Recent Advances in Techniques for Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Bioactive Compound Extraction

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Separation Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 4554

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: advanced extraction techniques; bioactive compounds; process design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: plant bioactive molecules; natural product chemistry; antioxidants; advanced extraction techniques; essential oil; fruit quality; fruit, vegetables and herbs processing; functional food; engineering; high-performance liquid chromatography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thanks to growing scientific evidence, we are becoming increasingly aware of the functional properties of bioactive molecules (BAM) that can play a significant role in the treatment and prevention of various conditions. Among the most important groups of these compounds are polyphenols, terpenes, and terpenoids, polysaccharides, peptides, fatty acids, and the like. Due to differences in chemical structure, which determines their hydrophilic or lipophilic character and the bonds within the matrix, different solvents and methods are used to extract these compounds. The focus of scientific and industrial research in this area is lately shifting to a more environmentally friendly approach that involves more efficient, flexible, and cost-effective BAM extraction processes. Some of these advanced techniques utilize the assistance of microwaves, ultrasound, pulsed electric field, sub- and supercritical fluids, deep eutectic solvents, enzymes, etc., as well as combinations thereof.

This Special Issue on “Recent Advances in Techniques for Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Bioactive Compounds Extraction” seeks high-quality papers focusing on the latest achievements on, but not limited to, the following topics:

  • Selection of tailor-made greener solvents targeted to specific BAM extraction;
  • Application of advanced methods aiming to increase the yield and efficiency of extraction and to modulate the chemical composition of BAM extracts;
  • Modeling, optimization, and scale-up of advanced BAM extraction techniques.

Prof. Dr. Sandra Balbino
Prof. Dr. Verica Dragović-Uzelac
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive molecules
  • advanced techniques
  • yield
  • composition

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1723 KiB  
Article
Innovative Approaches to Enhance Activity of Endogenous Olive Enzymes—A Model System Experiment: Part II—Non-Thermal Technique
Processes 2023, 11(12), 3283; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11123283 - 24 Nov 2023
Viewed by 544
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the optimal parameters of pulsed electric field treatment to increase the activity of β-glucosidase and lipoxygenase, crucial enzymes that improve the nutritional quality and sensory properties of virgin olive oils. The activity of the enzymes [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the optimal parameters of pulsed electric field treatment to increase the activity of β-glucosidase and lipoxygenase, crucial enzymes that improve the nutritional quality and sensory properties of virgin olive oils. The activity of the enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically immediately after treatment of model systems (commercial enzymes and their substrates) with pulsed electric fields and after simulation of the malaxation process for 30 min at 25 °C. Pulsed electric field treatments were performed with electric field strengths of 2.67 and 13.33 kV/cm at frequencies of 25 and 125 Hz for 1, 2, and 5 min. The results showed a positive correlation of β-glucosidase activity with the electric field strength and time, with the first of the two factors having the greatest influence. Lipoxygenase activity was affected only by the duration of treatment: positively immediately after treatment and negatively after simulation of the malaxation process. Based on these results, pretreatment with a moderate pulsed electric field for 2 min before the malaxation process could be proposed to increase the activity of β-glucosidase and lipoxygenase, e.g., for the production of virgin olive oils with higher concentrations of polyphenols and desirable volatile compounds. Full article
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17 pages, 2027 KiB  
Article
Hydrodistillation and Steam Distillation of Fennel Seeds Essential Oil: Parameter Optimization and Application of Cryomilling Pretreatment
Processes 2023, 11(8), 2354; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11082354 - 04 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1236
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cryomilling (CM) pretreatment on the isolation of fennel seeds essential oil (EO). Therefore, the study included (i) the process optimization and comparison of the efficiencies of hydrodistillation (HD) and steam distillation (SD); [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cryomilling (CM) pretreatment on the isolation of fennel seeds essential oil (EO). Therefore, the study included (i) the process optimization and comparison of the efficiencies of hydrodistillation (HD) and steam distillation (SD); (ii) the evaluation of the effect of the CM application prior to the distillation method (selected based on the results obtained in the first part) on the EO yield; (iii) the evaluation of possible quality differences of the EOs obtained with the performed isolation methods. The obtained results showed that HD (at a solid to liquid ratio 1:10 and a distillation time of 120 min) was more efficient in terms of the EO yield compared to SD (at a pressure of 0.83 bar and distillation time of 117 min as optimal conditions). Moreover, an increased EO yield or even reduced distillation time was observed when HD was combined with a 3 min or 5 min CM pretreatment. GC-MS analysis showed no qualitative differences in chemical composition upon any of the applied isolation procedures, although higher amounts of volatiles were found in the cryomilled samples. The results of this study could be of interest to academia and the EO industry, as CM showed a positive aspect in EO isolation that could provide economic benefits in terms of higher yields or energy savings. Full article
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14 pages, 1394 KiB  
Article
Innovative Approaches to Enhance Activity of Endogenous Olive Enzymes—A Model System Experiment: Part I—Thermal Techniques
Processes 2023, 11(4), 1194; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11041194 - 13 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1097
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of thermal treatment and ultrasound on the activity of β-glucosidase and lipoxygenase, enzymes that determine the phenolic composition and sensory profile of virgin olive oil. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically in model systems [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of thermal treatment and ultrasound on the activity of β-glucosidase and lipoxygenase, enzymes that determine the phenolic composition and sensory profile of virgin olive oil. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically in model systems consisting of commercial enzymes and their substrates. Thermal treatment was performed by tempering the enzymes and substrates at temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Enzyme activity was measured 1 min after reaction and again after the additional incubation of the reaction mixture at 25 °C for 30 min to simulate the behavior of the enzymes during the malaxation process. Ultrasonic treatment of the model solutions was performed at 128, 320, and 640 W of the ultrasonic bath power for 1, 5, and 12 min. Enzyme activity was determined immediately after treatment and again after incubation at 25 °C for 30 min. The higher temperatures during thermal treatment increased the activity of both enzymes. During ultrasound treatment, the activity of both enzymes was positively affected by its duration. The higher power of ultrasound was a better choice for β-glucosidase and the lower one for lipoxygenase. The stimulation of enzyme activity by the studied techniques resulted in an acceleration of enzymatic reactions during the additional incubation, suggesting that the malaxation process could be shortened in virgin olive oil production. Full article
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15 pages, 1582 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Cryogrinding on Essential Oil, Phenolic Compounds and Pigments Extraction from Myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) Leaves
Processes 2022, 10(12), 2716; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10122716 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1219
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cryogrinding pretreatment on the recovery of essential oil, phenolics and pigments from myrtle leaves. The duration of cryogrinding (3, 6 and 9 min) in combination with the duration of hydrodistillation (30, 60 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of cryogrinding pretreatment on the recovery of essential oil, phenolics and pigments from myrtle leaves. The duration of cryogrinding (3, 6 and 9 min) in combination with the duration of hydrodistillation (30, 60 and 90 min) for the isolation of essential oils and the duration of hydroethanolic extraction (5, 10 and 15 min) for the isolation of phenols and pigments were studied as independent factors in a full factorial design. The major volatile components detected in myrtle leaf essential oil were myrtenyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and linalool. The most abundant phenols detected were myricetin derivatives (myricetin 3-O-galactoside and myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside), galloylquinic acid, myricetin and digalloylquinic acid, while the major pigments were chlorophyll b, pheophytin a and lutein. A 3 min cryogrinding pretreatment significantly increased the yield and concentrations of essential oil volatile compounds and reduced the distillation time to 30 min. A 9 min cryogrinding pretreatment and 15 min extraction resulted in at least 40% higher concentrations of phenolic compounds and pigments in the extracts when compared to the untreated control. According to the results obtained, cryogrinding can significantly increase the yield of myrtle EO and extracts and also modulate their composition. Full article
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