant natural resource that supports both human needs and economic development. The tremendous increase in agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities in recent years has driven the demand for good quality water to meet the growing needs. Groundwater is mostly preferred because of its lower level of contamination and wider distribution. The occurrence of groundwater is not a matter of chance, but a consequence of the interaction between climatic, geological, hydrological, physiographical, and ecological factors. Groundwater exploration operations are essentially hydrogeological, GIS–Remote Sensing, and geophysical inference operations and are dependent on the correct interpretation of hydrological indicators and evidence.

The present Special Issue represents recent advances in hydrogeology, including the conceptualization of and approaches to simulating groundwater flow and transport, hydrogeological modeling, hydrogeochemistry, isotope hydrology, subsurface contamination, application of GIS and Remote Sensing, and new hydro geophysical approaches. Recently, advancements, benefits, and challenges to hydrogeology and hydrogeophysics have been investigated. Although the title and scope are extensive, there are several sub-themes that connect the chapters. Themes include theoretical advances in the conceptualization and modeling of hydrogeologic problems, the application of different techniques in GIS and remote sensing, geophysics in hydrological modeling, and insights arising from the observations of both field and laboratory work. ​

This is an important Special Issue for researchers of hydrogeology and hydrogeophysics and a valuable reference for practicing geologists, hydrologists, geophysicists, and others who professionally use hydrological and hydrogeophysical modeling. Techniques include hydrological parameters, artificial recharge, hydrogeochemistry, subsurface contamination and remediation, GIS and Remote Sensing, geophysical techniques, and more. Various case studies on the application of hydrogeology and modeling are included in the issue. We encourage submissions in, but not limited to, the following areas:

  • Advances in hydrogeology;
  • Hydrogeophysics and subsurface characterization;
  • Integrated geophysical methods for exploration and contamination;
  • Geochemistry and isotope hydrology;
  • Theoretical development and modeling;
  • Groundwater contamination and remediation;
  • Remote Sensing and GIS in hydrology.

Dr. Arkoprovo Biswas
Dr. Ashwani Raju
Prof. Dr. Narasimman Sundararajan
Prof. Dr. Elango Lakshmanan
Dr. Tapas Acharya
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Water is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • geophysics
  • exploration
  • contamination
  • remediation
  • geochemistry
  • isotopes
  • geostatistical modelling
  • spatial analysis
  • risk assessment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 7932 KiB  
Article
Geochemical Surveys of Ground and Surface Waters in the Abandoned Hg-Mine of Abbadia San Salvatore (Central Italy): A Preparatory Investigation before Remediation
by Federica Meloni, Giordano Montegrossi, Jacopo Cabassi, Francesco Bianchi, Barbara Nisi, Daniele Rappuoli and Orlando Vaselli
Water 2024, 16(9), 1210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16091210 - 24 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Since 2013, 34 surveys of surface and ground waters within and outside the former Hg-mine of Abbadia San Salvatore (Italy), which is currently under remediation, were performed for determining Hg, As, Sb, and main and minor solutes. The water quality is rather poor [...] Read more.
Since 2013, 34 surveys of surface and ground waters within and outside the former Hg-mine of Abbadia San Salvatore (Italy), which is currently under remediation, were performed for determining Hg, As, Sb, and main and minor solutes. The water quality is rather poor since most waters show relatively high Hg concentrations (up to 695 µg/L). Differently, As and Sb only overcome the Italian law thresholds in a few sites. A high geochemical variability was observed for most groundwaters without any clear relationship between wet and dry periods. The main source of chalcophile elements is likely related to: (i) the interaction between meteoric waters and soils contaminated by the previous production of mercury; or (ii) the interaction between meteoric waters and the anthropic filling material of a former paleo-valley near the furnaces edifices. While the remediation is expected to be concluded in 2025, the aquifer contamination still remains a problem. Our investigation, including geochemical/hydrogeological modeling, is prodromal to future activities aimed at reducing the Hg content. Currently, the construction of a hydraulic barrier is apparently the most suitable solution to minimize the interaction processes between water–rock and man-made material, which are responsible for the 10-year concentration variability. Full article
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17 pages, 12451 KiB  
Article
Application of Vertical Electrical Sounding and Toxicity Tests for the Analysis of Vertical Hydraulic Connectivity through the Vadose Zone
by Isaí Gerardo Reyes-Cedeño, Martín Hernández-Marín, Jesús Pacheco-Martínez, Roberto Rico-Martínez, Mario Alberto Arzate-Cárdenas, Anuard Pacheco-Guerrero, Hugo Luna-Villavicencio and Raudel Padilla-Ceniceros
Water 2024, 16(2), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/w16020222 - 9 Jan 2024
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Abstract
In this research, a hydraulic characterization of a 14 km segment of the San Pedro River, flowing through the center of the Aguascalientes Valley, was conducted. More than 50 years of flow measurement records were processed to obtain daily flows during dry and [...] Read more.
In this research, a hydraulic characterization of a 14 km segment of the San Pedro River, flowing through the center of the Aguascalientes Valley, was conducted. More than 50 years of flow measurement records were processed to obtain daily flows during dry and rainy seasons. Through geospatial analysis, areas with hydraulic retention, influenced by the region’s topography and sediment accumulation during the flood season, were identified. Similarly, the digital map of geological surface features revealed that some of these structures spatially coincide with these retention areas. Later, potential hydraulic connectivity between the surface and the aquifer were evaluated in the identified hydraulic stagnation areas (HSAs) using vertical electrical soundings (VESs). Finally, through an experimental process in which water collected from the San Pedro River flowed through a device filled with surface soil taken from the retention areas, the potential retention of pollutants by the local soil was evaluated based on toxicity tests using the monogonont rotifer Lecane papuana. The findings suggest the presence of three hydraulic stagnation areas (HSAs) in the examined section of the river, with one of them intersected by a surface discontinuity. According to the results of the VES, the water table beneath the HSA varies between 70 and 90 m in depth. Further analysis of the vertical electrical sounding (VES) results suggests the presence of vertical hydraulic connectivity between the San Pedro River and the local aquifer in the hydraulic stagnation areas (HSA). This is indicated by the identification of low-resistivity strata associated with highly saturated soil above the water table, as measured in the adjacent pumping wells. Additionally, the experiments involving the device filled with soil showed a reduction in water toxicity (ranging from 12 to 40%) as the San Pedro River water flowed through a 1 m column of local near-surface soil. The results of this experimental work suggest that the soil acts as a natural filter for contaminant transport under conditions in time and space similar to those of the experiment. However, there is still a significant research niche in conducting an experimental campaign in terms of hydrogeochemistry to obtain more specific results. Full article
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20 pages, 8577 KiB  
Article
Hydrogeochemical Characterization of Groundwater at the Boundaries of Three Aquifers in Central México
by Guadalupe Ibarra-Olivares, Raúl Miranda-Avilés, José A. Ramos-Leal, Janete Morán-Ramirez, María Jesús Puy-Alquiza, Yanmei Li, Edgar Ángeles-Moreno and Pooja Kshirsagar
Water 2023, 15(22), 3948; https://doi.org/10.3390/w15223948 - 13 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1170
Abstract
This study investigates the natural hydrogeochemical mechanisms that govern groundwater chemistry at the margins of the Silao-Romita, Valle de León, and La Muralla aquifers in Mexico’s “Bajío Guanajuatense”. The wells of the La Muralla aquifer have temperatures ranging from 25 to 45 °C, [...] Read more.
This study investigates the natural hydrogeochemical mechanisms that govern groundwater chemistry at the margins of the Silao-Romita, Valle de León, and La Muralla aquifers in Mexico’s “Bajío Guanajuatense”. The wells of the La Muralla aquifer have temperatures ranging from 25 to 45 °C, while in the valleys, the temperatures range from 25 to 29 °C. In the Sierra de Guanajuato recharge zone, the thermal spring registers 95 °C. High Na concentrations (125 to 178 mg/L) are measured due to thermalism. One sample includes 316 mg/L of SO4, which is related to a potential gypsum zone. Three hydrogeochemical facies are identified (Ca-Mg HCO3, Na-Ca-HCO3, and Na-HCO3). The hydrogeochemical characterization and processes imply hydraulic linkage via regional thermal flows enhanced by faults and the mixing of local flow waters with intermediate flows. The isotopic results indicate that part of the groundwater volume has been exposed to local evaporation processes due to the presence of surface water bodies and irrigation returns. The highest isotopic enrichment is observed near or in the recharge regions. In contrast, the most depleted zones are in the valleys, where there is a more significant interaction with the rock and a longer residence time, implying a mixture of local water flows with deeper or intermediate flows, which, when combined with water geochemistry, indicates a connection between the aquifers studied. The Kruskal–Wallis variance tests, used to compare the differences between aquifers, show that the Valle de León aquifer has more significant differences with respect to the Silao-Romita and La Muralla aquifers. This study’s findings are essential for one of central Mexico’s most populous and economically active areas. Full article
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