New Insights into Plant Signaling Mechanisms in Biotic and Abiotic Stress

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Molecular Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 6146

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea
Interests: Abiotic stress, Structural Biology, Ion channels, bioactive compounds/ Diabetes

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38451, Republic of Korea
Interests: antimicrobial agents; synergistic effects; nanoparticles; essential oils; secondary metabolites; plant extracts; bacteria; fungi; viruses; multidrug resistance; microorganisms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea
Interests: endophytes; bioactive compounds from endophytes; antibacterial resistance; plant–pathogen interaction; plant defense against pathogens

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plants are constantly challenged by their environments, including both biotic and abiotic stress factors. As a result, plants have developed complex signaling pathways in response to various challenges, allowing them to adapt and survive. In order to detect and react to pathogen attacks, herbivore feeding, and symbiotic interactions in the case of biotic stress, plants use a complex network of signaling molecules, including phytohormones, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and secondary metabolites. These signaling cascades cause the activation of systemic acquired resistance, the synthesis of antimicrobial chemicals, the reinforcement of physical barriers, and genes involved in defense. When plants are exposed to abiotic stress, such as drought, extreme temperatures, salinity, and nutrient deficiencies, they use different signaling pathways to adapt. Abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA), calcium ions, and other signaling molecules are involved in these pathways. These signaling molecules coordinate cellular responses such as stomatal closure, osmotic correction, and the activation of stress-responsive genes. Understanding the mechanisms of plant signaling networks involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses is essential for developing crop plants that are resilient to changing environmental conditions. This Special Issue aims to attract contributions to developing our understanding of the mechanisms involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stress.

We invite scholars to submit original research articles and reviews that make substantial advances within this field.

Dr. Hamdy Kashtoh
Prof. Dr. Kwang-Hyun Baek
Dr. Muhammad Fazle Rabbee
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • abiotic stress
  • biotic stress
  • drought stress
  • salt stress
  • bacterial immunity
  • guard cell
  • anion channel
  • protein kinases
  • calcium signaling
  • abscisic acid signaling
  • light signaling
  • nitrogen fixa-tion
  • phosphorylation
  • plant nutrients
  • receptors
  • signal transduction
  • stress
  • nutrition
  • calcium
  • membrane transport
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • ion homeostasis combination

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 5268 KiB  
Article
Regulation of Root Exudation in Wheat Plants in Response to Alkali Stress
by Huan Wang, Shuting Zhao, Zexin Qi, Changgang Yang, Dan Ding, Binbin Xiao, Shihong Wang and Chunwu Yang
Plants 2024, 13(9), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13091227 - 28 Apr 2024
Viewed by 638
Abstract
Soil alkalization is an important environmental factor limiting crop production. Despite the importance of root secretion in the response of plants to alkali stress, the regulatory mechanism is unclear. In this study, we applied a widely targeted metabolomics approach using a local MS/MS [...] Read more.
Soil alkalization is an important environmental factor limiting crop production. Despite the importance of root secretion in the response of plants to alkali stress, the regulatory mechanism is unclear. In this study, we applied a widely targeted metabolomics approach using a local MS/MS data library constructed with authentic standards to identify and quantify root exudates of wheat under salt and alkali stresses. The regulatory mechanism of root secretion in alkali-stressed wheat plants was analyzed by determining transcriptional and metabolic responses. Our primary focus was alkali stress-induced secreted metabolites (AISMs) that showed a higher secretion rate in alkali-stressed plants than in control and salt-stressed plants. This secretion was mainly induced by high-pH stress. We discovered 55 AISMs containing –COOH groups, including 23 fatty acids, 4 amino acids, 1 amino acid derivative, 7 dipeptides, 5 organic acids, 9 phenolic acids, and 6 others. In the roots, we also discovered 29 metabolites with higher levels under alkali stress than under control and salt stress conditions, including 2 fatty acids, 3 amino acid derivatives, 1 dipeptide, 2 organic acids, and 11 phenolic acids. These alkali stress-induced accumulated carboxylic acids may support continuous root secretion during the response of wheat plants to alkali stress. In the roots, RNAseq analysis indicated that 5 6-phosphofructokinase (glycolysis rate-limiting enzyme) genes, 16 key fatty acid synthesis genes, and 122 phenolic acid synthesis genes have higher expression levels under alkali stress than under control and salt stress conditions. We propose that the secretion of multiple types of metabolites with a –COOH group is an important pH regulation strategy for alkali-stressed wheat plants. Enhanced glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, and phenolic acid synthesis will provide more energy and substrates for root secretion during the response of wheat to alkali stress. Full article
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28 pages, 14909 KiB  
Article
A Regulatory Mechanism on Pathways: Modulating Roles of MYC2 and BBX21 in the Flavonoid Network
by Nan Li, Yunzhang Xu and Yingqing Lu
Plants 2024, 13(8), 1156; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13081156 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 965
Abstract
Genes of metabolic pathways are individually or collectively regulated, often via unclear mechanisms. The anthocyanin pathway, well known for its regulation by the MYB/bHLH/WDR (MBW) complex but less well understood in its connections to MYC2, BBX21, SPL9, PIF3, and HY5, is investigated here [...] Read more.
Genes of metabolic pathways are individually or collectively regulated, often via unclear mechanisms. The anthocyanin pathway, well known for its regulation by the MYB/bHLH/WDR (MBW) complex but less well understood in its connections to MYC2, BBX21, SPL9, PIF3, and HY5, is investigated here for its direct links to the regulators. We show that MYC2 can activate the structural genes of the anthocyanin pathway but also suppress them (except F3′H) in both Arabidopsis and Oryza when a local MBW complex is present. BBX21 or SPL9 can activate all or part of the structural genes, respectively, but the effects can be largely overwritten by the local MBW complex. HY5 primarily influences expressions of the early genes (CHS, CHI, and F3H). TF-TF relationships can be complex here: PIF3, BBX21, or SPL9 can mildly activate MYC2; MYC2 physically interacts with the bHLH (GL3) of the MBW complex and/or competes with strong actions of BBX21 to lessen a stimulus to the anthocyanin pathway. The dual role of MYC2 in regulating the anthocyanin pathway and a similar role of BBX21 in regulating BAN reveal a network-level mechanism, in which pathways are modulated locally and competing interactions between modulators may tone down strong environmental signals before they reach the network. Full article
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Review

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19 pages, 2218 KiB  
Review
Plant Immunity: At the Crossroads of Pathogen Perception and Defense Response
by Sajad Ali, Anshika Tyagi and Zahoor Ahmad Mir
Plants 2024, 13(11), 1434; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13111434 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 407
Abstract
Plants are challenged by different microbial pathogens that affect their growth and productivity. However, to defend pathogen attack, plants use diverse immune responses, such as pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), effector-triggered immunity (ETI), RNA silencing and autophagy, which are intricate and regulated by diverse signaling [...] Read more.
Plants are challenged by different microbial pathogens that affect their growth and productivity. However, to defend pathogen attack, plants use diverse immune responses, such as pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), effector-triggered immunity (ETI), RNA silencing and autophagy, which are intricate and regulated by diverse signaling cascades. Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors are the hallmarks of plant innate immunity because they can detect pathogen or related immunogenic signals and trigger series of immune signaling cascades at different cellular compartments. In plants, most commonly, PRRs are receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that function as a first layer of inducible defense. In this review, we provide an update on how plants sense pathogens, microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs), and effectors as a danger signals and activate different immune responses like PTI and ETI. Further, we discuss the role RNA silencing, autophagy, and systemic acquired resistance as a versatile host defense response against pathogens. We also discuss early biochemical signaling events such as calcium (Ca2+), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and hormones that trigger the activation of different plant immune responses. This review also highlights the impact of climate-driven environmental factors on host–pathogen interactions. Full article
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41 pages, 1765 KiB  
Review
Abiotic Stress in Rice: Visiting the Physiological Response and Its Tolerance Mechanisms
by Bhaskar Sarma, Hamdy Kashtoh, Tensangmu Lama Tamang, Pranaba Nanda Bhattacharyya, Yugal Kishore Mohanta and Kwang-Hyun Baek
Plants 2023, 12(23), 3948; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12233948 - 23 Nov 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3444
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most significant staple foods worldwide. Carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals are just a few of the many nutrients found in domesticated rice. Ensuring high and constant rice production is vital to facilitating human food [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most significant staple foods worldwide. Carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals are just a few of the many nutrients found in domesticated rice. Ensuring high and constant rice production is vital to facilitating human food supplies, as over three billion people around the globe rely on rice as their primary source of dietary intake. However, the world’s rice production and grain quality have drastically declined in recent years due to the challenges posed by global climate change and abiotic stress-related aspects, especially drought, heat, cold, salt, submergence, and heavy metal toxicity. Rice’s reduced photosynthetic efficiency results from insufficient stomatal conductance and natural damage to thylakoids and chloroplasts brought on by abiotic stressor-induced chlorosis and leaf wilting. Abiotic stress in rice farming can also cause complications with redox homeostasis, membrane peroxidation, lower seed germination, a drop in fresh and dry weight, necrosis, and tissue damage. Frequent stomatal movements, leaf rolling, generation of reactive oxygen radicals (RORs), antioxidant enzymes, induction of stress-responsive enzymes and protein-repair mechanisms, production of osmolytes, development of ion transporters, detoxifications, etc., are recorded as potent morphological, biochemical and physiological responses of rice plants under adverse abiotic stress. To develop cultivars that can withstand multiple abiotic challenges, it is necessary to understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms that contribute to the deterioration of rice quality under multiple abiotic stresses. The present review highlights the strategic defense mechanisms rice plants adopt to combat abiotic stressors that substantially affect the fundamental morphological, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms. Full article
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