Microencapsulation of Bioactive Compounds and Potential Application in Functional Product

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutraceuticals, Functional Foods, and Novel Foods".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 29522

Special Issue Editors

Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: plant bioactive compounds; microencapsulation techniques; spray drying; electrostatic extrusion; antioxidants; advanced extraction techniques; polyphenols; pigments; chromatography methods; fruit and herb processing; functional food
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Interests: plant bioactive molecules; natural product chemistry; antioxidants; advanced extraction techniques; essential oil; fruit quality; fruit, vegetables and herbs processing; functional food; engineering; high-performance liquid chromatography
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, carotenoids, phytosterols, aromatic compounds, etc.) are natural food components that provide nutritional and health benefits. Their use has been increased in recent years in the food industry due to consumer concerns about the safety of synthetic ingredients. Bioactive compounds are added to food products for the flavouring, colouring, preservation and enhancement of health-promoting properties, but the main problem is their susceptibility to various processing and storage conditions. Microencapsulation is a useful technology that protects these compounds from degradation, increases their bioavailability, masks their undesirable characteristics and improves shelf life. Several advanced microencapsulation techniques have been explored in recent years, such as spray-drying and electrostatic extrusion used for the preservation of natural bioactive compounds. The appropriate selection of encapsulation techniques and conditions, such as carrier agents, ratio of carrier and substrate, drying temperature, feed flow rate, inlet air temperature, etc., may influence encapsulation efficiency and quality of the final product. Therefore, the aim of this Special Issue is to gather the most recent contributions and findings concerning the microencapsulation efficiency and recent advances in microencapsulation processes, as well as their future perspectives in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Dr. Sandra Pedisić
Prof. Dr. Verica Dragović-Uzelac
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • microencapsulation techniques
  • spray drying
  • electrostatic extrusion
  • carrier agents
  • encapsulation of polyphenols
  • encapsulation of pigments
  • encapsulation of aroma compounds
  • product quality
  • biological activity and health benefits

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1380 KiB  
Article
Chia Oil Microencapsulation Using Tannic Acid and Soy Protein Isolate as Wall Materials
Foods 2023, 12(20), 3833; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12203833 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
The use of proteins to produce oil-containing microcapsules has been previously analyzed; however, their chemical modification, in order to improve their performance as wall materials, is a strategy that has not been widely developed yet. This study aimed to analyze the chemical modification [...] Read more.
The use of proteins to produce oil-containing microcapsules has been previously analyzed; however, their chemical modification, in order to improve their performance as wall materials, is a strategy that has not been widely developed yet. This study aimed to analyze the chemical modification of the proteins through cross-linking reactions with tannic acid and to evaluate their performance as wall materials to the microencapsulation of oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The cross-linking reaction of isolated soy protein and tannic acid was carried out at pH 10–11 and 60 °C. Subsequently, emulsions were made with a high-speed homogenizer and microcapsules were obtained by spray drying. Microcapsules were characterized by particle size, morphology (SEM), total pore area and % porosity (mercury intrusion methodology), superficial properties (contact angle), and size distribution of oil droplets (by laser diffraction). Additionally, encapsulation efficiency was determined as a function of total and surface oil. Oil chemical stability and quality were studied by Rancimat, hydroperoxide values, and fatty acid profiles. In addition, a storage test was performed for 180 days, and released oil and polyphenols were determined by in vitro gastric digestion. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of the oil and the total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of polyphenols were analyzed. The results showed that spray-dried microcapsules had an encapsulation efficiency between 54 and 78%. The oxidative stability exhibited a positive correlation between the amount of polyphenols used and the induction time, with a maximum of 27 h. The storage assay showed that the peroxide value was lower for those cross-linked microcapsules concerning control after 180 days. After the storage time, the omega-3 content was reduced by 49% for soy protein samples, while cross-linked microcapsules maintained the initial concentration. The in-vitro digestion assay showed a decrease in the amount of oil released from the cross-linked microcapsules and an increase in the amount of polyphenols and a higher antioxidant capacity for all samples (for example, 238.10 mgGAE/g and 554.22 mg TE/g for undigested microcapsules with TA 40% versus 322.09 mgGAE/g and 663.61 mg TE/g for digested samples). The microcapsules showed a high degree of protection of the encapsulated oil, providing a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS) and polyphenols even in prolonged storage times. Full article
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20 pages, 368 KiB  
Article
Optimization of the Spray-Drying Encapsulation of Sea Buckthorn Berry Oil
Foods 2023, 12(13), 2448; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12132448 - 22 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spray-drying parameters on the physicochemical properties of encapsulated sea buckthorn berry oil. Different carriers (gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and their mixture (1:1, w/w)), inlet air temperatures (120, 150, and 180 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of spray-drying parameters on the physicochemical properties of encapsulated sea buckthorn berry oil. Different carriers (gum arabic, β-cyclodextrin, and their mixture (1:1, w/w)), inlet air temperatures (120, 150, and 180 °C), and carrier-to-oil ratios (2, 3, and 4, w/w) were evaluated. The obtained powders were characterized in terms of the product yield (36.79–64.60%), encapsulation efficiency (73.08–93.18%), moisture content (0.23–3.70%), hygroscopicity (1.5–7.06 g/100 g), solubility (19.55–74.70%), bulk density (0.25–0.44 g/L), total carotenoid content (mg/100 g dm), and antioxidant capacity (871.83–1454.39 μmol TE/100 g dm). All physicochemical properties were significantly affected by the carrier-to-oil ratio and inlet air temperature. Higher carrier-to-oil ratios increased the product yield, encapsulation efficiency, solubility, and bulk density and decreased the powder hygroscopicity. Elevating the drying temperatures during spray drying also increased the product yield, encapsulation efficiency, and solubility, while it decreased the powder moisture content, total carotenoid content, and antioxidant capacity. Based on the physicochemical properties, the use of β-cyclodextrin as a carrier, a drying temperature of 120 °C, and a carrier-to-oil ratio of 4 were selected as optimal conditions for the production of sea buckthorn berry oil powder. The obtained powder is a valuable material for a wide range of applications in the food and nutraceutical industries. Full article
15 pages, 2475 KiB  
Article
Co-Microencapsulation of Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia huayllabambana) Oil with Natural Antioxidants Extracts
Foods 2023, 12(11), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12112126 - 25 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
Sacha inchi (Plukenetia huayllabambana) oil was co-microencapsulated with natural antioxidant extracts (NAE), such as camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK) Mc Vaugh) fruit, Añil variety Andean potato (Solanum tuberosum andigenum, and elderberry fruit (Sambucus peruviana). Gum Arabic and the [...] Read more.
Sacha inchi (Plukenetia huayllabambana) oil was co-microencapsulated with natural antioxidant extracts (NAE), such as camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK) Mc Vaugh) fruit, Añil variety Andean potato (Solanum tuberosum andigenum, and elderberry fruit (Sambucus peruviana). Gum Arabic and the ternary combination of gum Arabic (GA) + maltodextrin (MD) + whey protein isolate (WPI) at different formulations were used as coating materials for the encapsulation process using spray-drying. The moisture content, particle size distribution and morphology, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, fatty acid and sterol composition, oxidative stability, and shelf-life were evaluated. Co-microcapsules of sacha inchi (P. huayllabambana) oil with camu camu skin extract (CCSE) at 200 ppm encapsulated with GA + MD + WPI had the highest total polyphenol content (4239.80 µg GAE/g powder), antioxidant activity (12,454.00 µg trolox/g powder), omega-3 content (56.03%), β-sitosterol (62.5%), greater oxidative stability (Oxidation Onset temperature of 189 °C), higher shelf-life (3116 h), and smaller particle sizes (6.42 μm). This research enhances the knowledge to obtain microcapsules containing sacha inchi (P. huayllabambana) oil with natural antioxidant extracts that could be used for the development of functional foods. Further research is needed to study the potential interactions and their influence between the bioactive components of the microcapsules and the challenges that may occur during scale-up to industrial production. Full article
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13 pages, 1768 KiB  
Article
Color and Stability of Anthocyanins of Chagalapoli (Ardisia compressa K.) Fruit Added to an Isotonic Beverage as Microcapsules and as Free Extract
Foods 2023, 12(10), 2009; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12102009 - 16 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1077
Abstract
The demand for natural pigments in the food industry is increasing. Color and stability of anthocyanins of chagalapoli (Ardisia compressa K.) fruit added to an isotonic beverage as microcapsules and free extract were evaluated at two temperatures (4 and 25 °C) in [...] Read more.
The demand for natural pigments in the food industry is increasing. Color and stability of anthocyanins of chagalapoli (Ardisia compressa K.) fruit added to an isotonic beverage as microcapsules and free extract were evaluated at two temperatures (4 and 25 °C) in the absence of light. Anthocyanins degradation followed first-order kinetics in the evaluated conditions. The stability of anthocyanins, measured by the variables reaction rate (K), half-life time (t1/2), and anthocyanin retention (AR), was affected significantly (p < 0.01) by temperature. At the end of storage at 4 °C, AR was 91.2 ± 0.28% and 89.63 ± 0.22% in the beverages with microcapsules (BM) and with anthocyanins from extract (BE), respectively, without a significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) between them. However, at 25 °C, AR in the BM was 53.72 ± 0.27%, a significantly lower value (p ≤ 0.05) than that in BE (58.83 ± 1.37%). The color difference values (ΔE) in beverages stored at 4 °C were 3.81 and 2.17 for BM and BE, respectively, while at 25 °C, it was 8.57 and 8.21, respectively. The most stable anthocyanin was cyanidin 3-galactoside. Chagalapoli anthocyanins, both as microcapsules or as an extract, are adequate for adding natural color to isotonic beverages. Full article
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20 pages, 3574 KiB  
Article
Encapsulation of Carvacrol-Loaded Nanoemulsion Obtained Using Phase Inversion Composition Method in Alginate Beads and Polysaccharide-Coated Alginate Beads
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1874; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091874 - 01 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Nanoemulsions have been widely studied as lipophilic compound loading systems. A low-energy emulsification method, phase inversion composition (PIC), was used to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions in a carvacrol–coconut oil/Tween 80®–(linoleic acid–potassium linoleate)/water system. The phase behaviour of several emulsification paths was studied [...] Read more.
Nanoemulsions have been widely studied as lipophilic compound loading systems. A low-energy emulsification method, phase inversion composition (PIC), was used to prepare oil-in-water nanoemulsions in a carvacrol–coconut oil/Tween 80®–(linoleic acid–potassium linoleate)/water system. The phase behaviour of several emulsification paths was studied and related to the composition range in which small-sized stable nanoemulsions could be obtained. An experimental design was carried out to determine the best formulation in terms of size and stability. Nanoemulsions with a very small mean droplet diameter (16–20 nm) were obtained and successfully encapsulated to add carvacrol to foods as a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. They were encapsulated into alginate beads by external gelation. In order to improve the carvacrol kinetics release, the beads were coated with two different biopolymers: chitosan and pullulan. All formulations were analysed with scanning electron microscopy to investigate the surface morphology. The release patterns at different pHs were evaluated. Different kinetics release models were fitted in order to study the release mechanisms affecting each formulation. Chitosan-coated beads avoided the initial release burst effect, improving the beads’ structure and producing a Fickian release. At basic pH, the chitosan-coated beads collapsed and the pullulan-coated beads moderately improved the release pattern of the alginate beads. For acid and neutral pHs, the chitosan-coated beads presented more sustained release patterns. Full article
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21 pages, 7195 KiB  
Article
Microencapsulation of Propolis and Honey Using Mixtures of Maltodextrin/Tara Gum and Modified Native Potato Starch/Tara Gum
Foods 2023, 12(9), 1873; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12091873 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3802
Abstract
Ethanolic extracts of propolis and bee honey contain substances beneficial to human health. Mixtures of wall materials were compared in spray-drying microencapsulation of ethanolic extracts of propolis and bee honey rich in bioactive compounds. Maltodextrin and tara gum were used to obtain microencapsulates [...] Read more.
Ethanolic extracts of propolis and bee honey contain substances beneficial to human health. Mixtures of wall materials were compared in spray-drying microencapsulation of ethanolic extracts of propolis and bee honey rich in bioactive compounds. Maltodextrin and tara gum were used to obtain microencapsulates A, and modified native potato starch and tara gum were used for microencapsulates B. High values of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity were obtained in microcapsules A and B, and the results obtained in terms of encapsulation efficiency, yield, hygroscopicity, solubility, moisture, Aw, bulk density, and color were typical of the spray-drying process. On the other hand, spherical and elliptical microparticles of sizes between 7.83 and 53.7 µm with light and medium stability were observed. Thermogravimetric properties were similar in both microencapsulates; total organic carbon, SEM-EDS, and FTIR analyses corroborated the encapsulation. X-ray diffractogram exhibited amorphous structures, and the release kinetics of phenolic compounds presented high values from 8.13 to 12.58 mg GAE/g between 7 and 13 h. Finally, modified potato starch is a better encapsulant than maltodextrin because it has better core protection and controlled release of the encapsulated bioactive compounds. Full article
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15 pages, 1544 KiB  
Article
Phyto-Assisted Synthesis of Nanoselenium–Surface Modification and Stabilization by Polyphenols and Pectins Derived from Agricultural Wastes
Foods 2023, 12(5), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12051117 - 06 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Raw and purified mandarin peel-derived pectins were characterized and combined with olive pomace extract (OPE) in the green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). SeNPs were characterized in terms of size distribution and zeta potential, and their stability was monitored during 30 days of [...] Read more.
Raw and purified mandarin peel-derived pectins were characterized and combined with olive pomace extract (OPE) in the green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). SeNPs were characterized in terms of size distribution and zeta potential, and their stability was monitored during 30 days of storage. HepG2 and Caco-2 cell models were used for the assessment of biocompatibility, while antioxidant activity was investigated by the combination of chemical and cellular-based assays. SeNP average diameters ranged from 171.3 nm up to 216.9 nm; smaller SeNPs were obtained by the utilization of purified pectins, and functionalization with OPE slightly increased the average. At concentrations of 15 mg/L SeNPs were found to be biocompatible, and their toxicity was significantly lower in comparison to inorganic selenium forms. Functionalization of SeNPs with OPE increased their antioxidant activity in chemical models. The effect was not clear in cell-based models, even though all investigated SeNPs improved cell viability and protected intracellular reduced GSH under induced oxidative stress conditions in both investigated cell lines. Exposure of cell lines to SeNPs did not prevent ROS formation after exposure to prooxidant, probably due to low transepithelial permeability. Future studies should focus on further improving the bioavailability/permeability of SeNPs and enhancing the utilization of easily available secondary raw materials in the process of phyto-mediated SeNP synthesis. Full article
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12 pages, 2425 KiB  
Article
Development of Stable Pickering Emulsions with TEMPO-Oxidized Chitin Nanocrystals for Encapsulation of Quercetin
Foods 2023, 12(2), 367; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12020367 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1616
Abstract
Pickering emulsions stabilized by TEMPO-oxidized chitin nanocrystals (T-ChNCs) were developed for quercetin delivery. T-ChNCs were synthesized by TEMPO oxidation chitin and systematically characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties. T-ChNCs were rod-like with a length of 279.7 ± 11.5 nm and zeta potential [...] Read more.
Pickering emulsions stabilized by TEMPO-oxidized chitin nanocrystals (T-ChNCs) were developed for quercetin delivery. T-ChNCs were synthesized by TEMPO oxidation chitin and systematically characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties. T-ChNCs were rod-like with a length of 279.7 ± 11.5 nm and zeta potential around −56.1 ± 1.6 mV. The Pickering emulsions were analyzed through an optical microscope and CLSM. The results showed that the emulsion had a small droplet size (972.9 ± 86.0 to 1322.3 ± 447.7 nm), a high absolute zeta potential value (−48.2 ± 0.8 to −52.9 ± 1.9 mV) and a high encapsulation efficiency (quercetin: 79.6%). The emulsion stability was measured at different levels of T-ChNCs and pH values. The droplet size and zeta potential decreased with longer storage periods. The emulsions formed by T-ChNCs retarded the release of quercetin at half rate of that of the quercetin ethanol solution. These findings indicated that T-ChNCs are a promising candidate for effectively stabilizing Pickering emulsions and controlling release of quercetin. Full article
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15 pages, 3957 KiB  
Article
Porous Microparticles of Corn Starch as Bio-Carriers for Chia Oil
Foods 2022, 11(24), 4022; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11244022 - 13 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Native corn starch and pretreated corn starch were treated with α-amylase, glucoamylase and mixtures of both to generate starches with high porosity with conserved granular structure. Porous starches were characterized; particle size distribution analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, scanning electron microscopy, water and oil [...] Read more.
Native corn starch and pretreated corn starch were treated with α-amylase, glucoamylase and mixtures of both to generate starches with high porosity with conserved granular structure. Porous starches were characterized; particle size distribution analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, scanning electron microscopy, water and oil adsorption capacity, differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and damaged starch techniques were used. The α-amylase/glucoamylase mixture at the highest dose was the best treatment to generate porous starches with interesting adsorption capacity and granular structure conservation. Selected starches were impregnated with chia oil using a vacuum. Pretreated corn starch modified with the α-amylase/glucoamylase mixture showed no significant differences on impregnation capacity compared with native starch with a similar enzyme treatment. The highest oxidative stability was achieved with pretreated porous starch impregnated with 10 to 25% chia oil, compared with the bulk oil (5.37 to 4.72 and 2.58 h, respectively). Results have demonstrated that vacuum impregnation could be a potential technique for the incorporation of oil in porous structures based on starch and porous starches obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis are a promising material for the incorporation and protection of oils susceptible to oxidation. Full article
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16 pages, 3066 KiB  
Article
Hypoglycemic Activity of Self-Assembled Gellan Gum-Soybean Isolate Composite Hydrogel-Embedded Active Substance-Saponin
Foods 2022, 11(22), 3729; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11223729 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1793
Abstract
In order to avoid hemolysis caused by direct dietary of kidney tea saponin, complex gels based on gellan gum (GG) and soybean isolate protein (SPI) loaded with saponin were created in the present study by using a self-assembly technique. Studies were conducted on [...] Read more.
In order to avoid hemolysis caused by direct dietary of kidney tea saponin, complex gels based on gellan gum (GG) and soybean isolate protein (SPI) loaded with saponin were created in the present study by using a self-assembly technique. Studies were conducted on the rheological characteristics, encapsulation effectiveness, molecular structure, microstructure, and hypoglycemic activity of GG/SPI-saponin gels. Increasing the concentration of SPI helped to enhance the strength and energy storage modulus (G′) of the gels, and the incorporation of high acylated saponin allowed the whole gel to undergo sol–gel interconversion. The encapsulation efficiency showed that GG/SPI-saponin was 84.52 ± 0.78% for saponin. Microstructural analysis results suggested that GG and SPI were bound by hydrogen bonds. The in vitro digestion results also indicated that saponin could be well retained in the stomach and subsequently released slowly in the intestine. In addition, the in vitro hypoglycemic activity results showed that the IC50 of encapsulated saponin against α-glucosidase and α-amylase were at 2.4790 mg/mL and 1.4317 mg/mL, respectively, and may be used to replace acarbose for hypoglycemia. Full article
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18 pages, 2029 KiB  
Article
Nanoparticles Containing Tamarind Isolate Protein Potentiate the Satiety without Promoting the Anti-Inflammatory Effect in a Preclinical Model of Diet-Induced Obesity
Foods 2022, 11(21), 3526; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11213526 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
The study aimed to evaluate the nanoparticles (ECW) containing tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI) concerning the storage effect under different conditions on antitrypsin activity and the bioactive potential in a preclinical model. ECW was exposed to different pH and temperatures to evaluate the interaction [...] Read more.
The study aimed to evaluate the nanoparticles (ECW) containing tamarind trypsin inhibitor (TTI) concerning the storage effect under different conditions on antitrypsin activity and the bioactive potential in a preclinical model. ECW was exposed to different pH and temperatures to evaluate the interaction between TTI and its encapsulating agents, monitored by antitrypsin activity. Wistar rats (n = 25) with obesity induced by diet were divided into groups: untreated; treatment with nutritionally adequate diet; treatment with nutritionally adequate diet and ECW/12.5 mg/kg; treatment with ECW/12.5 mg/kg; and treatment with TTI/25 mg/kg. The groups were evaluated over ten days with regards to satiety, zoometric, biochemical, and inflammatory parameters, using ten times less TTI (2.5 mg/kg) contained in ECW. TTI was protected and encapsulated in ECW without showing residual inhibitory activity. Only at gastric pH did ECW show antitrypsin activity. At different temperatures, it showed high antitrypsin activity, similar to TTI. The animals treated with ECW had significantly reduced body weight variation (p < 0.05), and only TTI treatment reduced the inflammatory parameters significantly (p < 0.05). The study showed that by using lower concentrations of TTI in ECW it was possible to perceive promising effects with perspectives of use in functional products for managing obesity and its complications. Full article
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21 pages, 2380 KiB  
Article
Effect of Spray Drying Encapsulation on Nettle Leaf Extract Powder Properties, Polyphenols and Their Bioavailability
Foods 2022, 11(18), 2852; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11182852 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2961
Abstract
Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a plant rich in a health-promoting compounds such as polyphenols, which are sensitive and unstable compounds with low bioavailability, that need to be stabilized and protected from external influences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a plant rich in a health-promoting compounds such as polyphenols, which are sensitive and unstable compounds with low bioavailability, that need to be stabilized and protected from external influences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine how the temperature, type of carrier and sample to carrier ratio influence the physicochemical properties and encapsulation and loading capacity of the nettle leaf extract powder and examine the effect of encapsulation on the antioxidant capacity and bioavailability of polyphenols. The process yield ranged from 64.63–87.23%, moisture content from 1.4–7.29%, solubility from 94.76–98.53% and hygroscopicity from 13.35–32.92 g 100 g−1. The highest encapsulation (98.67%) and loading (20.28%) capacities were achieved at 160 °C, β-CD:GA (3:1) and sample:carrier ratio of 1:3. Extracts encapsulated at selected conditions showed high antioxidant capacity and distinct polyphenolic profile comprised of 40 different compounds among which cinnamic acids were the most abundant. Moreover, the encapsulation increased the bioavailability of nettle leaf polyphenols, with the highest amount released in the intestinal phase. Thus, the obtained encapsulated extract represents a valuable source of polyphenols and may therefore be an excellent material for application in value-added and health-promoting products. Full article
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13 pages, 2863 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Guava Pulp Microencapsulated in Mucilage of Aloe Vera and Opuntia ficus-indica as a Natural Dye for Yogurt: Functional Characterization and Color Stability
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2380; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152380 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
The substitution of artificial colorants for pigments extracted from fruits is a highly desirable strategy in the food industry for the manufacture of natural, functional, and safe products. In this work, a 100% natural spray-dried (SD) microencapsulated colorant of pink guava pulp, using [...] Read more.
The substitution of artificial colorants for pigments extracted from fruits is a highly desirable strategy in the food industry for the manufacture of natural, functional, and safe products. In this work, a 100% natural spray-dried (SD) microencapsulated colorant of pink guava pulp, using aloe vera (AV) or Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) mucilage as functional encapsulating material, was prepared and evaluated as an additive into a yogurt (Y) matrix. The characterization of yogurt samples supplemented with OFI (Y-SD-OFI) and AV (Y-SD-AV) mucilage-covered guava pulp microcapsules was carried out through carotenoid quantification using UV–vis and HPLC–MS techniques, dietary fiber content, antioxidant capacity, colorimetry, and textural analysis, as well as by an evaluation of color stability after 25 days of storage at 4 °C in the dark. These physicochemical characteristics and color stability on the Y-SD-OFI and Y-SD-AV samples were compared with those of a commercial yogurt (control sample, Y-C) containing sunset yellow FCF synthetic colorant (E110). Y-SD-OFI and Y-SD-AV samples exhibited a high content of lycopene, dietary fiber, and antioxidant activity, which were absent in the control sample. Microencapsulated lycopene imparted a highly stable color to yogurt, contrary to the effect provided by the E110 dye in the control sample. The texture profile analysis revealed an increase in firmness, consistency, and cohesion in the Y-SD-OFI sample, contrary to the Y-SD-AV and Y-C samples, which was attributed to the variation in fiber concentration in the microcapsules. The incorporation of OFI and AV mucilage microparticles containing pink guava pulp into yogurt demonstrated its potential application as a functional natural colorant for dairy products. Full article
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11 pages, 1907 KiB  
Article
Encapsulation of Mesona chinensis Benth Extract in Alginate Beads Enhances the Stability and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols under Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2378; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152378 - 08 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the stability and antioxidant activity of the polyphenols from Mesona chinensis Benth extract (MCE) and its alginate-based encapsulation by extrusion technique during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The encapsulation efficacy ranged from 41.1 ± 4.7 to 56.7 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the stability and antioxidant activity of the polyphenols from Mesona chinensis Benth extract (MCE) and its alginate-based encapsulation by extrusion technique during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The encapsulation efficacy ranged from 41.1 ± 4.7 to 56.7 ± 3.4% with different concentrations of MCE (50–75% v/v), sodium alginate (1.2–1.8% w/v), and CaCl2 solution (3–5% w/v). The optimal condition for MCE-loaded alginate beads (MCB) was composed of 75% MCE, 1.5% alginate, and 3% CaCl2 solution, which provided the highest encapsulation efficiency with a spherical structure and a mean particle diameter of 1516.67 ± 40.96 μm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) reported no chemical interaction between alginate and MCE. The release of total phenolic content (TPC) was only 8.9% after placing MCB in water for 4 h. After simulated digestion, changes in TPC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of MCE significantly decreased by 25.0% and 29.7%, respectively. Interestingly, the incorporation of MCB significantly increased TPC and FRAP in the digesta compared to those of MCE during gastrointestinal tract conditions. The findings suggest that the encapsulation of MCE with alginate as a carrier helps to improve the bioaccessibility and biological activity of M. chinensis polyphenols. Full article
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Review

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30 pages, 1776 KiB  
Review
Encapsulation of Bioactive Peptides by Spray-Drying and Electrospraying
Foods 2023, 12(10), 2005; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods12102005 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2203
Abstract
Bioactive peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis are gaining attention for the production of supplements, pharmaceutical compounds, and functional foods. However, their inclusion in oral delivery systems is constrained by their high susceptibility to degradation during human gastrointestinal digestion. Encapsulating techniques can be used [...] Read more.
Bioactive peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis are gaining attention for the production of supplements, pharmaceutical compounds, and functional foods. However, their inclusion in oral delivery systems is constrained by their high susceptibility to degradation during human gastrointestinal digestion. Encapsulating techniques can be used to stabilize functional ingredients, helping to maintain their activity after processing, storage, and digestion, thus improving their bioaccessibility. Monoaxial spray-drying and electrospraying are common and economical techniques used for the encapsulation of nutrients and bioactive compounds in both the pharmaceutical and food industries. Although less studied, the coaxial configuration of both techniques could potentially improve the stabilization of protein-based bioactives via the formation of shell–core structures. This article reviews the application of these techniques, both monoaxial and coaxial configurations, for the encapsulation of bioactive peptides and protein hydrolysates, focusing on the factors affecting the properties of the encapsulates, such as the formulation of the feed solution, selection of carrier and solvent, as well as the processing conditions used. Furthermore, this review covers the release, retention of bioactivity, and stability of peptide-loaded encapsulates after processing and digestion. Full article
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