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Optical Sensing in Power Systems

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 19407

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK
Interests: advancement of photonic sensing methods and systems integration in applications that lie predominantly in power and energy sectors

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As we transition to a sustainable future, the power system requires ever more granular and extensive measurement in order to enable greater integration of renewable generation and to drive up efficency. At every level of power flow—generation, conversion, transmission and distribution—extensive measurements are required. Voltage and current measurements are needed for power system control, protection, and metering. AC, DC, and high-frequency dynamic measurements are required, with voltages reaching MV levels and currents tens or hundreds of kAs. Measurments of other physical parameters such as temperature, strain, vibration, humidity, chemical species, or partial discharge are also required for diagnostic and prognostic purposes of plant or for perimeter breach security alerts. Distributed measurements are also crucial for improved power grid visibility to offer wide-area monitoining, control, and protection.

There are many advantages to using optical or fibre optic sensing in this environment. The key advantage is the high voltage isolation provided by optical fibre or remote laser measurments, reducing the need for bulky insulators and improving safety. Immunity to electromagnetic interference, small size, light weight, high performance, and security or ability to multiplex a large number of sensors over extended distances are other important benefits.

This Special Issue addresses the most recent progress in the area of optical sensing in the context of a power system. This includes optical sensor development, testing, qualification, metrology, standardisation, interoperability, and usage in unique power system applications.

Prof. Dr. Pawel Niewczas
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • optical current sensors
  • optical voltage sensors
  • optical strain, temperature and chemical sensors
  • optical partial discharge sensors
  • optical sensors for power applications
  • sensor development
  • sensor networks
  • interoperability of optical sensors with substation equipment
  • optical sensor metrology
  • optical sensor standardisation

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 7427 KiB  
Article
Research on Transformer Omnidirectional Partial Discharge Ultrasound Sensing Method Combining F-P Cavity and FBG
by Guochao Qian, Weigen Chen, Kejie Wu, Hong Liu, Jianxin Wang and Zhixian Zhang
Sensors 2023, 23(24), 9642; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23249642 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 703
Abstract
To achieve omnidirectional sensitive detection of partial discharge (PD) in transformers and to avoid missing PD signals, a fiber optic omnidirectional sensing method for PD in transformers combined with the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity is proposed. The fiber optic [...] Read more.
To achieve omnidirectional sensitive detection of partial discharge (PD) in transformers and to avoid missing PD signals, a fiber optic omnidirectional sensing method for PD in transformers combined with the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity is proposed. The fiber optic omnidirectional sensor for PD as a triangular prism was developed. The hollow structure of the probe was used to insert a single-mode fiber to form an F-P cavity. In addition, the three sides of the probe were used to form a diaphragm-type FBG sensing structure. The ultrasound sensitization diaphragm was designed based on the frequency characteristics of PD in the transformer and the vibration model of the diaphragm in the liquid environment. The fiber optic sensing system for PD was built and the performance test was conducted. The results show that the resonant frequency of the FBG acoustic diaphragm is around 20 kHz and that of the F-P cavity acoustic diaphragm is 94 kHz. The sensitivity of the developed fiber optic sensor is higher than that of the piezoelectric transducer (PZT). The lower limit of PD detection is 68.72 pC for the FBG sensing part and 47.97 pC for the F-P cavity sensing part. The directional testing of the sensor and its testing within a transformer simulation model indicate that the proposed sensor achieves higher detection sensitivity of PD in all directions. The omnidirectional partial discharge ultrasound sensing method proposed in this paper is expected to reduce the missed detection rate of PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing in Power Systems)
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29 pages, 21247 KiB  
Article
Multi-Parameter Optical Monitoring Solution Applied to Underground Medium-Voltage Electric Power Distribution Networks
by Fabio R. Bassan, Joao B. Rosolem, Claudio Floridia, Rivael S. Penze, Bruno N. Aires, Ronaldo A. Roncolatto, Rodrigo Peres, João R. Nogueira Júnior, João Paulo V. Fracarolli, Eduardo F. da Costa, Filipe H. Cardoso, Fernando R. Pereira, Carla C. Furoni, Cláudia M. Coimbra, Victor B. Riboldi, Camila Omae and Marcelo de Moraes
Sensors 2023, 23(11), 5066; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23115066 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1594
Abstract
This work presents a multi-parameter optical fiber monitoring solution applied to an underground power distribution network. The monitoring system demonstrated herein uses Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors to measure multiple parameters, such as the distributed temperature of the power cable, external temperature and [...] Read more.
This work presents a multi-parameter optical fiber monitoring solution applied to an underground power distribution network. The monitoring system demonstrated herein uses Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors to measure multiple parameters, such as the distributed temperature of the power cable, external temperature and current of the transformers, liquid level, and intrusion in the underground manholes. To monitor partial discharges of cable connections, we used sensors that detect radio frequency signals. The system was characterized in the laboratory and tested in underground distribution networks. We present here the technical details of the laboratory characterization, system installation, and the results of 6 months of network monitoring. The data obtained for temperature sensors in the field tests show a thermal behavior depending on the day/night cycle and the season. The temperature levels measured on the conductors indicated that in high-temperature periods, the maximum current specified for the conductor must be reduced, according to the applied Brazilian standards. The other sensors detected other important events in the distribution network. All the sensors demonstrated their functionality and robustness in the distribution network, and the monitored data will allow the electric power system to have a safe operation, with optimized capacity and operating within tolerated electrical and thermal limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing in Power Systems)
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15 pages, 5426 KiB  
Article
On the Feasibility of Monitoring Power Transformer’s Winding Vibration and Temperature along with Moisture in Oil Using Optical Sensors
by Simplice Akre, Issouf Fofana, Zié Yéo, Stephan Brettschneider, Peter Kung and Bekibenan Sékongo
Sensors 2023, 23(4), 2310; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23042310 - 19 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Despite major progress in the design of power transformers, the Achilles’ heel remains the insulation system, which is affected by various parameters including moisture, heat, and vibrations. These important machines require extreme reliability to guarantee electricity distribution to end users. In this contribution, [...] Read more.
Despite major progress in the design of power transformers, the Achilles’ heel remains the insulation system, which is affected by various parameters including moisture, heat, and vibrations. These important machines require extreme reliability to guarantee electricity distribution to end users. In this contribution, a fiber optic sensor (FOS), consisting of a Fabry–Perot cavity made up of two identical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), is proposed, to monitor the temperature and vibration of power transformer windings. A phase shifted gratings recoated sensor, with multilayers of polyimide films, is used to monitor the moisture content in oil. The feasibility is investigated using an experimental laboratory transformer model, especially fabricated for this application. The moisture contents are well correlated with those measured by a Karl Fisher titrator, while the values of temperature compare well with those recorded from thermocouples. It is also shown that the sensors can be used to concurrently detect vibration, as assessed by sensitivity to the loading current. The possibility of dynamically measuring humidity, vibrations, and temperatures right next to the winding, appears to be a new insight that was previously unavailable. This approach, with its triple ability, can help to reduce the required number of sensors and therefore simplify the wiring layout. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing in Power Systems)
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27 pages, 7387 KiB  
Article
Design and Implementation of a Passive Autoranging Circuit for Hybrid FBG-PZT Photonic Current Transducer
by Burhan Mir, Pawel Niewczas and Grzegorz Fusiek
Sensors 2023, 23(1), 551; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23010551 - 03 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
In this paper, we present a novel technique for passively autoranging a photonic current transducer (PCT) that incorporates a current transformer (CT), piezoelectric transducer (PZT) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Due to the usage of single-mode fiber and FBG, multiple PCTs can be [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a novel technique for passively autoranging a photonic current transducer (PCT) that incorporates a current transformer (CT), piezoelectric transducer (PZT) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Due to the usage of single-mode fiber and FBG, multiple PCTs can be interconnected and distributed over a long distance, for example along a power network, greatly reducing the cost of sensor deployment and offering other unique advantages. The autoranging technique relies on the usage of multiple, serially connected CT burden resistors and associated static MOSFET switches to realize instantaneous shortening of the resistors in response to increasing measured current. This functionality is realized passively, utilizing a modular, μW-power comparator circuit that powers itself from the electrical energy supplied by the CT within a small fraction of the 50/60 Hz cycle. The resultant instantaneous changes in sensor gain will be ultimately detected by the central FBG interrogator through real-time analysis of the optical signals and will be used to apply appropriate gain scaling for each sensor. The technique will facilitate the usage of a single PCT to cover an extended dynamic range of the measurement that is required to realize a combined metering- and protection-class current sensor. This paper is limited to the description of the design process, construction, and testing of a prototype passive autoranging circuitry for integration with the PCT. The two-stage circuitry that is based on two burden resistors, 1 Ω and 10 Ω, is used to prove the concept and demonstrate the practically achievable circuit characteristics. It is shown that the circuit correctly reacts to input current threshold breaches of approximately 2 A and 20 A within a 3 ms reaction time. The circuit produces distinct voltage dips across burden resistors that will be used for signal scaling by the FBG interrogator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing in Power Systems)
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9 pages, 1579 KiB  
Communication
A Novel Distributed Vibration Sensor Based on Fading Noise Reduction in Multi-Mode Fiber
by Lidong Lu, Xingchen Su, Chenglong Zhang, Qinghao Gao and Hongwei Yang
Sensors 2022, 22(20), 8028; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22208028 - 20 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Multi-mode fiber (MMF) is used in a polarization-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) for vibration event location and spectrum analysis. The vibration events acting on MMF are considered to be the optical polarization state and phase diversifying process for fading noise reduction. In [...] Read more.
Multi-mode fiber (MMF) is used in a polarization-sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) for vibration event location and spectrum analysis. The vibration events acting on MMF are considered to be the optical polarization state and phase diversifying process for fading noise reduction. In addition, data averaging with continuous positions and the fast Fourier transform (FFT) method is proposed to extract the spectrum of the vibration events. In the experiment, the vibration events are loaded at the positions of 5.167 and 10.145 km, respectively, along MMF. The experimental results demonstrate that the vibration event can effectively diversify the optical polarization state and phase of the Rayleigh scattering light to make the averaged OTDR trace behind the vibration position converge rapidly, which helps to locate corresponding vibration events and extract the vibration spectrum. It is inferred that the new distributed vibration sensor shall have a lower false alarm rate, as it can greatly reduce the errors caused by randomness of the sensing light signals. Additionally, it also saves time in comparison with the method that analyzes the vibration spectra for all the positions along the fiber under test. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing in Power Systems)
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17 pages, 7525 KiB  
Article
Study of a Current and Voltage Polarization Sensor Network
by Artur de Araujo Silva, Claudio Floridia and Joao Batista Rosolem
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4528; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134528 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2548
Abstract
Sensors based on polarization are suitable for application in power grids due to their excellent characteristics, such as high electrical insulation, non-magnetic saturation, oil-free, no risk of explosive failures, and high bandwidth. Utility companies are incorporating new technologies that are driving the evolution [...] Read more.
Sensors based on polarization are suitable for application in power grids due to their excellent characteristics, such as high electrical insulation, non-magnetic saturation, oil-free, no risk of explosive failures, and high bandwidth. Utility companies are incorporating new technologies that are driving the evolution of electrical systems. Thus, it is interesting to evaluate the possibility of using polarization sensors in a network configuration. In this work, we present an experimental study of a current and voltage polarization sensor network applied to a medium voltage distribution grid. The current sensor is based on the Faraday effect, and the voltage sensor uses the Pockels effect. Both sensors use a 90° polarization degree between the two output ports to compensate for the various impairments on the measurements by applying the difference-over-sum. The network uses a DWDM topology centered at the 1550 nm range, and both current and voltage sensors in this work used this spectral band. We evaluated the sensor node in terms of accuracy according to IEC standard 61869-10 and IEC standard 61869-11. Considering that an important application of this sensor network is in the aerial cable of medium voltage networks, sensor node accuracy was also estimated in the presence of cable vibration. The calculated power budget of the proposed network indicates that reaching ten nodes of current and voltage sensors in a 10 km optical link is possible, which is enough for a medium urban voltage distribution network. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing in Power Systems)
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15 pages, 5950 KiB  
Article
Global Temperature Sensing for an Operating Power Transformer Based on Raman Scattering
by Yunpeng Liu, Xinye Li, Huan Li and Xiaozhou Fan
Sensors 2020, 20(17), 4903; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20174903 - 30 Aug 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3822
Abstract
Traditional monitoring methods cannot obtain the overall thermal information for power transformers. To solve this problem, a distributed fiber optic sensor (DFOS) was creatively applied inside an operating 35 kV power transformer by highly integrating with the electromagnetic wires. Then, the transformer prototype [...] Read more.
Traditional monitoring methods cannot obtain the overall thermal information for power transformers. To solve this problem, a distributed fiber optic sensor (DFOS) was creatively applied inside an operating 35 kV power transformer by highly integrating with the electromagnetic wires. Then, the transformer prototype with totally global sensing capability was successfully developed and it was qualified for power grid application through the strict ex-factory tests. The as designed optical fiber sensor works stably all the time with a temperature accuracy of ±0.2 °C and spatial positioning accuracy of 0.8 m. Based on the obtained internal temperature distribution, Gaussian convolution was further applied for the signal processing and hereby, the hotspots for all the windings and iron cores could be accurately traced. The hottest points were located at 89.1% (55 °C) of the high voltage winding height and 89.7% (77.5 °C) of the low voltage winding height. The actual precise hotspot location corrected the traditional cognition on the transformer windings and it would serve as an essential reference for the manufactures. This new nondestructive internal sensing and condition monitoring method also exhibits a promising future for the DFOS applying in the high-voltage electrical apparatus industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing in Power Systems)
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Review

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27 pages, 1558 KiB  
Review
Fiber Optic Sensors Based on the Faraday Effect
by Pedja Mihailovic and Slobodan Petricevic
Sensors 2021, 21(19), 6564; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21196564 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 4746
Abstract
Some 175 years ago Michael Faraday discovered magnetic circular birefringence, now commonly known as the Faraday effect. Sensing the magnetic field through the influence that the field has on light within the fiber optic sensor offers several advantages, one of them fundamental. These [...] Read more.
Some 175 years ago Michael Faraday discovered magnetic circular birefringence, now commonly known as the Faraday effect. Sensing the magnetic field through the influence that the field has on light within the fiber optic sensor offers several advantages, one of them fundamental. These advantages find application in the measurement of electric current at high voltages by measuring the induced magnetic field, thus warranting application for this kind of fiber optic sensor (FOS) in future smart grids. Difficulties in designing and manufacturing high-performance FOSs were greatly alleviated by developments in optical telecommunication technology, thus giving new impetus to magnetometry based on the Faraday effect. Some of the major problems in the processing of optical signals and temperature dependence have been resolved, yet much effort is still needed to implement all solutions into a single commercial device. Artificial structures with giant Faraday rotation, reported in the literature in the 21st century, will further improve the performance of FOSs based on the Faraday effect. This paper will consider obstacles and limits imposed by the available technology and review solutions proposed so far for fiber optic sensors based on the Faraday effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing in Power Systems)
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