Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2022) | Viewed by 32151

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
New Technologies Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitní 8, 30614 Plzeň, Czech Republic
Interests: advanced polymer nanocomposites; synthesis and characterization; energy storage; sensors; EMI shielding applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha P. O. Box 2713, Qatar
Interests: polymers; nanomaterials; nanocomposites; sensors; catalysis; 3D printing; corrosion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
New Technologies Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitní 8, 30614 Plzeň, Czech Republic
Interests: sol-gel glasses and ceramics; geopolymers; biodegradable polymers; biopolymers and composites; processing techniques; structure-property relationships
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, the development of environmentally friendly polymers (also known as bio-based polymers) that can be obtained from both fossil fuel and natural resources has received enormous research interest, due to their excellent physical properties. Bio-based polymers exhibit versatile properties, with applications in electronics, food packaging, medicine, pharmaceutical, tissue engineering and agricultural fields. The reinforcement of additives in bio-based polymers demonstrates a significant promise for designing new sustainable polymer composites with desired properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of biodegradable polymers widens their application potential in various fields such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine. Although several types of biodegradable polymers have been reported in the literature, only a few have shown their true potential for practical applications. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of multifunctional materials derived from bio-based polymers with improved performances. Today, the research and development activities on bio-based polymers and composites are continuously growing.

In this regard, this Special Issue on “Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites” aims to present the most recent developments in the field of bio-based polymers and nanocomposites, and their potential applications in various fields such as energy storage, EMI shielding, sensing and bio-sensing, smart medical devices, medical implants, drug delivery and regenerative medicine, etc. Studies related to the preparation, characterization, property evaluation, biodegradation and application of biopolymers and their composites will be accepted for publication in this Special Issue. Thus, authors are welcome to submit their latest research in the form of original high-quality full articles, communications, or reviews that can stimulate the key knowledge and help in further understanding this fascinating research field.

Dr. Kalim Deshmukh
Dr. Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni
Dr. Tomáš Kovářík
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • Synthesis of biopolymers
  • Biopolymer composites and nanocomposites
  • Processing methods of biopolymer composites/nanocomposites
  • Structure-property relationships
  • Morphology and surface properties
  • Thermal behavior and thermal stability
  • Mechanical properties and structural integrity
  • Thermo-responsive biopolymer composites/nanocomposites
  • Biopolymer composites/nanocomposites for energy storage
  • Biopolymer composites/nanocomposites for EMI shielding
  • Biocompatibility and biodegradability
  • Biopolymer composites and nanocomposites for sensing/biosensing
  • Biopolymers and their composites/nanocomposites for smart medical devices
  • Biopolymer composites/nanocomposites for regenerative medicine
  • Bio-based polymer composites/nanocomposites for drug delivery

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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17 pages, 3061 KiB  
Article
Polyethyleneglycol-Betulinic Acid (PEG-BA) Polymer-Drug Conjugate Induces Apoptosis and Antioxidation in a Biological Model of Pancreatic Cancer
by Karabo Sekopi Mosiane, Ekene Emmanuel Nweke, Mohammed Balogun and Pascaline Nanga Fru
Polymers 2023, 15(2), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15020448 - 14 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1587
Abstract
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive solid malignancies with poor treatment response and low survival rates. Herbal medicines such as betulinic acid (BA) have shown potential in treating various solid tumours, but with limitations that can be circumvented by polymer-drug [...] Read more.
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most aggressive solid malignancies with poor treatment response and low survival rates. Herbal medicines such as betulinic acid (BA) have shown potential in treating various solid tumours, but with limitations that can be circumvented by polymer-drug conjugation. Polyethylene glycol-BA (PEG-BA) polymer-drug conjugate has previously shown selective anticancer activity against PC cells. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of cell death and the cell death pathway, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of PEG-BA. PEG-BA induced apoptotic cell death by arresting MIA-PaCa-2 cells in the Sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle compared with BA and untreated cells (39.50 ± 5.32% > 19.63 ± 4.49% > 4.57 ± 0.82%). NFκB/p65 protein expression was moderately increased by PEG-BA (2.70 vs. 3.09 ± 0.42 ng/mL; p = 0.1521). However, significant (p < 0.05) overexpression of the proapoptotic genes TNF (23.72 ± 1.03) and CASPASE 3 (12,059.98 ± 1.74) compared with untreated cells was notable. The antioxidant potential of PEG-BA was greater (IC50 = 15.59 ± 0.64 µM) compared with ascorbic acid (25.58 ± 0.44 µM) and BA-only (>100 µM) and further confirmed with the improved reduction of hydroperoxide levels compared with BA-only (518.80 ± 25.53 µM vs. 542.43 ± 9.70 µM). In conclusion, PEG-BA activated both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis and improved antioxidant activities in PC cells, suggesting enhanced anticancer activity upon conjugation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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16 pages, 3441 KiB  
Article
Ultrasensitive Functionalized Polymeric-Nanometal Oxide Sensors for Potentiometric Determination of Ranitidine Hydrochloride
by Eman M. Alshehri, Nawal A. Alarfaj, Salma A. Al-Tamimi and Maha F. El-Tohamy
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4150; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194150 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Two metal oxide nanoparticles, magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3NPs), were synthesized from green sources, Salvia officials and Cuminum cyminum seed extract, respectively. These nanoparticles were used for construction of potentiometric enhancement sensors employed for the [...] Read more.
Two metal oxide nanoparticles, magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3NPs), were synthesized from green sources, Salvia officials and Cuminum cyminum seed extract, respectively. These nanoparticles were used for construction of potentiometric enhancement sensors employed for the estimation of ranitidine hydrochloride (RNT) in authentic powder and commercial products. The electroactive substance ranitidine-phosphotungstate (RNT-PT) was formed by combining RNT with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) in the presence of plasticizing material o-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE). The outcomes showed that the enhanced MgO and Al2O3 nanosensors behaved linearly across the concentration ranges 1.0 × 10−9–1.0 × 10−2 and 1.0 × 10−10–1.0 × 10−2 mol L−1, respectively. However, the conventional sensor (RNT-PT) displayed a linearity over 1.0 × 10−6–1.0 × 10−2 mol L−1. Least square equations were calculated as EmV = (54.1 ± 0.5) log (RNT) + 762.33, EmV = (58.6 ± 0.2) log (RNT) + 696.48, and EmV = (52.2 ± 0.7) log (RNT) + 756.76 for enriched nanometal oxides modified and conventional sensors, respectively. The correlation coefficients of regression equations were 0.9997, 0.9995, and 0.9992 for the above suggested sensors, respectively. The recorded results showed excellent sensitivity and selectivity of the modified nanometal oxide sensors for the quantification of the analyzed drug in its authentic samples and commercial products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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14 pages, 3224 KiB  
Article
Controlled Release of Tea Tree Oil from a Chitosan Matrix Containing Gold Nanoparticles
by Frederic Matussek, Adriana Pavinatto, Peggy Knospe, Sabine Beuermann and Rafaela Cristina Sanfelice
Polymers 2022, 14(18), 3808; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14183808 - 12 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1437
Abstract
Chitosan is a biopolymer that, due to its versatile bioactive properties, has applications in several areas, including food, medicine and pharmaceuticals. In the field of tissue engineering, chitosan can be used, for example, as a dressing to treat wounds or dermal damage, such [...] Read more.
Chitosan is a biopolymer that, due to its versatile bioactive properties, has applications in several areas, including food, medicine and pharmaceuticals. In the field of tissue engineering, chitosan can be used, for example, as a dressing to treat wounds or dermal damage, such as burns or abrasions. This work deals with the controlled release of tea tree oil from chitosan-based polymeric films and droplets containing gold nanoparticles (AuNP). AuNPs were successfully incorporated into the chitosan matrix using two different approaches. Both solutions were loaded with tea tree oil, and from these solutions, it was possible to obtain drop-cast films and droplets. The controlled release of oil in water was performed both in the films and in the droplets. The addition of AuNP in the controlled release system of melaleuca oil favored a release time of around 25 h. A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the effects of different reaction temperatures and acetic acid concentrations on the formation of AuNPs in the presence of chitosan. For this purpose, images of the AuNP films and droplets were obtained using transmission electron microscopy. In addition, UV-vis spectra were recorded to investigate the release of tea tree oil from the different samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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10 pages, 11694 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Gentamicin-Immobilized Agar with Improved Antibacterial Activity
by Tingting Hou, Xin Wen, Lici Xie, Qixiang Gu and Chengpeng Li
Polymers 2022, 14(15), 2975; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14152975 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1019
Abstract
To develop agar derivatives with good antibacterial activity and decreased gelling and melting temperatures, two agar–gentamycin conjugates with 9.20% and 12.68% gentamicin immobilized were fabricated by oxidation, Schiff base and reduction reaction, and characterized by a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, 1H nuclear [...] Read more.
To develop agar derivatives with good antibacterial activity and decreased gelling and melting temperatures, two agar–gentamycin conjugates with 9.20% and 12.68% gentamicin immobilized were fabricated by oxidation, Schiff base and reduction reaction, and characterized by a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and an elemental analyzer. It was found that the modifications changed the intermolecular interactions, leading to decreased gelling and melting temperatures for the oxidized agar and slightly increased gelling and melting temperatures for agar–gentamycin conjugates. Further studies of antimicrobial properties showed that the two agar–gentamycin conjugates possessed good antibacterial activity, which was positively correlated with the dosage and the immobilization rate of gentamicin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of agar–gentamycin conjugates with higher immobilization rates of gentamicin against Escherichia coli were 39.1 μg/mL and 156.2 μg/mL, respectively, and the MICs and MBCs against Staphylococcus aureus were 19.5 μg/mL and 78.1 μg/mL, respectively. A biofilm test indicated that certain concentrations of agar–gentamycin conjugate could effectively inhibit the biofilm formation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. In summary, agar–gentamycin conjugates possess good antibacterial activities and may be applied as a new kind of antibacterial material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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14 pages, 1353 KiB  
Article
Mastoparan, a Peptide Toxin from Wasp Venom Conjugated Fluvastatin Nanocomplex for Suppression of Lung Cancer Cell Growth
by Nabil A. Alhakamy, Osama A. A. Ahmed, Shadab Md and Usama A. Fahmy
Polymers 2021, 13(23), 4225; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13234225 - 02 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
Lung cancer has a very low survival rate, and non-small cell lung cancer comprises around 85% of all types of lung cancers. Fluvastatin (FLV) has demonstrated the apoptosis and suppression of tumor-cell proliferation against lung cancer cells in vitro. Drug–peptide nanoconjugates were found [...] Read more.
Lung cancer has a very low survival rate, and non-small cell lung cancer comprises around 85% of all types of lung cancers. Fluvastatin (FLV) has demonstrated the apoptosis and suppression of tumor-cell proliferation against lung cancer cells in vitro. Drug–peptide nanoconjugates were found to enhance the cytotoxicity of anti-cancer drugs. Thus, the present study aimed to develop a nanocomplex of FLV with mastoparan (MAS), which is a peptide that has membranolytic anti-tumor activity. The nanocomplex of FLV and MAS (MAS-FLV-NC) was prepared and optimized for particle size using Box–Behnken design. The amount of FLV had the highest influence on particle size. While higher levels of FLV and incubation time favored higher particle size, a higher level of sonication time reduced the particle size of MAS-FLV-NC. The optimum formula of MAS-FLV-NC used 1.00 mg of FLV and was prepared with an incubation time of 12.1339 min and a sonication time of 6 min. The resultant particle size was 77.648 nm. The in vitro cell line studies of MAS-FLV-NC, FLV, and MAS were carried out in A549 cells. The IC50 values of MAS-FLV-NC, FLV, and MAS were 18.6 ± 0.9, 58.4 ± 2.8, and 34.3 ± 1.6 µg/mL respectively, showing the enhanced cytotoxicity of MAS-FLV-NC. The apoptotic activity showed that MAS-FLV-NC produced a higher percentage of cells in the late phase, showing a higher apoptotic activity than FLV and MAS. Furthermore, cell cycle arrest in S and Pre G1 phases by MAS-FLV-NC was observed in the cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential after MAS-FLV-NC treatment was significantly higher than those observed for FLV and MAS. The IL-1β, IL-6, and NF-kB expressions were inhibited, whereas TNF-α, caspase-3, and ROS expressions were enhanced by MAS-FLV-NC treatment. Furthermore, the expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 strongly established the enhanced cytotoxic effect of MAS-FLV-NC. The results indicated that MAS-FLV-NC has better cytotoxicity than individual effects of MAS and FLV in A549 cells. Further pre-clinical and clinical studies are needed for developing MAS-FLV-NC to a clinically successful therapeutic approach against lung cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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12 pages, 2845 KiB  
Article
Double-Walled Poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) Nanoparticles for the Sustained Release of Doxorubicin
by M. Margarida Cardoso, Inês N. Peca, Telma Lopes, Rui Gardner and A. Bicho
Polymers 2021, 13(19), 3230; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13193230 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
Double-walled nanoparticles (DWNPs), containing doxorubicin as a model drug, were produced using poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) by the solvent evaporation technique. Double-walled microparticles containing doxorubicin were also produced to make possible the examination of the inner morphology and drug distribution using optical [...] Read more.
Double-walled nanoparticles (DWNPs), containing doxorubicin as a model drug, were produced using poly-(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) by the solvent evaporation technique. Double-walled microparticles containing doxorubicin were also produced to make possible the examination of the inner morphology and drug distribution using optical and fluorescence microscopy. The produced microparticles present a double-walled structure with doxorubicin solubilized in the PLGA-rich phase. The DWNPs produced present very low initial burst values and a sustained DOX release for at least 90 days with release rates decreasing with the increase in the PLLA amount. Zero-order release kinetics were obtained after day 15. The results support that the PLLA layer acts as a rate control barrier and that the diffusion of doxorubicin from the drug-loaded inner PLGA core can be retarded by an increase in the thickness of the unloaded outer layer. The unloaded double-walled nanoparticles produced were used in in vitro tests with CHO cells and demonstrate that they are nontoxic, while the double-walled nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin caused a great cellular viability and decreased when tested in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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18 pages, 6056 KiB  
Article
Structural and Rheological Properties of Nonedible Vegetable Oil-Based Resin
by Nurul Huda Mudri, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, Min Min Aung, Dayang Radiah Awang Biak and Rida Tajau
Polymers 2021, 13(15), 2490; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152490 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
Jatropha oil-based polyol (JOL) was prepared from crude Jatropha oil via an epoxidation and hydroxylation reaction. During the isocyanation step, two different types of diisocyanates; 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), were introduced to produce Jatropha oil-based polyurethane acrylates (JPUA). The products [...] Read more.
Jatropha oil-based polyol (JOL) was prepared from crude Jatropha oil via an epoxidation and hydroxylation reaction. During the isocyanation step, two different types of diisocyanates; 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), were introduced to produce Jatropha oil-based polyurethane acrylates (JPUA). The products were named JPUA-TDI and JPUA-IPDI, respectively. The success of the stepwise reactions of the resins was confirmed using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to support the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis that was reported in the previous study. For JPUA-TDI, the presence of a signal at 7.94 ppm evidenced the possible side reactions between urethane linkages with secondary amine that resulted in an aryl-urea group (Ar-NH-COO-). Meanwhile, the peak of 2.89 ppm was assigned to the α-position of methylene to the carbamate (-CH2NHCOO) group in the JPUA-IPDI. From the rheological study, JO and JPUA-IPDI in pure form were classified as Newtonian fluids, while JPUA-TDI showed non-Newtonian behaviour with pseudoplastic or shear thinning behaviour at room temperature. At elevated temperatures, the JO, JPUA-IPDI mixture and JPUA-TDI mixture exhibited reductions in viscosity and shear stress as the shear rate increased. The JO and JPUA-IPDI mixture maintained Newtonian fluid behaviour at all temperature ranges. Meanwhile, the JPUA-TDI mixture showed shear thickening at 25 °C and shear thinning at 40 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C. The master curve graph based on the shear rate for the JO, JPUA-TDI mixture and JPUA-IPDI mixture at 25 °C, 40 °C, 60 °C and 80 °C was developed as a fluid behaviour reference for future storage and processing conditions during the encapsulation process. The encapsulation process can be conducted to fabricate a self-healing coating based on a microcapsule triggered either by air or ultra-violet (UV) radiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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13 pages, 2134 KiB  
Article
Application of Chitosan/Alginate Nanocomposite Incorporated with Phycosynthesized Iron Nanoparticles for Efficient Remediation of Chromium
by Fahad M. Almutairi, Haddad A. El Rabey, Adel I. Alalawy, Alzahraa A. M. Salama, Ahmed A. Tayel, Ghena M. Mohammed, Meshari M. Aljohani, Ali A. Keshk, Nasser H. Abbas and Mohamed M. Zayed
Polymers 2021, 13(15), 2481; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13152481 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2852 | Correction
Abstract
Biopolymers and nanomaterials are ideal candidates for environmental remediation and heavy metal removal. As hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a hazardous toxic pollutant of water, this study innovatively aimed to synthesize nanopolymer composites and load them with phycosynthesized Fe nanoparticles for the [...] Read more.
Biopolymers and nanomaterials are ideal candidates for environmental remediation and heavy metal removal. As hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) is a hazardous toxic pollutant of water, this study innovatively aimed to synthesize nanopolymer composites and load them with phycosynthesized Fe nanoparticles for the full Cr6+ removal from aqueous solutions. The extraction of chitosan (Cht) from prawn shells and alginate (Alg) from brown seaweed (Sargassum linifolium) was achieved with standard characteristics. The tow biopolymers were combined and cross-linked (via microemulsion protocol) to generate nanoparticles from their composites (Cht/Alg NPs), which had a mean diameter of 311.2 nm and were negatively charged (−23.2 mV). The phycosynthesis of iron nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) was additionally attained using S. linifolium extract (SE), and the Fe-NPs had semispherical shapes with a 21.4 nm mean diameter. The conjugation of Cht/Alg NPs with SE-phycosynthesized Fe-NPs resulted in homogenous distribution and stabilization of metal NPs within the polymer nanocomposites. Both nanocomposites exhibited high efficiency as adsorbents for Cr6+ at diverse conditions (e.g., pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial ion concentration) using batch adsorption evaluation; the most effectual conditions for adsorption were a pH value of 5.0, adsorbent dose of 4 g/L, contact time of 210 min and initial Cr6+ concentration of 75 ppm. These factors could result in full removal of Cr6+ from batch experiments. The composited nanopolymers (Cht/Alg NPs) incorporated with SE-phycosynthesized Fe-NPs are strongly recommended for complete removal of Cr6+ from aqueous environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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18 pages, 5438 KiB  
Article
Study on Structure, Thermal Behavior, and Viscoelastic Properties of Nanodiamond-Reinforced Poly (vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposites
by Tomáš Remiš, Petr Bělský, Tomáš Kovářík, Jaroslav Kadlec, Mina Ghafouri Azar, Rostislav Medlín, Veronika Vavruňková, Kalim Deshmukh and Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni
Polymers 2021, 13(9), 1426; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13091426 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 3249
Abstract
In this work, advanced polymer nanocomposites comprising of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nanodiamonds (NDs) were developed using a single-step solution-casting method. The properties of the prepared PVA/NDs nanocomposites were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), [...] Read more.
In this work, advanced polymer nanocomposites comprising of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nanodiamonds (NDs) were developed using a single-step solution-casting method. The properties of the prepared PVA/NDs nanocomposites were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). It was revealed that the tensile strength improved dramatically with increasing ND content in the PVA matrix, suggesting a strong interaction between the NDs and the PVA. SEM, TEM, and SAXS showed that NDs were present in the form of agglomerates with an average size of ~60 nm with primary particles of diameter ~5 nm. These results showed that NDs could act as a good nanofiller for PVA in terms of improving its stability and mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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18 pages, 5570 KiB  
Article
Oxygen Plasma Treated-Electrospun Polyhydroxyalkanoate Scaffolds for Hydrophilicity Improvement and Cell Adhesion
by Asiyah Esmail, João R. Pereira, Patrícia Zoio, Sara Silvestre, Ugur Deneb Menda, Chantal Sevrin, Christian Grandfils, Elvira Fortunato, Maria A. M. Reis, Célia Henriques, Abel Oliva and Filomena Freitas
Polymers 2021, 13(7), 1056; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13071056 - 27 Mar 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3607
Abstract
Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) with differing material properties, namely, the homopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB), the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), P(3HB-co-3HV), with a 3HV content of 25 wt.% and a medium chain length PHA, and mcl-PHA, mainly composed of 3-hydroxydecanoate, were studied as scaffolding material for cell culture. P(3HB) [...] Read more.
Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) with differing material properties, namely, the homopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB), the copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate), P(3HB-co-3HV), with a 3HV content of 25 wt.% and a medium chain length PHA, and mcl-PHA, mainly composed of 3-hydroxydecanoate, were studied as scaffolding material for cell culture. P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-3HV) were individually spun into fibers, as well as blends of the mcl-PHA with each of the scl-PHAs. An overall biopolymer concentration of 4 wt.% was used to prepare the electrospinning solutions, using chloroform as the solvent. A stable electrospinning process and good quality fibers were obtained for a solution flow rate of 0.5 mL h−1, a needle tip collector distance of 20 cm and a voltage of 12 kV for P(3HB) and P(3HB-co-3HV) solutions, while for the mcl-PHA the distance was increased to 25 cm and the voltage to 15 kV. The scaffolds’ hydrophilicity was significantly increased under exposure to oxygen plasma as a surface treatment. Complete wetting was obtained for the oxygen plasma treated scaffolds and the water uptake degree increased in all treated scaffolds. The biopolymers crystallinity was not affected by the electrospinning process, while their treatment with oxygen plasma decreased their crystalline fraction. Human dermal fibroblasts were able to adhere and proliferate within the electrospun PHA-based scaffolds. The P(3HB-co-3HV): mcl-PHA oxygen plasma treated scaffold highlighted the most promising results with a cell adhesion rate of 40 ± 8%, compared to 14 ± 4% for the commercial oxygen plasma treated polystyrene scaffold AlvetexTM. Scaffolds based on P(3HB-co-3HV): mcl-PHA blends produced by electrospinning and submitted to oxygen plasma exposure are therefore promising biomaterials for the development of scaffolds for tissue engineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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44 pages, 9761 KiB  
Review
Polymeric Micro/Nanocarriers and Motors for Cargo Transport and Phototriggered Delivery
by Pedro Mena-Giraldo and Jahir Orozco
Polymers 2021, 13(22), 3920; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13223920 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3534
Abstract
Smart polymer-based micro/nanoassemblies have emerged as a promising alternative for transporting and delivering a myriad of cargo. Cargo encapsulation into (or linked to) polymeric micro/nanocarrier (PC) strategies may help to conserve cargo activity and functionality when interacting with its surroundings in its journey [...] Read more.
Smart polymer-based micro/nanoassemblies have emerged as a promising alternative for transporting and delivering a myriad of cargo. Cargo encapsulation into (or linked to) polymeric micro/nanocarrier (PC) strategies may help to conserve cargo activity and functionality when interacting with its surroundings in its journey to the target. PCs for cargo phototriggering allow for excellent spatiotemporal control via irradiation as an external stimulus, thus regulating the delivery kinetics of cargo and potentially increasing its therapeutic effect. Micromotors based on PCs offer an accelerated cargo–medium interaction for biomedical, environmental, and many other applications. This review collects the recent achievements in PC development based on nanomicelles, nanospheres, and nanopolymersomes, among others, with enhanced properties to increase cargo protection and cargo release efficiency triggered by ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, including light-stimulated polymeric micromotors for propulsion, cargo transport, biosensing, and photo-thermal therapy. We emphasize the challenges of positioning PCs as drug delivery systems, as well as the outstanding opportunities of light-stimulated polymeric micromotors for practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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29 pages, 7476 KiB  
Review
Multifunctional and Self-Healable Intelligent Hydrogels for Cancer Drug Delivery and Promoting Tissue Regeneration In Vivo
by Elham Pishavar, Fatemeh Khosravi, Mahshid Naserifar, Erfan Rezvani Ghomi, Hongrong Luo, Barbara Zavan, Amelia Seifalian and Seeram Ramakrishna
Polymers 2021, 13(16), 2680; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13162680 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4448
Abstract
Regenerative medicine seeks to assess how materials fundamentally affect cellular functions to improve retaining, restoring, and revitalizing damaged tissues and cancer therapy. As potential candidates in regenerative medicine, hydrogels have attracted much attention due to mimicking of native cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) in cell [...] Read more.
Regenerative medicine seeks to assess how materials fundamentally affect cellular functions to improve retaining, restoring, and revitalizing damaged tissues and cancer therapy. As potential candidates in regenerative medicine, hydrogels have attracted much attention due to mimicking of native cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) in cell biology, tissue engineering, and drug screening over the past two decades. In addition, hydrogels with a high capacity for drug loading and sustained release profile are applicable in drug delivery systems. Recently, self-healing supramolecular hydrogels, as a novel class of biomaterials, are being used in preclinical trials with benefits such as biocompatibility, native tissue mimicry, and injectability via a reversible crosslink. Meanwhile, the localized therapeutics agent delivery is beneficial due to the ability to deliver more doses of therapeutic agents to the targeted site and the ability to overcome post-surgical complications, inflammation, and infections. These highly potential materials can help address the limitations of current drug delivery systems and the high clinical demand for customized drug release systems. To this aim, the current review presents the state-of-the-art progress of multifunctional and self-healable hydrogels for a broad range of applications in cancer therapy, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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1 pages, 157 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Almutairi et al. Application of Chitosan/Alginate Nanocomposite Incorporated with Phycosynthesized Iron Nanoparticles for Efficient Remediation of Chromium. Polymers 2021, 13, 2481
by Fahad M. Almutairi, Haddad A. El Rabey, Adel I. Alalawy, Alzahraa A. M. Salama, Ahmed A. Tayel, Ghena M. Mohammed, Meshari M. Aljohani, Ali A. Keshk, Nasser H. Abbas and Mohamed M. Zayed
Polymers 2022, 14(7), 1385; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071385 - 29 Mar 2022
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to the published paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites)
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