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IEIE Buildings (Integration of Energy and Indoor Environment)

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 19984

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
Interests: energy efficiency; using thermal mass and integrated control systems; thermal comfort; smart buildings; near zero energy buildings; effective thermal insulation systems; adaptable comfort; indoor environment
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Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
Interests: building physics; renovation of buildings; moisture safety; hygrothermal performance of building envelope; indoor climate; energy performance of buildings; resource efficiency; feasibility- and cost-efficiency
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reacting to the recent UN reports on the need for accelerated action on reducing the effect of buildings on the climate change, Journal of Sustainabily gave professors Kalamees  (TalTech, Estonia) and Bomberg (Clarkson U, NY, USA) a privilidge to collect papers for development a special issues on retrofit (renovation, rehabilitation, envirornmental upgrade of existing buildings of any type, shape and character including histrotic buildings) with the focus on Integration of Energy and Indoor Environment in Buildings. Today, an achitect loooking for a technology bliueprint may find 138 research projects on Horizon 2020 or 150 papers published by each of the leading publishers like Elsevier or MDPI and another 100 on Building Automation in IEEE, Sprringer or Informa. With the overflow of publications we need to give a reader a focus on new developments in a holistic, multi-disciplinary approach to methods for new and retrofitting construction.

We want to publish this special issue in the format of e-book with the print on demand.

Mark Bomberg; mark.bomberg@gmail.com and Targo Kalamees; targo.kalamees@taltech.ee

Organization:

  • The corresponding author sends either an extended abstract (up to 500 words), or an outline of the paper to both of  guest editors.  The guest editor will reply directly to the author and may recommend some modifications to focus in the preparation of the paper.
  • Review process goes without involvement of the guest editors and when the paper is approved the publisher sends a copy to the editors who make a final decision.
  • If the paper accepted to the special publication the guest editors will notify the editor of the journal and a reduced processing fee will be applied, otherwise, the paper goes the standard route of the publication submitted to the open access publication


Prof. Mark Bomberg
Prof. Dr. Targo Kalamees
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • energy efficiency
  • circular renovation
  • adaptable indoor climate
  • design buildings for climate
  • dynamic operation of buildings
  • control contribution of thermal mass
  • smart buildings
  • building automatic controls
  • integrated controls for HVAC and enclosure systems
  • indoor environment
  • thermal comfort
  • personal climate
  • hybrid ventilation systems
  • effective thermal upgrade systems
  • moisture safety
  • moisture management in retrofitting
  • retrofitting of historic building in different climates

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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25 pages, 1842 KiB  
Article
System Approach in Complex Integral Design Methodology and Its Application in New Zealand
by Marcela Brauner, Nicola Naismith and Ali GhaffarianHoseini
Sustainability 2021, 13(11), 6244; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13116244 - 01 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2860
Abstract
Many New Zealand houses are energy-inefficient, unhealthy, cold, mouldy, and damp. Therefore, a new approach to building design is imminent. This article proposes a framework for the transformation of housing that integrates construction planning and design, optimization, and control tools at strategic, tactical, [...] Read more.
Many New Zealand houses are energy-inefficient, unhealthy, cold, mouldy, and damp. Therefore, a new approach to building design is imminent. This article proposes a framework for the transformation of housing that integrates construction planning and design, optimization, and control tools at strategic, tactical, and operational levels. The introduced Complex Integral Design New Zealand (CIDNZ) represents a comprehensive and balanced system-based design and delivery process that facilitates and accelerates cross-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary expertise and knowledge. CIDNZ delineates a new way of designing the process based on integral, complex, and systems thinking. The emerging novel understanding of sustainability, which guides the transformation process, might lead to a balance between individuals, groups, society, and existing ecosystems. CIDNZ comprises all stages in the life cycle of buildings and all significant factors in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry, particularly, people, processes, technology, and the environment. Therefore, the entire construction process that implements a system approach to buildings as a vital part of environmental systems, goes from the environment to humans and vice versa and offers unlimited possibilities. The consequent practical application of these principles might eliminate or reduce the design defects and lead accordingly to the reduction of costs involved in their rectification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IEIE Buildings (Integration of Energy and Indoor Environment))
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27 pages, 2703 KiB  
Article
Determining the Impact of High Residential Density on Indoor Environment, Energy Use, and Moisture Loads in Swedish Apartments-and Measures for Mitigation
by Akram Abdul Hamid, Jenny von Platten, Kristina Mjörnell, Dennis Johansson and Hans Bagge
Sustainability 2021, 13(10), 5446; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13105446 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
Recently, there has been an increase in apartments with a large number of inhabitants, i.e., high residential density. This is partly due to a housing shortage in general but also increased migration, particularly in suburbs of major cities. This paper specifies issues that [...] Read more.
Recently, there has been an increase in apartments with a large number of inhabitants, i.e., high residential density. This is partly due to a housing shortage in general but also increased migration, particularly in suburbs of major cities. This paper specifies issues that might be caused by high residential density by investigating the technical parameters influenced in Swedish apartments that are likely to have high residential density. Interviews with 11 employees at housing companies were conducted to identify issues that might be caused by high residential density. Furthermore, simulations were conducted based on extreme conditions described in the interviews to determine the impact on the energy use, indoor environmental quality, and moisture loads. In addition, the impact of measures to mitigate the identified issues was determined. Measures such as demand-controlled ventilation, increase of a constant ventilation rate, and moisture buffering are shown to reduce the risk for thermal discomfort, mold growth, and diminished indoor air quality; while still achieving a lower energy use than in a normally occupied apartment. The results of this study can be used by authorities to formulate incentives and/or recommendations for housing owners to implement measures to ensure good indoor environmental quality for all, irrespective of residential density conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IEIE Buildings (Integration of Energy and Indoor Environment))
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16 pages, 7430 KiB  
Article
Is the Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) Technique Suitable for Moisture Content Measurement in Low-Porosity Building Materials?
by Teresa Stingl Freitas, Ana Sofia Guimarães, Staf Roels, Vasco Peixoto de Freitas and Andrea Cataldo
Sustainability 2020, 12(19), 7855; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12197855 - 23 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3164
Abstract
Measuring moisture content in building materials is essential both for professional practice and for research. However, this is a very complex task, especially when long-term minor destructive measurements are desired. The time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique is commonly used for soil moisture measurements, but [...] Read more.
Measuring moisture content in building materials is essential both for professional practice and for research. However, this is a very complex task, especially when long-term minor destructive measurements are desired. The time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique is commonly used for soil moisture measurements, but its application in construction materials is considered a relatively new method, particularly for low-porosity building materials. The major obstacles to its current use in construction materials are (1) the difficulty of ensuring good contact between the TDR probe and the material, and (2) the lack of appropriate conversion functions between the measured relative permittivity and the moisture content of building materials. This paper intends to contribute to overcoming these difficulties by explaining in detail all the required steps to monitor moisture content in real-scale limestone walls. For that, a device is presented to guarantee the correct installation of the TDR probes on the walls, and a calibration procedure through the gravimetric method is proposed to avoid the use of an unsuitable calibration function developed for soil moisture measurements. In addition, the importance of the individual probe calibration is discussed, as well as TDR advantages and disadvantages for construction materials. The results obtained so far reveal that the TDR technique is suitable to detect moisture content variations in limestone, which is a low-porosity building material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IEIE Buildings (Integration of Energy and Indoor Environment))
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18 pages, 637 KiB  
Article
Residual Analysis of Predictive Modelling Data for Automated Fault Detection in Building’s Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Systems
by Michael Parzinger, Lucia Hanfstaengl, Ferdinand Sigg, Uli Spindler, Ulrich Wellisch and Markus Wirnsberger
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6758; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176758 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2174
Abstract
Faults in Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems affect the energy efficiency of buildings. To date, there rarely exist methods to detect and diagnose faults during the operation of buildings that are both cost-effective and sufficient accurate. This study presents a method [...] Read more.
Faults in Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems affect the energy efficiency of buildings. To date, there rarely exist methods to detect and diagnose faults during the operation of buildings that are both cost-effective and sufficient accurate. This study presents a method that uses artificial intelligence to automate the detection of faults in HVAC systems. The automated fault detection is based on a residual analysis of the predicted total heating power and the actual total heating power using an algorithm that aims to find an optimal decision rule for the determination of faults. The data for this study was provided by a detailed simulation of a residential case study house. A machine learning model and an ARX model predict the building operation. The model for fault detection is trained on a fault-free data set and then tested with a faulty operation. The algorithm for an optimal decision rule uses various statistical tests of residual properties such as the Sign Test, the Turning Point Test, the Box-Pierce Test and the Bartels-Rank Test. The results show that it is possible to predict faults for both known faults and unknown faults. The challenge is to find the optimal algorithm to determine the best decision rules. In the outlook of this study, further methods are presented that aim to solve this challenge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IEIE Buildings (Integration of Energy and Indoor Environment))
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37 pages, 24057 KiB  
Article
Towards Characterization of Indoor Environment in Smart Buildings: Modelling PMV Index Using Neural Network with One Hidden Layer
by Marek Dudzik
Sustainability 2020, 12(17), 6749; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176749 - 20 Aug 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2304
Abstract
Modelling of comfort with the use of neural networks in modern times has become extremely popular. In recent years, scientists have been using these methods because of their satisfactory accuracy. The article proposes a method of modelling feedforward neural networks, thanks to which [...] Read more.
Modelling of comfort with the use of neural networks in modern times has become extremely popular. In recent years, scientists have been using these methods because of their satisfactory accuracy. The article proposes a method of modelling feedforward neural networks, thanks to which it is possible to obtain the most efficient network with one hidden layer in terms of a given quality criterion. The article also presents the methodology for modelling a PMV index, on the basis of which it can be demonstrated whether the network will work properly not only on paper but in reality as well. The objective of this work is to develop a performance model allowing the effective improvement of all electrical and mechanical devices affecting the energy efficiency and indoor environment in smart buildings. To achieve this, several attributes of indoor environment are included, namely: air leakage as a connection to the outdoor environment, but also as uncontrolled component of energy, ventilation as delivery and distribution of fresh air in the building space, individual ventilation on demand indoor air quality (IAQ) in the dwelling or as a personal IAQ control, source control of pollutants in the building, thermal comfort, temperature, air movement and humidity control (humidity modifiers, i.e., buffers different from the air conditioning radiation from cold and hot surfaces bringing forward a question about the strategy of the process control. One may either develop a series of control models to be synthesized later or one can use one over-arching characteristic and use its components for operating the control system. The paper addresses the second strategy and uses the concept of PMV for a criterion of broadly defined thermal comfort (including ventilation and air quality). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IEIE Buildings (Integration of Energy and Indoor Environment))
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18 pages, 6762 KiB  
Article
Glazed Photovoltaic-thermal (PVT) Collectors for Domestic Hot Water Preparation in Multifamily Building
by Nikola Pokorny and Tomáš Matuška
Sustainability 2020, 12(15), 6071; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12156071 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2937
Abstract
Photovoltaic–thermal collector generates electrical and thermal energy simultaneously from the same area. In this paper performance analysis of a potentially very promising application of a glazed photovoltaic–thermal collector for domestic hot water preparation in multifamily building is presented. Solar system in multifamily building [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic–thermal collector generates electrical and thermal energy simultaneously from the same area. In this paper performance analysis of a potentially very promising application of a glazed photovoltaic–thermal collector for domestic hot water preparation in multifamily building is presented. Solar system in multifamily building can be installed on the roof or integrated in the façade of the building. The aim of this simulation study is to show difference of thermal and electrical performance between façade and roof installation of a glazed photovoltaic-thermal collectors at three European locations. Subsequently, this study shows benefit of photovoltaic-thermal collector installation in comparison with side-by-side installation of conventional system. For the purpose of simulation study, mathematical model of glazed photovoltaic-thermal collector has been experimentally validated and implemented into TRNSYS. A solar domestic hot water system with photovoltaic–thermal collectors generates more electrical and thermal energy in comparison with a conventional system across the whole of Europe for a particular installation in a multifamily building. The specific thermal yield of the photovoltaic–thermal system ranges between 352 and 582 kWh/m2. The photovoltaic–thermal system electric yield ranges between 63 and 149 kWh/m2. The increase in electricity production by the photovoltaic–thermal system varies from 19% to 32% in comparison with a conventional side-by-side system. The increase in thermal yield differs between the façade and roof alternatives. Photovoltaic-thermal system installation on the roof has higher thermal yield than conventional system and the increase of thermal yield ranges from 37% to 53%. The increase in thermal yield of façade photovoltaic-thermal system is significantly higher in comparison with a conventional system and ranges from 71% to 81%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IEIE Buildings (Integration of Energy and Indoor Environment))
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Review

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20 pages, 804 KiB  
Review
Green Building in the Arctic Region: State-of-the-Art and Future Research Opportunities
by Lucrezia Ravasio, Svein-Erik Sveen and Raymond Riise
Sustainability 2020, 12(22), 9325; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12229325 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3516
Abstract
The concept of Green Building refers to environmentally friendly constructions with the target of minimizing the impact on the natural environment through sustainable and efficient use of resources over their life cycle. Since modern buildings are large contributors to global energy consumption and [...] Read more.
The concept of Green Building refers to environmentally friendly constructions with the target of minimizing the impact on the natural environment through sustainable and efficient use of resources over their life cycle. Since modern buildings are large contributors to global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, policies and international strategies intended to reduce the carbon footprint of conventional buildings are highlighting the role of this recently introduced building concept. This study provides a systematic literature review of existing research related to Green Buildings in the Arctic. Despite numerous studies and projects developed during the last decades, a study describing the current research status for this region is still missing. The review first examines the role that national and international policies developed by the arctic countries have on the development process of Green Buildings. Second, it provides an overview of the most commonly used and promoted Green Building rating systems used by the same countries in the region. The analysis highlights benefits and critical issues of Green Buildings located in the Arctic in comparison with conventional buildings, focusing on environmental, economic, and social dimensions. Finally, future research opportunities are presented and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IEIE Buildings (Integration of Energy and Indoor Environment))
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