Starch and Starch-Based Materials: Food and Non-Food Application

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Circular and Green Polymer Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 12470

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Science and Technology, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, 42200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: polysaccharides; natural polymers; green chemistry; biotechnology

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Guest Editor
Department of Dietetics and Food Studies, Faculty of Science & Technology, Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa, Armii Krajowej 13/15, 42-200 Czestochowa, Poland
Interests: chemical and biochemical modifications of polysaccharides; starch; dietary fiber; resistant starch resistant dextrins; prebiotics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The growing demand for new functional organic compounds and energy, while reducing fossil fuel resources and environmental problems, prompts the development of materials based on natural polymers. Producers are looking for cheap, widely available, and biodegradable raw materials and environmentally friendly methods for processing them. Hope for the elimination of problems with raw materials is seen in the growing interest in natural polysaccharide-based polymers. One of them is starch, the main energy store in plants and one of the most abundant renewable polysaccharides in the world. For decades, starch and its derivatives have been used associated mainly as an energy component of traditional food and food additives such as emulsifiers and stabilizers. Over the years, their additional properties such as pro-health and functional properties have been identified. Currently, starch-based materials are widely used not only in food production but also in agrochemistry, packaging production, and medicine. Many different methods and techniques of modification of this biopolymer are carried out in order to improve its processing properties and increase its functionality and usability while maintaining biodegradability. Treatments based on green chemistry and sustainable development are becoming more and more popular.

The present Special Issue aims to demonstrate the current state of knowledge on the food and non-food uses of starch and its derivatives. We invite you to submit original and review articles containing the latest reports and research results on this carbohydrate polymer. This will allow u to follow the trends and future development directions of starch-based materials, from structure and functionalization to application.

Dr. Arkadiusz Zarski
Dr. Sergiu Coseri
Prof. Dr. Janusz Kapusniak
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • native starch
  • starch derivatives
  • starch nanoparticles
  • starch composites
  • structure
  • properties
  • modifications
  • functions
  • food applications
  • non-food applications

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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21 pages, 11670 KiB  
Article
Development and Characterization of Biosorbent Film from Eggshell/Orange Waste Enriched with Banana Starch
by Joseph Merillyn Vonnie, Kobun Rovina, Nasir Md Nur ‘Aqilah and Xia Wen Ling Felicia
Polymers 2023, 15(11), 2414; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15112414 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2421
Abstract
The conversion of waste into a valuable product is regarded as a promising alternative to relieving the burden of solid waste management and could be beneficial to the environment and humans. This study is focused on utilizing eggshell and orange peel enriched with [...] Read more.
The conversion of waste into a valuable product is regarded as a promising alternative to relieving the burden of solid waste management and could be beneficial to the environment and humans. This study is focused on utilizing eggshell and orange peel enriched with banana starch to fabricate biofilm via the casting technique. The developed film is further characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The physical properties of films, including thickness, density, color, porosity, moisture content, water solubility, water absorption, and water vapor permeability, were also characterized. The removal efficiency of the metal ions onto film at different contact times, pH, biosorbent dosages, and initial concentration of Cd(II) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The film’s surface was found to have a porous and rough structure with no cracks, which can enhance the target analytes interactions. EDX and XRD analyses confirmed that eggshell particles were made of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and the appearance of the main peak at 2θ = 29.65° and 2θ = 29.49° proves the presence of calcite in eggshells. The FTIR indicated that the films contain various functional groups, such as alkane (C-H), hydroxyl (-OH), carbonyl (C=O), carbonate (CO32−), and carboxylic acid (-COOH) that can act as biosorption materials. According to the findings, the developed film exhibits a notable enhancement in its water barrier properties, thereby leading to improved adsorption capacity. The batch experiments showed that the film obtained the maximum removal percentage at pH = 8 and 6 g of biosorbent dose. Notably, the developed film could reach sorption equilibrium within 120 min at the initial concentration of 80 mg/L and remove 99.95% of Cd(II) in the aqueous solutions. This outcome presents potential opportunities for the application of these films in the food industry as both biosorbents and packaging materials. Such utilization can significantly enhance the overall quality of food products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Starch-Based Materials: Food and Non-Food Application)
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17 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Enrichment of Starch Desserts with the Addition of Apple Juice and Buckwheat Fiber
by Greta Adamczyk, Paweł Hanus, Inna Bobel and Magdalena Krystyjan
Polymers 2023, 15(3), 717; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15030717 - 31 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1463
Abstract
Buckwheat hulls which are rich in fiber are good ingredients to increase the nutritional value of food products. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the applied additives in the form of fiber and apple juice on the properties [...] Read more.
Buckwheat hulls which are rich in fiber are good ingredients to increase the nutritional value of food products. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the applied additives in the form of fiber and apple juice on the properties of both potato and corn starch (normal and waxy). In order to characterize the rheological properties of kissel, the pasting characteristic was measured. In the obtained gels, the basic quality parameters were determined. The analysis of texture, color parameters, and also total polyphenol content were determined. Buckwheat hulls, in addition to their high fiber content, are a valuable source of phenolic compounds and can be a great additive in starch desserts. The addition of buckwheat hulls and apple juice improved the nutritional value of the final products but also caused changes in the technological qualities: it increased the initial temperature of potato starch mixtures (by approx. 9 °C); it decreased the viscosity of cold desserts (from 8 to 55%); and increased the hardness of the final product by more than 7 times. In the case of other starches, the recorded changes were much smaller than for potato starch-based products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Starch-Based Materials: Food and Non-Food Application)
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14 pages, 3328 KiB  
Article
Crystallinity and Gas Permeability of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Starch Nanocrystal Nanocomposite
by Somayeh Sharafi Zamir, Babak Fathi, Abdellah Ajji, Mathieu Robert and Said Elkoun
Polymers 2022, 14(14), 2802; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14142802 - 9 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
The present work seeks to determine the impact of weight percentage (wt%) of grafted starch nanocrystals (g-SNCs) on the oxygen and water vapour permeability of poly (lactic acid), PLA. Changes in the oxygen and water vapour permeability of PLA due to changes in [...] Read more.
The present work seeks to determine the impact of weight percentage (wt%) of grafted starch nanocrystals (g-SNCs) on the oxygen and water vapour permeability of poly (lactic acid), PLA. Changes in the oxygen and water vapour permeability of PLA due to changes in PLA’s crystalline structures and lamellar thickness were quantified. To this end, 3, 5, and 7 wt% of g-SNC nanoparticles were blended with PLA using the solvent casting method in order to study impact of g-SNC nanoparticles on crystallization behaviour, long spacing period, melting behavior, and oxygen and water barrier properties of PLA nanocomposites. This was achieved by wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), small-angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and oxygen and water vapour permeability machine. The results of the WAXD and SAXD analysis show that the addition of 5 wt% g-SNC in PLA induces α crystal structure at a lower crystallization time, while it significantly increases the α crystal thickness of PLA, in comparison to neat PLA. However, when g-SNC concentrations were altered (i.e., 3 or 7 wt%), the crystallization time was found to increase due to the thermodynamic barrier of crystallization. Finally, the oxygen and water vapour permeability of PLA/SNC-g-LA (5 wt%) nanocomposite film were found to be reduced by ∼70% and ~50%, respectively, when compared to the neat PLA film. This can lead to the development of PLA nanocomposites with high potential for applications in food packaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Starch-Based Materials: Food and Non-Food Application)
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19 pages, 13301 KiB  
Article
Physical and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Modifications of Potato Starch Granules
by Nasima Chorfa, Hervé Nlandu, Khaled Belkacemi and Safia Hamoudi
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14102027 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3452
Abstract
In this work, a valorization of the starch stemming from downgraded potatoes was approached through the preparation of starch nanoparticles using different physical methods, namely liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide, high energy ball milling (HEBM), and ultrasonication on the one hand and enzymatic [...] Read more.
In this work, a valorization of the starch stemming from downgraded potatoes was approached through the preparation of starch nanoparticles using different physical methods, namely liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide, high energy ball milling (HEBM), and ultrasonication on the one hand and enzymatic hydrolysis on the other hand. Starch nanoparticles are beneficial as a reinforcement in food packaging technology as they enhance the mechanical and water vapor resistance of polymers. Also, starch nanoparticles are appropriate for medical applications as carriers for the delivery of bioactive or therapeutic agents. The obtained materials were characterized using X-ray diffraction as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopies (SEM and TEM), whereas the hydrolysates were analyzed using size exclusion chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (SEC-PAD). The acquired results revealed that the physical modification methods led to moderate alterations of the potato starch granules’ size and crystallinity. However, enzymatic hydrolysis conducted using Pullulanase enzyme followed by nanoprecipitation of the hydrolysates allowed us to obtain very tiny starch nanoparticles sized between 20 and 50 nm, much smaller than the native starch granules, which have an average size of 10 μm. The effects of enzyme concentration, temperature, and reaction medium pH on the extent of hydrolysis in terms of the polymer carbohydrates’ fractions were investigated. The most promising results were obtained with a Pullulanase enzyme concentration of 160 npun/g of starch, at a temperature of 60 °C in a pH 4 phosphate buffer solution resulting in the production of hydrolysates containing starch polymers with low molecular weights corresponding mainly to P-10, P-5, and fractions with molecular weights lower than P-5 Pullulan standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Starch-Based Materials: Food and Non-Food Application)
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Review

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46 pages, 8901 KiB  
Review
Functionalization Methods of Starch and Its Derivatives: From Old Limitations to New Possibilities
by Arkadiusz Zarski, Kamila Kapusniak, Sylwia Ptak, Magdalena Rudlicka, Sergiu Coseri and Janusz Kapusniak
Polymers 2024, 16(5), 597; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym16050597 - 21 Feb 2024
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1845
Abstract
It has long been known that starch as a raw material is of strategic importance for meeting primarily the nutritional needs of people around the world. Year by year, the demand not only for traditional but also for functional food based on starch [...] Read more.
It has long been known that starch as a raw material is of strategic importance for meeting primarily the nutritional needs of people around the world. Year by year, the demand not only for traditional but also for functional food based on starch and its derivatives is growing. Problems with the availability of petrochemical raw materials, as well as environmental problems with the recycling of post-production waste, make non-food industries also increasingly interested in this biopolymer. Its supporters will point out countless advantages such as wide availability, renewability, and biodegradability. Opponents, in turn, will argue that they will not balance the problems with its processing and storage and poor functional properties. Hence, the race to find new methods to improve starch properties towards multifunctionality is still ongoing. For these reasons, in the presented review, referring to the structure and physicochemical properties of starch, attempts were made to highlight not only the current limitations in its processing but also new possibilities. Attention was paid to progress in the non-selective and selective functionalization of starch to obtain materials with the greatest application potential in the food (resistant starch, dextrins, and maltodextrins) and/or in the non-food industries (hydrophobic and oxidized starch). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Starch and Starch-Based Materials: Food and Non-Food Application)
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