Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites II

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 April 2024 | Viewed by 11756

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
New Technologies Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitní 8, 30614 Plzeň, Czech Republic
Interests: advanced polymer nanocomposites; synthesis and characterization; energy storage; sensors; EMI shielding applications
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Guest Editor
Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha P. O. Box 2713, Qatar
Interests: polymers; nanomaterials; nanocomposites; sensors; catalysis; 3D printing; corrosion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
New Technologies Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitní 8, 30614 Plzeň, Czech Republic
Interests: sol-gel glasses and ceramics; geopolymers; biodegradable polymers; biopolymers and composites; processing techniques; structure-property relationships
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recently, the development of environmentally friendly polymers (also known as bio-based polymers) that can be obtained from both fossil fuel and natural resources has received enormous research interest, due to their excellent physical properties. Bio-based polymers exhibit versatile properties, with applications in electronics, food packaging, medicine, pharmaceutical, tissue engineering and agricultural fields. The reinforcement of additives in bio-based polymers holds significant promise for designing new sustainable polymer composites with desirable properties. In addition, the biocompatibility of biodegradable polymers widens their application potential in various fields such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine. Although several types of biodegradable polymers have been reported in the literature, only a few have shown their true potential in practical applications. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of multifunctional materials derived from bio-based polymers with improved performances. Today, the research and development activities regarding bio-based polymers and composites are continuously growing.

In this regard, this Special Issue on “Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites” aims to present the most recent developments in the field of bio-based polymers and nanocomposites, and their potential applications in various fields such as energy storage, EMI shielding, sensing and bio-sensing, smart medical devices, medical implants, drug delivery and regenerative medicine, etc. Studies related to the preparation, characterization, property evaluation, biodegradation and application of biopolymers and their composites will be considered for publication in this Special Issue. Thus, authors are welcome to submit their latest research in the form of original high-quality full articles, communications, or reviews that can stimulate discussions of key knowledge and help in further understanding this fascinating research field.

Dr. Kalim Deshmukh
Dr. Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni
Dr. Tomáš Kovářík
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • synthesis of biopolymers
  • biopolymer composites and nanocomposites
  • processing methods of biopolymer composites/nanocomposites
  • structure–property relationships
  • morphology and surface properties
  • thermal behavior and thermal stability
  • mechanical properties and structural integrity
  • thermo-responsive biopolymer composites/nanocomposites
  • biopolymer composites/nanocomposites for energy storage
  • biopolymer composites/nanocomposites for emi shielding
  • biocompatibility and biodegradability
  • biopolymer composites and nanocomposites for sensing/biosensing
  • biopolymers and their composites/nanocomposites for smart medical devices
  • biopolymer composites/nanocomposites for regenerative medicine
  • bio-based polymer composites/nanocomposites for drug delivery

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 4186 KiB  
Article
Temperature-Sensitive Aerogel Using Bagasse Carboxylated Cellulose Nanocrystals/N-Isopropyl Acrylamide for Controlled Release of Pesticides
by Ni Dong, Zuzeng Qin, Wang Li, Nian Xiang, Xuan Luo, Hongbing Ji, Zhiwei Wang and Xinling Xie
Polymers 2023, 15(22), 4451; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15224451 - 17 Nov 2023
Viewed by 850
Abstract
Temperature-sensitive carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals/N-isopropyl acrylamide aerogels (CCNC-NIPAMs) were developed as novel pesticide-controlled release formulas. Ammonium persulfate (APS) one-step oxidation was used to prepare bagasse-based CCNCs, and then the monomer N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) was successfully introduced and constructed into the temperature-sensitive CCNC-NIPAMs through polymerization. [...] Read more.
Temperature-sensitive carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals/N-isopropyl acrylamide aerogels (CCNC-NIPAMs) were developed as novel pesticide-controlled release formulas. Ammonium persulfate (APS) one-step oxidation was used to prepare bagasse-based CCNCs, and then the monomer N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) was successfully introduced and constructed into the temperature-sensitive CCNC-NIPAMs through polymerization. The results of the zeta potential measurement and Fourier infrared transform spectrum (FTIR) show that the average particle size of the CCNCs was 120.9 nm, the average surface potential of the CCNCs was −34.8 mV, and the crystallinity was 62.8%. The primary hydroxyl group on the surface of the CCNCs was replaced by the carboxyl group during oxidation. The morphology and structure of CCNC-NIPAMs were characterized via electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), compression performance, porosity analysis, and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The results demonstrate that CCNC-NIPAM has a high porosity and low density, as well as good thermal stability, which is conducive to loading and releasing pesticides. In the swelling, drug loading, and controlled release process, the CCNC-NIPAM exhibited significant temperature sensitivity. Under the same NIPAM reaction amount, the equilibrium swelling rate of the CCNC-NIPAM first increased and then decreased with increasing temperature, and the cumulative drug release ratio of the CCNC-NIPAM at 39 °C was significantly higher than that at 25 °C. The loading efficiency of the CCNC-NIPAM on the model drug thiamethoxam (TXM) was up to 23 wt%, and the first-order model and Korsmyer–Peppas model could be well-fitted in the drug release curves. The study provides a new method for the effective utilization of biomass and pesticides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites II)
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23 pages, 10542 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Addition of Fique Bagasse Cellulose Nanoparticles on the Mechanical and Structural Properties of Plastic Flexible Films from Cassava Starch
by Jhon Jairo Palechor-Trochez, Adriana Rocio Chantre-López, Eduardo Argote-Ortiz, Héctor Samuel Villada-Castillo and Jose Fernando Solanilla-Duque
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 4003; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15194003 - 05 Oct 2023
Viewed by 809
Abstract
One of the activities most representative of the agricultural sector in Colombia is the production of biodegradable fique fiber. The efficiency of the defiberization process of the fique leaves is very low since a mere 4% of the total weight of the leaf [...] Read more.
One of the activities most representative of the agricultural sector in Colombia is the production of biodegradable fique fiber. The efficiency of the defiberization process of the fique leaves is very low since a mere 4% of the total weight of the leaf (cabuya) is used and marketed. The remaining 96%, composed of fique juice and bagasse, is considered to be waste and discarded, impacting the environment. The aim of this work was to study fique bagasse as a source of cellulose nanoparticles (CNCs). CNCs were obtained by acid hydrolysis and added at 10% to films made from cassava thermoplastic starch (TPS) by the casting method. Structural changes in the CNCs, TPS, and their mixtures were characterized by FTIR-ATR and their morphology and particle size by SEM and TEM microscopy, respectively. Thermal properties were analyzed using DSC and TGA, along with their effect on mechanical properties. Changes in the FTIR spectra indicated that the chemical method adequately removed hemicellulose and lignin from the fiber surface of fique bagasse. The CNCs showed a diameter and length of 7.5 ± 3.9 and 52.7 ± 18.1 nm, respectively, and TPS 10% CNC obtained an increase in mechanical strength of 116%. The obtainment of CNCs from lignocellulosic materials can thus be viewed as a favorable option for the subsequent reinforcement of a polymeric matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites II)
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15 pages, 5390 KiB  
Article
Rigid Polyurethane Biofoams Filled with Pine Seed Shell and Yerba Mate Wastes
by Andrey Pereira Acosta, Agnė Kairytė, Sylwia Członka, Karolina Miedzińska, Arthur Behenck Aramburu, Kelvin Techera Barbosa, Sandro Campos Amico and Rafael de Avila Delucis
Polymers 2023, 15(9), 2194; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15092194 - 05 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Pine seed shells and yerba mate are common wastes leftover from the food and beverage industry. This study presents the development of rigid polyurethane foams (RPUFs) filled with pine seed shells and yerba mate at 5, 10 and 15 wt%. The fillers were [...] Read more.
Pine seed shells and yerba mate are common wastes leftover from the food and beverage industry. This study presents the development of rigid polyurethane foams (RPUFs) filled with pine seed shells and yerba mate at 5, 10 and 15 wt%. The fillers were characterized for chemical properties using bench chemistry analyses, and the RPUFs were investigated in terms of chemical, morphological, mechanical, thermal and colorimetric characteristics. The main results indicated that yerba mate showed good compatibility with the polyurethane system, probably because its available hydroxyl groups reacted with isocyanate groups to form urethane bonds, producing increases in mechanical and thermal properties. However, pine seed shell did not appear to be compatible. Anisotropy increased slightly, as there was an increase in the percentage of reinforcement. The mechanical properties of the yerba mate reinforced foams proved stable, while there was a loss of overall up to ~50% for all mechanical properties in those reinforced with pine seed shell. Thermal properties were improved up to ~40% for the yerba mate reinforced foams, while those reinforced with pine nuts were stable. It was possible to observe a decrease in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of ~−5 °C for the yerba mate reinforced foams and ~−14 °C for the pine seed shell reinforced ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites II)
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14 pages, 1450 KiB  
Article
Arundo donax L Processing in Catalyzed Butanol–Water Media in the Scope of Lignocellulose Biorefineries
by Sandra Rivas, Rebecca Baldassari, Juan Carlos Parajó and Anna M. Raspolli Galletti
Polymers 2023, 15(6), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15061553 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 984
Abstract
Arundo donax L samples, before or after aqueous extraction to remove extractives, were subjected to chemical fractionation in H2SO4-catalyzed mixtures of 1-butanol and water. The partial miscibility of 1-butanol and water at room temperature allowed the separation of the [...] Read more.
Arundo donax L samples, before or after aqueous extraction to remove extractives, were subjected to chemical fractionation in H2SO4-catalyzed mixtures of 1-butanol and water. The partial miscibility of 1-butanol and water at room temperature allowed the separation of the three major feedstock components in separate streams (lignin, accumulated in the 1-butanol-rich phase; hemicellulose-derived products, accumulated in the aqueous acidic phase; and cellulose, present in the solid phase). The effects of selected variables (temperature, catalyst concentration, reaction time and 1-butanol content of the reaction media) on variables measuring the solid recovery yield and the compositions of phases from fractionation were measured. Using water-extracted A. donax L as a substrate, the best operational conditions enabled 93.2% hemicellulose removal and 85.4% delignification with limited cellulose solubilization (15%). The experimental results provided key information to assess the proposed process in the scope of biorefineries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites II)
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20 pages, 5361 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of Xanthan Gum Anchored α-Fe2O3 Bionanocomposite Material for Remediation of Pb (II) Contaminated Aquatic System
by Fahad A. Alharthi, Riyadh H. Alshammari and Imran Hasan
Polymers 2023, 15(5), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15051134 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
Increases in community and industrial activities have led to disturbances of the environmental balance and the contamination of water systems through the introduction of organic and inorganic pollutants. Among the various inorganic pollutants, Pb (II) is one of the heavy metals possessing non-biodegradable [...] Read more.
Increases in community and industrial activities have led to disturbances of the environmental balance and the contamination of water systems through the introduction of organic and inorganic pollutants. Among the various inorganic pollutants, Pb (II) is one of the heavy metals possessing non-biodegradable and the most toxic characteristics towards human health and the environment. The present study is focussed on the synthesis of efficient and eco-friendly adsorbent material that can remove Pb (II) from wastewater. A green functional nanocomposite material based on the immobilization of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with xanthan gum (XG) biopolymer has been synthesized in this study to be applied as an adsorbent (XGFO) for sequestration of Pb (II). Spectroscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were adopted for characterizing the solid powder material. The synthesized material was found to be rich in key functional groups such as –COOH and –OH playing important roles in binding the adsorbate particles through ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT). Based on the preliminary results, adsorption experiments were conducted, and the data obtained were applied to four different adsorption isotherm models, viz the Langmuir, Temkin, Freundlich and D–R models. Based on the high values of R2 and low values of χ2, the Langmuir isotherm model was found to be the best model for simulation of data for Pb (II) adsorption by XGFO. The value of maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (Qm) was found to be 117.45 mg g−1 at 303 K, 126.23 mg g−1 at 313 K, 145.12 mg g−1 at 323 K and 191.27 mg g−1 at 323 K. The kinetics of the adsorption process of Pb (II) by XGFO was best defined by the pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic aspect of the reaction suggested that the reaction is endothermic and spontaneous. The outcomes proved that XGFO can be utilized as an efficient adsorbent material for the treatment of contaminated wastewater. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites II)
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Review

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18 pages, 4580 KiB  
Review
Human Serum Albumin Based Nanodrug Delivery Systems: Recent Advances and Future Perspective
by Changyong Li, Dagui Zhang, Yujing Pan and Biaoqi Chen
Polymers 2023, 15(16), 3354; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15163354 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
With the success of several clinical trials of products based on human serum albumin (HSA) and the rapid development of nanotechnology, HSA-based nanodrug delivery systems (HBNDSs) have received extensive attention in the field of nanomedicine. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive [...] Read more.
With the success of several clinical trials of products based on human serum albumin (HSA) and the rapid development of nanotechnology, HSA-based nanodrug delivery systems (HBNDSs) have received extensive attention in the field of nanomedicine. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive reviews exploring the broader scope of HBNDSs in biomedical applications beyond cancer therapy. To address this gap, this review takes a systematic approach. Firstly, it focuses on the crystal structure and the potential binding sites of HSA. Additionally, it provides a comprehensive summary of recent progresses in the field of HBNDSs for various biomedical applications over the past five years, categorized according to the type of therapeutic drugs loaded onto HSA. These categories include small-molecule drugs, inorganic materials and bioactive ingredients. Finally, the review summarizes the characteristics and current application status of HBNDSs in drug delivery, and also discusses the challenges that need to be addressed for the clinical transformation of HSA formulations and offers future perspectives in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites II)
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17 pages, 912 KiB  
Review
A Brief Evaluation of Antioxidants, Antistatics, and Plasticizers Additives from Natural Sources for Polymers Formulation
by Suzete Almeida, Sila Ozkan, Diogo Gonçalves, Ivo Paulo, Carla S. G. P. Queirós, Olga Ferreira, João Bordado and Rui Galhano dos Santos
Polymers 2023, 15(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15010006 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3566
Abstract
The circular economy plays an important role in the preparation and recycling of polymers. Research groups in different fields, such as materials science, pharmaceutical and engineering, have focused on building sustainable polymers to minimize the release of toxic products. Recent studies focused on [...] Read more.
The circular economy plays an important role in the preparation and recycling of polymers. Research groups in different fields, such as materials science, pharmaceutical and engineering, have focused on building sustainable polymers to minimize the release of toxic products. Recent studies focused on the circular economy have suggested developing new polymeric materials based on renewable and sustainable sources, such as using biomass waste to obtain raw materials to prepare new functional bio-additives. This review presents some of the main characteristics of common polymer additives, such as antioxidants, antistatic agents and plasticizers, and recent research in developing bio-alternatives. Examples of these alternatives include the use of polysaccharides from agro-industrial waste streams that can be used as antioxidants, and chitosan which can be used as an antistatic agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Bio-Based Polymers and Nanocomposites II)
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