energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Energy Performance of Buildings

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "G: Energy and Buildings".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2020) | Viewed by 38548

Special Issue Editors

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
Interests: building physics; renovation of buildings; moisture safety; hygrothermal performance of building envelope; indoor climate; energy performance of buildings; resource efficiency; feasibility- and cost-efficiency
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Mechanical & Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
Interests: energy efficiency; using thermal mass and integrated control systems; thermal comfort; smart buildings; near zero energy buildings; effective thermal insulation systems; adaptable comfort; indoor environment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Long-term renovation strategy supports the change of the national building stock into a highly efficient and decarbonized building stock by 2050 and a cost-effective transformation of existing buildings into nearly zero-energy buildings. About 70% of the building stock needed for the 2050 target already exists today, which means that most of the energy reductions will have to be achieved through deep energy renovation of existing buildings. To increase the renovation rate, we need industrialization and modular renovation. The difference between the predicted and real energy performance can be significant. To overcome these problems, more information, results, and successful case studies targeted at nZEBs renovation are needed.

 This Special Issue aims at stimulating the exchange of ideas and knowledge on the deep energy renovation of buildings. To this purpose, original contributions containing theoretical and experimental research, case studies or a comprehensive state-of-art discussion are welcome for possible publication. Relevant topics for this Special Issue include but are not limited to the following:

  • Deep energy renovation;
  • nZEB renovation;
  • Minimizing heat loss of building envelope;
  • Performance and energy efficiency of service systems’
  • Prefabricated renovation solutions;
  • Minimizing the energy performance gap;
  • Cost-optimal measures for renovation.

Prof. Dr. Targo Kalamees
Prof. Mark Bomberg
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (14 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

21 pages, 1229 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of the Air Exchange Effectiveness of Push-Pull Ventilation Devices
Energies 2020, 13(21), 5817; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13215817 - 06 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2450
Abstract
The increasing installation numbers of ventilation units in residential buildings are driven by legal objectives to improve their energy efficiency. The dimensioning of a ventilation system for nearly zero energy buildings is usually based on the air flow rate desired by the clients [...] Read more.
The increasing installation numbers of ventilation units in residential buildings are driven by legal objectives to improve their energy efficiency. The dimensioning of a ventilation system for nearly zero energy buildings is usually based on the air flow rate desired by the clients or requested by technical regulations. However, this does not necessarily lead to a system actually able to renew the air volume of the living space effectively. In recent years decentralised systems with an alternating operation mode and fairly good energy efficiencies entered the market and following question was raised: “Does this operation mode allow an efficient air renewal?” This question can be answered experimentally by performing a tracer gas analysis. In the presented study, a total of 15 preliminary tests are carried out in a climatic chamber representing a single room equipped with two push-pull devices. The tests include summer, winter and isothermal supply air conditions since this parameter variation is missing till now for push-pull devices. Further investigations are dedicated to the effect of thermal convection due to human heat dissipation on the room air flow. In dependence on these boundary conditions, the determined air exchange efficiency varies, lagging behind the expected range 0.5 < εa < 1 in almost all cases, indicating insufficient air exchange including short-circuiting. Local air exchange values suggest inhomogeneous air renewal depending on the distance to the indoor apertures as well as the temperature gradients between in- and outdoor. The tested measurement set-up is applicable for field measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 16935 KiB  
Article
Historic Building Thermal Diagnostics Algorithm Presented for the Example of a Townhouse in Lviv
Energies 2020, 13(20), 5374; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13205374 - 15 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1935
Abstract
This paper presents a proposal for a historic building thermal diagnostics algorithm for the example of a historical townhouse located in Lviv, Ukraine. The authors proposed a testing and diagnostics procedure that should precede design and renovation work associated with improving the energy [...] Read more.
This paper presents a proposal for a historic building thermal diagnostics algorithm for the example of a historical townhouse located in Lviv, Ukraine. The authors proposed a testing and diagnostics procedure that should precede design and renovation work associated with improving the energy standard of the buildings under discussion. The procedure was presented using a case study of a selected historical building. The scope of the study included an assessment of the building’s technical condition, thermal vision diagnostics, wall moisture, and water absorption in the context of protection against rain. Sample thermal and hygrothermal calculations were performed for a sample architecture element. The calculations included simulations of partition envelope behaviour after planned thermal retrofitting had been carried out. Performing the presented thermal diagnostics methods in three interlinked blocks (A, B, and C) shall ensure the proper thermal retrofitting of historical buildings in the context of their further occupancy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

19 pages, 1833 KiB  
Article
Influence of Thermal Retrofitting on Annual Energy Demand for Heating in Multi-Family Buildings
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4625; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184625 - 05 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1482
Abstract
The paper presented the analysis of heat consumption for heating in multi-family residential buildings before and after thermal retrofitting. The analysis involved four groups of buildings, i.e., 43 buildings in total, located in various localities, belonging to one weather station. The predicted level [...] Read more.
The paper presented the analysis of heat consumption for heating in multi-family residential buildings before and after thermal retrofitting. The analysis involved four groups of buildings, i.e., 43 buildings in total, located in various localities, belonging to one weather station. The predicted level of energy savings resulting from thermal retrofitting was achieved from the energy audits. The actual heat consumption, following the calculation into so-called external standard conditions, was obtained based on the readouts from heat-meters. For each building, the values of heat consumption over the periods of 6–10 years were read. The performance measurements involved the periods before, during, and after thermal retrofitting. The following statistical tests were used for data analysis: Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney, Shapiro–Wilk, Bartlett, ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, Dunn and Holm post-hoc. The performed analyses showed that the mean value of energy savings predicted by audits reached 38.5% when the real mean value of savings, achieved from heat-meters, equaled 30.3%. The annual energy demand factors for heating were calculated for final energy and non-renewable primary energy factors. It was established that most of the analyzed objects fulfilled the primary energy factor requirements found in the Polish technical and construction regulations, which were valid at the time of investment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

35 pages, 12238 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Thermal Retrofitting Potential of the External Walls of Podhale’s Historical Timber Buildings in the Aspect of the Non-Deterioration of Their Technical Condition
Energies 2020, 13(18), 4610; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13184610 - 04 Sep 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2210
Abstract
The paper discusses thermal quality improvement in historic buildings. It is based on a case study of a wooden historical building in an architectural style typical of Zakopane, located in the Podhale region of Poland. The building’s historical value and timber structure prevent [...] Read more.
The paper discusses thermal quality improvement in historic buildings. It is based on a case study of a wooden historical building in an architectural style typical of Zakopane, located in the Podhale region of Poland. The building’s historical value and timber structure prevent the application of typical thermal retrofitting solutions. This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities of the improvement of energy performance of a historic building (villa) which included: a review of the available energy performance improvement solutions applicable to this type of building, with a particular focus on applying internal insulation; a technical condition assessment using non-invasive methods, the identification of problematic areas in terms of the thermal retrofitting of buildings with timber walls and decks; in situ tests: thermovision tests which showed the places with temperature distribution field disturbances in the building’s envelope, focusing on thermal bridges; measurements of actual thermal transmittance coefficients for extant partitions; measurements of the building’s airtightness and the microclimate in selected rooms; numerical analysis: an assessment of the influence of the thermal bridges on the building’s existing condition, an analysis of water content changes in wall systems post-insulation. The presented approach enables the improvement of the energy performance of timber historical buildings while preserving the historical value of its architecture. It is innovative because it tries to fill in a research gap concerning a lack of relevant guidelines in Poland. The research questions that the authors asked were as follows. Is it possible to improve the thermal insulation of a building’s wooden walls without adversely affecting the building’s technical condition? With regard to the necessity to meet nZEB (nearly zero energy building) standards, is it feasible to improve the timber walls of historical buildings? The study found that under the correct assumptions and while maintaining a responsible approach to design, it is possible to improve the energy performance of historical buildings without interfering with historical heritage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

16 pages, 2206 KiB  
Article
Cost and Energy Reduction of a New nZEB Wooden Building
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3570; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143570 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2430
Abstract
The current study demonstrates the possibilities of reducing energy use and construction costs and provides evidence that wooden nearly-zero-energy buildings (nZEB) are technically possible at affordable construction costs by using novel design processes and procurement models that enable scalable and modular production. The [...] Read more.
The current study demonstrates the possibilities of reducing energy use and construction costs and provides evidence that wooden nearly-zero-energy buildings (nZEB) are technically possible at affordable construction costs by using novel design processes and procurement models that enable scalable and modular production. The energy efficiency solutions were derived by increasing/decreasing the insulation value of the building envelope in successive steps. Financial calculations were based on the investment needed to achieve the nearly-zero-energy levels. Overall, many opportunities exist to decrease the cost and energy use compared to the current (pre-nZEB) practice because the net present value can change up to 150 €/m² on the same energy performance indicator (EPI) level. The EPI in the cost-even range was reached by combining a ground-source heat pump (between 115 and 128 kWh/(m2·a)) and efficient district heating (between 106 and 124 kWh/(m2·a)). As energy efficiency decreases, improving energy efficiency becomes more expensive by insulation measures. Throughout the EPI range the most cost efficient was investment in the improvement of the thermal transmittance of windows (3–13 €/(kWh/(m2·a))) while investments in other building envelope parts were less effective (4–80 €/(kWh/(m2·a))). If these were possible to install, photovoltaic (PV) panels installed to the roof would be the cheapest solution to improve the energy performance. Integrated project delivery procurement (design and construction together) and the use of prefabricated wooden structures reduced the constructing cost by half (from ~2700 €/net m2 to 1390 €/net m2) and helped to keep the budget within limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

24 pages, 5106 KiB  
Article
A Neural Network for Monitoring and Characterization of Buildings with Environmental Quality Management, Part 1: Verification under Steady State Conditions
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3469; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133469 - 04 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1894
Abstract
Introducing integrated, automatic control to buildings operating with the environmental quality management (EQM) system, we found that existing energy models are not suitable for use in integrated control systems as they poorly represent the real time, interacting, and transient effects that occur under [...] Read more.
Introducing integrated, automatic control to buildings operating with the environmental quality management (EQM) system, we found that existing energy models are not suitable for use in integrated control systems as they poorly represent the real time, interacting, and transient effects that occur under field conditions. We needed another high-precision estimator for energy efficiency and indoor environment and to this end we examined artificial neural networks (ANNs). This paper presents a road map for design and evaluation of ANN-based estimators of the given performance aspect in a complex interacting environment. It demonstrates that in creating a precise representation of a mathematical relationship one must evaluate the stability and fitness under randomly changing initial conditions. It also shows that ANN systems designed in this manner may have a high precision in characterizing the response of the building exposed to the variable outdoor climatic conditions. The absolute value of the relative errors ( M a x A R E ) being less than 1.4% for each stage of the ANN development proves that our objective of monitoring and EQM characterization can be reached. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 10475 KiB  
Article
Fuzzy Model for Selecting a Form of Use Alternative for a Historic Building to be Subjected to Adaptive Reuse
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112809 - 01 Jun 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2128
Abstract
Adapting historic buildings to new, modern forms generates not only financial benefits for developers but can also allow them to survive for future generations through proper remodelling. The variety of decision criteria related to the selection of a new function of a historic [...] Read more.
Adapting historic buildings to new, modern forms generates not only financial benefits for developers but can also allow them to survive for future generations through proper remodelling. The variety of decision criteria related to the selection of a new function of a historic building makes this problem multidimensional. Many of these criteria are interrelated and have a non-linear nature which requires a comprehensive network-based rather than a classic hierarchical approach to conducting multi-criteria analysis. A comprehensive approach taking into account the specificity of the analysed problem was proposed. The study was supported by an example of the choice of building function as part of the adaptive reuse of a historic building located in Zakopane. The following variants have been analysed: a hostel (existing state), a five-star hotel, a folk art gallery and a conference and training centre. The final rating of alternatives indicates that the hotel best meets the adopted decision criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 3379 KiB  
Article
Using Machine Learning to Enrich Building Databases—Methods for Tailored Energy Retrofits
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2574; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102574 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2776
Abstract
Building databases are important assets when estimating and planning for national energy savings from energy retrofitting. However, databases often lack information on building characteristics needed to determine the feasibility of specific energy conservation measures. In this paper, machine learning methods are used to [...] Read more.
Building databases are important assets when estimating and planning for national energy savings from energy retrofitting. However, databases often lack information on building characteristics needed to determine the feasibility of specific energy conservation measures. In this paper, machine learning methods are used to enrich the Swedish database of Energy Performance Certificates with building characteristics relevant for a chosen set of energy retrofitting packages. The study is limited to the Swedish multifamily building stock constructed between 1945 and 1975, as these buildings are facing refurbishment needs that advantageously can be combined with energy retrofitting. In total, 514 ocular observations were conducted in Google Street View of two building characteristics that were needed to determine the feasibility of the chosen energy retrofitting packages: (i) building type and (ii) suitability for additional façade insulation. Results showed that these building characteristics could be predicted with an accuracy of 88.9% and 72.5% respectively. It could be concluded that machine learning methods show promising potential to enrich building databases with building characteristics relevant for energy retrofitting, which in turn can improve estimations of national energy savings potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

20 pages, 3284 KiB  
Article
Development and Performance Assessment of Prefabricated Insulation Elements for Deep Energy Renovation of Apartment Buildings
Energies 2020, 13(7), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13071709 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2937
Abstract
A need for the refurbishment and renewal of the existing building stock has been in focus for many decades, principally because of excessive global energy consumption and pollution. This paper presents a methodology and the results of analysis of choices of realizable sets [...] Read more.
A need for the refurbishment and renewal of the existing building stock has been in focus for many decades, principally because of excessive global energy consumption and pollution. This paper presents a methodology and the results of analysis of choices of realizable sets of timber frame prefabricated insulation elements for major renovation of apartment buildings. Numerous combinations of elements with different characteristics were analyzed by applying measurements, interviews, and building performance simulation software, and thereupon their performance, installation eligibility, and concurrent cost levels were compared. Mineral wool board with a special wind barrier facing was found to be the best material as a wind barrier from the perspective of hygrothermal performance. An air and vapor barrier should have sufficient vapor permeability to allow dry-out of constructional moisture. It is possible to renovate apartment buildings to meet the nZEB energy performance requirements and their moisture safety can be guaranteed without paying high relative difference cost. Calculations showed that the global cost was lower for solutions with some mold growth risk. Great care is needed when decreasing costs without simultaneous hygrothermal analyses. The facade cladding was found to have the highest influence on the initial cost of the prefabricated insulation element. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

26 pages, 6119 KiB  
Article
A Multi-Facet Retrofit Approach to Improve Energy Efficiency of Existing Class of Single-Family Residential Buildings in Hot-Humid Climate Zones
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1178; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051178 - 04 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4777
Abstract
Targeting existing residential buildings for retrofit improvement presents significant prospects for global reduction of energy-usage and carbon footprints. Energy consumption of the existing single-family building in the hot-humid climate zone needs to be targeted for improvement due to their potential energy-savings and sizeable [...] Read more.
Targeting existing residential buildings for retrofit improvement presents significant prospects for global reduction of energy-usage and carbon footprints. Energy consumption of the existing single-family building in the hot-humid climate zone needs to be targeted for improvement due to their potential energy-savings and sizeable market share. This paper proposes and evaluates energy savings and cost-effectiveness of a whole building retrofit package for single-family residential buildings built between 1950 and 1970. The study outlined a survey conducted using the clustering data mining technique on Florida Single-Family Residential (SFR) homes to determine the essence of the building envelope, patterns of construction, and Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. The evaluation of the energy efficiency measures (EEMs) effectiveness is performed utilizing Autodesk Revit and a Six-Step modeled framework. This framework consists of baseline model development, validation of the model with an actual case study building, identification of potential EMMs, evaluation of EEMs individually and incorporating the selected EMMs into retrofit package and maximizing the energy-saving and cost-effectiveness of the proposed retrofit package. The study develops proposed retrofit improvement package detailing replacement & improvement EEMs, implementation cost, annual energy savings (kWh), cost-saving ($), and payback period (years) for each individual EEM as well as the combined/total energy improvement package. The paper further explored the usage of solar photovoltaics (PV) energy generation options to offset the remaining energy-use after the implementation of the proposed retrofit package. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4753 KiB  
Article
Journey of American Building Physics: Steps Leading to the Current Scientific Revolution
Energies 2020, 13(5), 1027; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13051027 - 25 Feb 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2316
Abstract
This is an overview of a Key Note lecture; the quote for this lecture is from T.S. Eliot: “We must not cease from exploration and at the end of all our exploring will be to arrive, where we began, and, to know the [...] Read more.
This is an overview of a Key Note lecture; the quote for this lecture is from T.S. Eliot: “We must not cease from exploration and at the end of all our exploring will be to arrive, where we began, and, to know the place for the first time”. This quote highlights that the process of scientific development goes in circles, yet each of them goes above the previous circle, building up the ladder of knowledge. Closing one circle and opening the next may be either be a quiet, unnoticeable event or a roaring loud, scientific revolution. Building science (physics) was started about 100 years ago, but only now are we closing its second circle. Perhaps, because of building physics’ role in the fourth industrial revolution, this discipline itself is undergoing a scientific revolution The first industrial revolution was based on steam generated by burning coal, the second was based on petroleum, and the third on electricity and concentrated electricity production. The current one, i.e., the fourth, is based on distributed energy sources combined with information technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 4412 KiB  
Article
On Preheating of the Outdoor Ventilation Air
Energies 2020, 13(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13010015 - 19 Dec 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3073
Abstract
The growing popularity of buildings with integrated sub-systems requires a review of methods to optimize the preheating of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using geothermal heat storage parallel to the direct outdoor air intake with additional treatment in the mechanical room as [...] Read more.
The growing popularity of buildings with integrated sub-systems requires a review of methods to optimize the preheating of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using geothermal heat storage parallel to the direct outdoor air intake with additional treatment in the mechanical room as a part of building an automatic control system. The earth–air heat exchanger (EAHX) has many advantages but also has many unanswered questions. Some of the drawbacks are: A possible entry of radon gas, high humidity in the shoulder seasons, and the need for two different air intake sources with a choice that depends on the actual weather conditions. In winter the EAHX may be used continuously to ensure thermal comfort, while in other seasons its operation must be automatically controlled. To generate missing information about EAHX technology we examined two nearly identical EAHX systems, one placed in the ground next to a building and the other under the basement slab. In another project, we reinforced the ground storage action by having a heat exchanger placed on the return pipes of the hydronic heating system. The information provided in this paper shows advantages of merging both these approaches, while the EAHX could be placed under the house or near the basement foundation that is using an exterior basement insulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

18 pages, 4970 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Energy and Indoor Air Quality Performance for a Three-Story Building Using an Integrated Model, Part One: The Need for Integration
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4775; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244775 - 14 Dec 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4682
Abstract
In building applications, there is a dynamic interaction/coupling between the energy performance and the indoor air quality (IAQ) performance. Previously, the performance of energy consumption (EC) and IAQ has been evaluated independently. In this study, an energy performance model (EnergyPlus) and IAQ performance [...] Read more.
In building applications, there is a dynamic interaction/coupling between the energy performance and the indoor air quality (IAQ) performance. Previously, the performance of energy consumption (EC) and IAQ has been evaluated independently. In this study, an energy performance model (EnergyPlus) and IAQ performance model (CONTAM: contaminant transport analysis) were simultaneously coupled as a new integrated simulation model in which the control variables were exchanged between the two models. Two scenarios were provided in this study for a three-story house. The first scenario addressed the effect of airtightness only. The second scenario, however, addressed the airtightness with an exhaust fan with an upgraded filter. In order to better analyze the accuracy of the simulations, the performance of the energy and IAQ were simulated independently using the EnergyPlus model and CONTAM model. Thereafter, the performance of the energy and IAQ were simulated using the present integrated simulation model. All simulations were conducted for the climatic conditions of Montreal and Miami. The results of the integrated simulation model showed that the exchange of control variables between both EnergyPlus and CONTAM produced accurate results for the performance of both energy and IAQ. Finally, the necessity of using the present integrated simulation model is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

24 pages, 2095 KiB  
Review
Understanding Computational Methods for Solar Envelopes Based on Design Parameters, Tools, and Case Studies: A Review
Energies 2020, 13(13), 3302; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13133302 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
The increasing population density in urban areas simultaneously impacts the trend of energy consumption in building sectors and the urban heat island (UHI) effects of urban infrastructure. Accordingly, passive design strategies to create sustainable buildings play a major role in addressing these issues, [...] Read more.
The increasing population density in urban areas simultaneously impacts the trend of energy consumption in building sectors and the urban heat island (UHI) effects of urban infrastructure. Accordingly, passive design strategies to create sustainable buildings play a major role in addressing these issues, while solar envelopes prove to be a relevant concept that specifically considers the environmental performance aspects of a proposed building given their local contexts. As significant advances have been made over the past decades regarding the development and implementation of computational solar envelopes, this study presents a comprehensive review of solar envelopes while specifically taking into account design parameters, digital tools, and the implementation of case studies in various contextual settings. This extensive review is conducted in several stages. First, an investigation of the scope and procedural steps of the review is conducted to frame the boundary of the topic to be analyzed within the conceptual framework of solar envelopes. Second, comparative analyses between categorized design methods in parallel with a database of design parameters are conducted, followed by an in-depth discussion of the criteria for the digital tools and case studies extracted from the selected references. Third, knowledge gaps are identified, and the future development of solar envelopes is discussed to complete the review. This study ultimately provides an inclusive understanding for designers and architects regarding the progressive methods of the development of solar envelopes during the conceptual design stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Performance of Buildings)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop