Symmetry in Manufacturing Systems Engineering — Concept and Theory to Improve Design, Process, Quality and Circularity as the Basis for Future Manufacturing Philosophy

A special issue of Symmetry (ISSN 2073-8994). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering and Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2022) | Viewed by 22891

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Engineering & Design, Brunel University, UB8 3PH London, UK
Interests: control; manufacturing; engineering; modelling; simulation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Symmetry is a frequent pattern that is widely studied in a variety of fields. Since the first industrial revolution, engineers and scientists have been studying the symmetry of shapes, components, alignments, etc. in industrial manufacturing systems. With the passage of time, various manufacturing processes have attracted attention and brought to light new applications and perspectives of symmetric manufacturing. For example, in mechanical systems and manufacture, symmetric and synchronized systems are often used to satisfy stability criteria for rotating structures; in electrical and electronics manufacturing, the study of symmetrical component faults is a critical issue; in power systems manufacturing, symmetric circuits and networks are essential to guarantee the same data speed/quantity in forward/backward transmission directions. Over time, we can observe a shift from a microscopic angle of seeking symmetrical component/material structures to a macroscopic angle of seeking symmetrical production processes and treatments (e.g., heating, forming, etching, machining, sintering, casting, fusion, and so forth).

 This Special Issue of Symmetry features original research papers related to any engineering discipline in which theoretical or practical results of symmetry can be applied to manufacturing systems. We are soliciting contributions covering a broad range of topics including but not limited to: 1) structural symmetries in all kinds of manufacturing engineering (e.g., electronic engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, etc.); 2) symmetrical design for manufacture, disassembly, and circular economy processes; 3) geometric modelling, synthesis, and analysis in manufacturing; 4) continuous process and product quality evaluation through geometric modelling; 5) digital twins of symmetrical materials during production processes and treatments; 6) symmetry and topology of complex networks in engineering; 7) symmetry alignment in quality control and design optimization; 8) symmetry in interdisciplinary complex engineering systems (e.g., agricultural, biomedical, graphical modelling, nanotechnology, robotics, etc.). Review articles related to symmetrical engineering are also encouraged.

text

Dr. Alireza Mousavi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Symmetry is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • classification by symmetry;
  • complex networks and graphs;
  • digital twin;
  • geometric modelling and optimization;
  • design and manufacturing process;
  • quality control;
  • circular manufacturing;
  • symmetry groups and reflection groups;
  • symmetry and asymmetry;
  • symmetry and synchronization;
  • symmetry operations;
  • symmetry measures;
  • topological symmetry;
  • symmetry in complex systems

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

26 pages, 121809 KiB  
Article
Methodology for Measuring the Cutting Inserts Wear
by Raluca Daicu and Gheorghe Oancea
Symmetry 2022, 14(3), 469; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14030469 - 25 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4982
Abstract
In the industrial manufacturing, the wear of the cutting tool represents the main factor that causes machine downtime and it has a negative influence over the machined surface roughness and dimensional and position deviations. For this reason, the accurate measurement of tool wear [...] Read more.
In the industrial manufacturing, the wear of the cutting tool represents the main factor that causes machine downtime and it has a negative influence over the machined surface roughness and dimensional and position deviations. For this reason, the accurate measurement of tool wear both on-line (during machining) and off-line (outside of the machining process) is a necessity. Due to the continuous technology innovation, finding new and more effective methods to measure precisely the wear represents a permanent interest for research. In this paper, after a review of recent developed methods in this field, showing the methods of measuring wear and indicating the error sources when measuring the wear of cutting inserts, the necessity to have a unitary methodology for measuring the flank wear is emphasized. Applying it could obtain the same wear-measured values in the same conditions. For this purpose, the measurement errors are determined, and a new methodology for measuring the cutting insert wear is developed. It was tested in the case of six worn cutting inserts used for the turning process of specimens (1C45 steel), of 50 mm diameter and 300 mm length. By testing the developed methodology, it was found that the errors that can be made by various researchers while measuring wear are acceptable, leading to results that can be considered correct from a practical point of view. In the paper is also presented how the principle of symmetry is used to characterize the wear of the cutting inserts. Full article
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14 pages, 870 KiB  
Article
On Enhanced GLM-Based Monitoring: An Application to Additive Manufacturing Process
by Anam Iqbal, Tahir Mahmood, Zulfiqar Ali and Muhammad Riaz
Symmetry 2022, 14(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym14010122 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 1579
Abstract
Innovations in technology assist the manufacturing processes in producing high-quality products and, hence, become a greater challenge for quality engineers. Control charts are frequently used to examine production operations and maintain product quality. The traditional charting structures rely on a response variable and [...] Read more.
Innovations in technology assist the manufacturing processes in producing high-quality products and, hence, become a greater challenge for quality engineers. Control charts are frequently used to examine production operations and maintain product quality. The traditional charting structures rely on a response variable and do not incorporate any auxiliary data. To resolve this issue, one popular approach is to design charts based on a linear regression model, usually when the response variable shows a symmetric pattern (i.e., normality). The present work intends to propose new generalized linear model (GLM)-based homogeneously weighted moving average (HWMA) and double homogeneously weighted moving average (DHWMA) charting schemes to monitor count processes employing the deviance residuals (DRs) and standardized residuals (SRs) of the Poisson regression model. The symmetric limits of HWMA and DHWMA structures are derived, as SR and DR statistics showed a symmetric pattern. The performance of proposed and established methods (i.e., EWMA charts) is assessed by using run-length characteristics. The results revealed that SR-based schemes have relatively better performance as compared to DR-based schemes. In particular, the proposed SR-DHWMA chart outperforms the other two, namely SR-EWMA and SR-HWMA charts, in detecting shifts. To illustrate the practical features of the study’s proposal, a real application connected to the additive manufacturing process is offered. Full article
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29 pages, 81673 KiB  
Article
On the Application of a Design of Experiments along with an ANFIS and a Desirability Function to Model Response Variables
by Carmelo J. Luis Pérez
Symmetry 2021, 13(5), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13050897 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2736
Abstract
In manufacturing engineering, it is common to use both symmetrical and asymmetrical factorial designs along with regression techniques to model technological response variables, since the in-advance prediction of their behavior is of great importance to determine the levels of variation that lead to [...] Read more.
In manufacturing engineering, it is common to use both symmetrical and asymmetrical factorial designs along with regression techniques to model technological response variables, since the in-advance prediction of their behavior is of great importance to determine the levels of variation that lead to optimal response values to be obtained. For this purpose, regression techniques based on the response surface method combined with a desirability function for multi-objective optimization are commonly employed, since it is usual to find manufacturing processes that require simultaneous optimization of several variables, which exhibit in many cases an opposite behavior. However, these regression models are sometimes not accurate enough to predict the behavior of these response variables, especially when they have significant non-linearities. To deal with this drawback, soft computing techniques are very effective in overcoming the limitations of conventional regression models. This present study is focused on the employment of a symmetrical design of experiments along with a new desirability function, which is proposed in this study, and with soft computing techniques based on fuzzy logic. It will be shown that more accurate results than those obtained from regression techniques are obtained. Moreover, this new desirability function is analyzed in this study. Full article
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36 pages, 17979 KiB  
Article
Novel Pilot-Scale Technology for Refinery Flare Flue Gas Carbon Capture and Storage Using Cost-Effective Adsorbents
by Abdulkadir Sarauta and Ibrahim Ali Mohammed Dabo
Symmetry 2021, 13(5), 807; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13050807 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2892
Abstract
This paper introduced the use of two new adsorbents, Akrosorb soda-lime and Bentonite clay, for refinery flare flue gas capture and storage. This study also developed a novel pilot plant model with 409.7149 kg/h capacity refinery flare emission capture with a novel adsorption [...] Read more.
This paper introduced the use of two new adsorbents, Akrosorb soda-lime and Bentonite clay, for refinery flare flue gas capture and storage. This study also developed a novel pilot plant model with 409.7149 kg/h capacity refinery flare emission capture with a novel adsorption column configuration using Akrosorb soda-lime and Bentonite clay adsorbents. The flare flue gas adsorption unit was designed, fabricated, test run, and commissioned. The adsorption column temperature is 28 ± 10 °C and has a pressure of 131.7 kPa. The novel plant RSM optimization result shows that 93.24% of CO2 and 62.18% of CO were absorbed, while 86.14% of NOx and 55.87% of HC were absorbed. The established optimum conditions of CO2, NOx, HC, and CO removal efficiency are 22 °C, 2 atm, and 60 min. The variation in flare gas emission could impact the removal efficiency of the plant. The results show the maximum adsorption ability or capacity of 314.30 mg/g, and 68.90 mg/g was reached at 60 min for Akrosorb soda-lime and molded Bentonite adsorbents. Therefore, the developed novel technology for CO2 and other GHG capture is technically feasible and friendly. The combined usage of both adsorbents will enhance the capture of GHG at a low cost compared to using Akrosorb alone as an adsorbent. Full article
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19 pages, 1962 KiB  
Article
Research on the Design of a Hexagonal Shaft Straightening Machine Based on Quality Function Development and Evidence Theory
by Juan Zhou, Yuhang Huang and Zhonghua Yu
Symmetry 2021, 13(4), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13040707 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
In response to the problem that weights in product planning and design are difficult to accurately reflect the real needs of users, a design method for hexagonal shaft straightening machines based on quality function configuration and evidence theory is proposed. First, based on [...] Read more.
In response to the problem that weights in product planning and design are difficult to accurately reflect the real needs of users, a design method for hexagonal shaft straightening machines based on quality function configuration and evidence theory is proposed. First, based on the method of quality function deployment and evidence theory, the demand indicator and its importance are determined by market research and the Kano model. Second, to solve the conflict problem in the process of expert opinion aggregation, combined with evidence theory, taking expert knowledge as evidence, the possible value space of causal strength among nodes constitutes the recognition framework, which is used to synthesize the knowledge of multiple experts. The indicator correlation degree is reflected by using a correlation weight matrix, and effective solutions to the relevant theoretical problems and algorithms, such as those for competitive indicator evaluation, weight calculation and planning target value cases, are proposed. Finally, according to the analysis results for the various structural elements of the house of quality, a hexagonal shaft straightening machine function for master planning house of quality was constructed, and propose a design and build the main experimental platform. The relevant test results show that the technical specifications of the hexagonal shaft straightening machine basically meet the requirements of the overall planning target values, verifying the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. Full article
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14 pages, 6571 KiB  
Article
A Fully Symmetrical High Performance Modular Milling Cutter
by Mircea-Viorel Dragoi, Dorin Mircea Rosca, Milena Flavia Folea and Gheorghe Oancea
Symmetry 2021, 13(3), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13030496 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2802
Abstract
Milling cutters belong to a widely used category of cutting tools. In this category, modular milling cutters are a narrow niche, less studied, and developed. Usually, they are symmetrical cutting tools. A milling cutting tool that can be reconfigured due to its modularity [...] Read more.
Milling cutters belong to a widely used category of cutting tools. In this category, modular milling cutters are a narrow niche, less studied, and developed. Usually, they are symmetrical cutting tools. A milling cutting tool that can be reconfigured due to its modularity and still keeps its symmetry becomes more interesting and useful for machining. The paper presents such a new concept in a computer aided design (CAD) model of a cutting tool based on some novel features. The tool itself is designed as a modular complex. The way the torque is transmitted from the shaft to the elementary cutters is an original one, as they are joined together based on a profiled assembling. The profile is one formed of filleted circular sectors and segments. The reaming of the elementary cutters has two sections each of them assuming a task: transmitting the torque, and precisely centring, respectively. The cooling system, which is a component of the tool, provides the cutting area with coolant both on the front and side face of the cutting tool. Some nozzles placed around the cutting tool send jets or curtains of coolant towards the side surface of the cutter, instead of parallel, as some existing solutions do. The source of the coolant supply is the inner cooling system of the machine tool. This provides the tool with coolant having proper features: high enough flow and pressure. The output of the research is a CAD-based model of the modular milling cutter with a high performance cooling system. All of this model’s elements were designed taking into account the design for manufacturing principles, so it will be possible to easily manufacture this tool. Several variants of milling cutters obtained by reconfiguring the complex tool are presented. Even if the tool is usually a symmetric complex, it can process asymmetric parts. Symmetry is intensively used to add some advantages to the modular cutting tool: balanced forces in the cutting process, the possibility of controlling the direction of the axial cutting force, and a good machinability of the grooves used to assemble the main parts of the cutting tool. Full article
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27 pages, 10125 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of the Life-Cycle Cost of Robot Substitution: A Case of Automobile Welding Production in China
by Xuyang Zhao, Cisheng Wu and Duanyong Liu
Symmetry 2021, 13(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13020226 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3131
Abstract
Within the context of the large-scale application of industrial robots, methods of analyzing the life-cycle cost (LCC) of industrial robot production have shown considerable developments, but there remains a lack of methods that allow for the examination of robot substitution. Taking inspiration from [...] Read more.
Within the context of the large-scale application of industrial robots, methods of analyzing the life-cycle cost (LCC) of industrial robot production have shown considerable developments, but there remains a lack of methods that allow for the examination of robot substitution. Taking inspiration from the symmetry philosophy in manufacturing systems engineering, this article further establishes a comparative LCC analysis model to compare the LCC of the industrial robot production with traditional production at the same time. This model introduces intangible costs (covering idle loss, efficiency loss and defect loss) to supplement the actual costs and comprehensively uses various methods for cost allocation and variable estimation to conduct total cost and the cost efficiency analysis, together with hierarchical decomposition and dynamic comparison. To demonstrate the model, an investigation of a Chinese automobile manufacturer is provided to compare the LCC of welding robot production with that of manual welding production; methods of case analysis and simulation are combined, and a thorough comparison is done with related existing works to show the validity of this framework. In accordance with this study, a simple template is developed to support the decision-making analysis of the application and cost management of industrial robots. In addition, the case analysis and simulations can provide references for enterprises in emerging markets in relation to robot substitution. Full article
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