Industrial Wastewater Treatment

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Green Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 May 2024) | Viewed by 4083

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Petroleum Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
Interests: miscible and immiscible processes in fractured reservoirs; diffusion/dispersion and convection mechanisms; enhanced oil recovery and geological sequestration of greenhouse gases; production optimization; formation damage and permeability improvement; improved oil recovery from heavy oil reservoirs; interfacial phenomena; capillary pressure and 3-phase relative permeability; fluid flow in porous media; reservoir simulation; well testing; drilling and well completion; fluids transportation

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Guest Editor
Petroleum Systems Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
Interests: simulation; CFD; wastewater treatment; enhanced oil recovery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Industrial wastewaters have more pollutants than other wastewater, such as municipal sewage. Thus, industrial wastewater treatment is more complicated. In industry, an oily water sewer flows into API separators, after which it is then sent to an equalization basin to mitigate variations in the concentrations of contaminants, such as organic pollutants and suspended solids, and to achieve a constant flow rate of the stream for the following facilities. The equalized wastewater is then introduced to a dissolved air flotation (DAF) for the removal of suspended solids and oil. The effluent from the DAF is routed to biological treatment, clarifiers, sand filters, and activated carbon or zeolite filters for the treatment of organic pollutants as well as remaining suspended solids and oil. Finally, the outlet is used for irrigation or introduced as make-up water. All of the aforementioned processes are indispensable for some factories, such as petroleum refineries. The total cost of a wastewater treatment plant varies based on the volume flow rate of wastewater and the contaminants that it has. Therefore, many parameters play roles in the removal of water contaminants in industry, and researchers can find the optimum and economic conditions for wastewater treatment in industries.

Prof. Dr. Farshid Torabi
Dr. Sabeti Morteza
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • zeolite ion exchange
  • activated carbon filter
  • industrial wastewater
  • AOPs
  • biological wastewater treatment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 2972 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Single- and Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion of Thickened Waste-Activated Sludge through FNA-Heat Pretreatment
by Salomeh Chegini and Elsayed Elbeshbishy
Processes 2024, 12(2), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr12020345 - 6 Feb 2024
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Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of combined Free Nitrous Acid (FNA)-Heat (i.e., FNH) pretreatment on single- and two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of thickened waste-activated sludge (TWAS). Single-stage AD was conducted in batches, while two-stage AD involved acidogenic fermentation under semi-continuous flow [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of combined Free Nitrous Acid (FNA)-Heat (i.e., FNH) pretreatment on single- and two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of thickened waste-activated sludge (TWAS). Single-stage AD was conducted in batches, while two-stage AD involved acidogenic fermentation under semi-continuous flow followed by batch methanogenesis. FNH pretreatment was applied before the acidogenic stage, using 1.4 mg HNO2-N/L FNA concentration at 25 °C, 37 °C, and 60 °C for 24 h. Among the scenarios, the most promising results were observed with two-stage AD fed with FNH-pretreated TWAS at 60 °C, showing higher COD solubilization and a reduction in volatile solids. Combined FNA-Heat pretreatment in two-stage AD yielded elevated methane production (363–415 mL CH4/g VS added) compared to single-stage digestion. Methane yields from FNA-Heat pretreated single-stage ranged from 332 to 347 mL CH4/g VS added, contrasting with 212 mL CH4/g VS added for untreated TWAS. Methane generation commenced early in both untreated and pretreated samples, attributed to soluble substrate abundance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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19 pages, 3409 KiB  
Article
Study and Characterization of H3PO4 Activated Carbons Prepared from Jujube Stones for the Treatment of Industrial Textile Effluents
by Nasma Bouchelkia, Kheira Benazouz, Amal Mameri, Lazhar Belkhiri, Nadia Hamri, Hayet Belkacemi, Abdelhalim Zoukel, Abdeltif Amrane, Fodil Aoulmi and Lotfi Mouni
Processes 2023, 11(9), 2694; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11092694 - 8 Sep 2023
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Abstract
Dyes are responsible for major environmental issues globally due to their toxicity, large-scale production, and extensive use in various industrial sectors. Pollution caused by hazardous dyes is mainly due to textile waste, which is constantly discharged into the aquatic system, often causing harm [...] Read more.
Dyes are responsible for major environmental issues globally due to their toxicity, large-scale production, and extensive use in various industrial sectors. Pollution caused by hazardous dyes is mainly due to textile waste, which is constantly discharged into the aquatic system, often causing harm to humans and affecting water quality. In recent years, the removal of dyes from industrial textile wastewater has been a major challenge. Numerous technologies and methods have been developed to remove dyes from wastewater and meet clean water requirements. In this study, the effectiveness of activated carbon prepared by chemical activation of jujube stones for textile wastewater treatment was investigated. The effects of the concentration of H3PO4 and the carbonization temperature on the activated carbon’s properties were studied. Several physicochemical methods, including Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction, methylene blue index, Boehm titration, iodine index and pH point of zero charge, were considered to characterize the produced adsorbents. To assess the quality of the two studied textile effluents (Mustard and Violet), the following parameters were used: biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), turbidity, suspended particles and dissolved solids, before and after treatment with the produced activated carbon. Untreated wastewater analysis revealed high values for almost all parameters: pH > 9, COD of 302.72 mg/L and 230.68 mg/L for Mustard and Violet effluent, respectively. Both effluents from an industrial textile factory exhibited a COD/BOD ratio higher than three, which restricts their biodegradability. Examination of the effect of contact time and activated carbon dosage on the treatment of the two effluents showed that 4 g/L of activated carbon and 60 min of contact time were sufficient for optimal treatment, resulting in pollutant removal rates of 81.03 and 84.65% for the Violet and Mustard effluents, respectively. The results of this research highlight the efficiency of activated carbon derived from jujube stones as a cost-effective adsorbent for the treatment of real textile wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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19 pages, 1578 KiB  
Article
An Improved Method of Model-Free Adaptive Predictive Control: A Case of pH Neutralization in WWTP
by Jufeng Li, Zhihe Tang, Hui Luan, Zhongyao Liu, Baochang Xu, Zhongjun Wang and Wei He
Processes 2023, 11(5), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr11051448 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1602
Abstract
pH neutralization reaction process plays a crucial role in Waste Water Treatment Process (WWTP). Traditional PID Proportion Integral Differential, (or even advanced PID control) algorithms have poor performance on WWTP due to the strong non-linearity, large time lag, and large inertia characteristics of [...] Read more.
pH neutralization reaction process plays a crucial role in Waste Water Treatment Process (WWTP). Traditional PID Proportion Integral Differential, (or even advanced PID control) algorithms have poor performance on WWTP due to the strong non-linearity, large time lag, and large inertia characteristics of pH neutralization. Therefore, finding a superior control method to maintain the pH value of wastewater within the normal range will greatly help to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of wastewater treatment. The chemical reaction mechanism of pH neutralization reaction process is first analyzed, and a mechanistic model of pH neutralization reaction process is developed based on the reaction of ions during acid-alkali neutralization and the electric balance equation. Then, combining the characteristics of generalized predictive control and Model-Free Adaptive Control (MFAC), a Model-Free Adaptive Predictive Control (MFAPC) method based on compact format dynamic linearization is introduced. An Improved Model Free Adaptive PI Predictive Control algorithm (IMFAPC) with proportional (P) and integral (I) algorithms is proposed to further improve the control performance. IMFAPC is proposed on the basis of MFAPC, combining the advantages of generalized predictive control, introducing a PI module consisting of error and error sum, and predicting the PI module, making it possible to produce more accurate constraints on the control inputs, avoiding increasing errors, and improving the control effect of delayed systems at the same time. pH neutralization process simulation experimental results show that compared with the ordinary Model-Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) and MFAPC, the IMFAPC control algorithms has the best performance in terms of accuracy, overshoot, and the robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Industrial Wastewater Treatment)
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