Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787). This special issue belongs to the section "Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 32054

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
Interests: health and wellness; immunizations; community-based pharmacy practice; pharmacist services; point-of-care testing; underserved populations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Community-based pharmacist practitioners are engaged with new opportunities and practice models including expansion of pharmacist scope of practice and enhanced patient care services. Furthermore, community-based pharmacist practitioners are providing care beyond the four walls of a pharmacy to meet the needs of patients in their communities.  However, platforms for disseminating best practices, quality improvement, and implementation science and research remain limited for community-based pharmacy practice. For this Special Issue, we welcome you to contribute original research, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, quality improvement reports, short reports, case studies, and commentaries pertaining to a broader scope and best practices for community-based pharmacy practice.

The deadline for submissions for this Special Issue of the journal is 20 September 2022. All articles on topics related to “Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research” should not have been published previously nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). Submitted articles will be given accelerated reviews, and a decision will be forwarded to the author(s) within approximately four weeks of submission

Prof. Dr. Jean-Venable Goode
Guest Editor

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • community-based pharmacy
  • quality improvement
  • practice-based research
  • pharmacy services
  • implementation science
  • patient care
  • medication optimalization
  • chronic care management
  • immunizations
  • public health

Published Papers (14 papers)

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14 pages, 3296 KiB  
Article
Uncovering the Burden of Rhinitis in Patients Purchasing Nonprescription Short-Acting β-Agonist (SABA) in the Community
by Sara Alamyar, Elizabeth Azzi, Pamela Srour-Alphonse, Rachel House, Biljana Cvetkovski, Vicky Kritikos and Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich
Pharmacy 2023, 11(4), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11040115 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 945
Abstract
Asthma and rhinitis are common comorbidities that amplify the burden of each disease. They are both characterized by poor symptom control, low adherence to clinical management guidelines, and high levels of patient self-management. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported [...] Read more.
Asthma and rhinitis are common comorbidities that amplify the burden of each disease. They are both characterized by poor symptom control, low adherence to clinical management guidelines, and high levels of patient self-management. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the prevalence of self-reported rhinitis symptoms in people with asthma purchasing Short-Acting Beta Agonist (SABA) reliever medication from a community pharmacy and compare the medication-related behavioral characteristics among those who self-report rhinitis symptoms and those who do not. Data were analyzed from 333 people with asthma who visited one of eighteen community pharmacies in New South Wales from 2017–2018 to purchase SABA and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants who reported rhinitis symptoms (71%), compared to those who did not, were significantly more likely to have coexisting gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), overuse SABA, and experience side effects. They may have been prescribed daily preventer medication but forget to take it, and worry about its side effects. They were also more likely to experience moderate-to-severe rhinitis (74.0%), inaccurately perceive their asthma as well-controlled (50.0% self-determined vs. 14.8% clinical-guideline defined), and unlikely to use rhinitis medications (26.2%) or daily preventer medication (26.7%). These findings enhance our understanding of this cohort and allow us to identify interventions to improve patient outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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13 pages, 1419 KiB  
Article
Counselling for Chronic Insomnia in Swiss Pharmacies: A Survey Study Based on Case Vignettes
by Fanny Mulder, Dimitri Löwinger, Stephen P. Jenkinson, Estelle Kaiser, Tamara Scharf, Micheline Maire, Simone Duss, Claudio Bassetti, Raphaël Heinzer, Reto Auer and Carla Meyer-Massetti
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030105 - 16 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
(1) Introduction: Chronic insomnia (CI) reduces quality of life and may trigger depression and cardiovascular diseases. The European Sleep Research Society recommends cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-I) as the first-line treatment. Because a recent study in Switzerland demonstrated that this recommendation was inconsistently followed [...] Read more.
(1) Introduction: Chronic insomnia (CI) reduces quality of life and may trigger depression and cardiovascular diseases. The European Sleep Research Society recommends cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT-I) as the first-line treatment. Because a recent study in Switzerland demonstrated that this recommendation was inconsistently followed by primary care physicians, we hypothesised that pharmacists also deviate from these guidelines. The aim of this study is to describe current treatment practices for CI recommended by pharmacists in Switzerland, compare them to guidelines and examine their attitudes towards CBT-I. (2) Methods: A structured survey was sent to all the members of the Swiss Pharmacists Association, containing three clinical vignettes describing typical CI pharmacy clients. Treatments had to be prioritised. The prevalence of CI, and the pharmacists’ knowledge and interest in CBT-I were assessed. (3) Results: Of 1523 pharmacies, 123 pharmacists (8%) completed the survey. Despite large variations, valerian (96%), relaxation therapy (94%) and other phytotherapies (85%) were most recommended. Although most pharmacists did not know about CBT-I (72%) and only 10% had recommended it, most were very interested (64%) in education. Missing financial compensation hampers the recommendation of CBT-I. (4) Conclusions: Contrary to existing European guidelines, community pharmacists in Switzerland mostly recommended valerian, relaxation therapy and other phytotherapies for treating CI. This might be connected to the client’s expectation of pharmacy services, e.g., medication dispensing. While pharmacists recommend sleep hygiene regularly, most did not know of CBT-I as an overarching concept but were willing to learn. Future studies should test the effects of dedicated training about CI and changes in the financial compensation for counselling for CI in pharmacies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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18 pages, 1668 KiB  
Article
Understanding the Risk Factors and Stressors Impacting Optimal Work Practices in New Zealand Pharmacies: A S.H.E.L.L Model Analysis
by Lun Shen Wong, Sanyogita (Sanya) Ram and Shane L. Scahill
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030090 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1658
Abstract
(1) Background: The safe performance of pharmacists is an important issue for patients and regulators. It is recognized that pharmacists interact with a variety of healthcare professionals and act as a bridge between other healthcare providers and systems and patients in the health [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The safe performance of pharmacists is an important issue for patients and regulators. It is recognized that pharmacists interact with a variety of healthcare professionals and act as a bridge between other healthcare providers and systems and patients in the health setting. There has been growing activity in exploring factors that impact optimal performance and determinants that are linked with medication errors and practice incidents. The aviation and military industries have used S.H.E.L.L modeling to identify how personnel interact with factors that affect outcomes. A human factors approach is a useful angle to take when trying to improve optimal practice. Little is known about the experiences of New Zealand pharmacists and S.H.E.L.L factors that affect day-to-day practices in their work environment. (2) Methods: We investigated environment, team, and organizational considerations as the determining factors of optimal work practices using an anonymous online questionnaire. The questionnaire was built from a modified version of the software, hardware, environment, and liveware (S.H.E.L.L) model. This identified components of a work system that were vulnerable and that provided risks to optimal practice. Participants were New Zealand pharmacists approached through a subscriber list provided by the regulatory authority of the profession. (3) Results: We received responses from 260 participants (8.56%). The majority of participants indicated that optimal practice was occurring. More than 95% of respondents agreed that knowledge, fatigue interruptions, complacency, and stress affected optimal practice. Equipment and tools, medication arrangement on the shelf, lighting, physical layout, and communication with staff and patients were important factors for optimal practice. A smaller cohort of participants, 13 percent (n = 21), stated that dispensing processes, dissemination, and enforcement of standard operating procedures and procedural guidance did not affect pharmacy practice, 21.3% responded that professional and ethical requirements did not affect optimal practice, 20% stated that having a staffroom affected optimal practice, 20% did not think substance use affected optimal practice, and 30% did not state that cultural differences affected optimal practice. Optimal practice is constrained when there is a lack of experience, professionalism, and communication among staff, patients, and external agencies. COVID-19 also has had an impact on pharmacists both personally and in their work environments. Exploring how the pandemic has affected pharmacists and their work environment warrants further research. (4) Conclusions: Pharmacists across New Zealand agreed that optimal practices were occurring and considered other factors that were perceived to not affect optimal practice. A human factor S.H.E.L.L framework has been used to analyze themes to understand the optimal practice. The rising body of international literature on the effect of the pandemic on pharmacy practice serves as a foundation for many of these themes. Longitudinal data would be useful in exploring some factors, such as pharmacist well-being over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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17 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Feasibility and Acceptability of an Overdose Prevention Intervention Delivered by Community Pharmacists for Patients Prescribed Opioids for Chronic Non-Cancer Pain
by Joe Schofield, Tessa Parkes, Fiona Mercer, Rebecca Foster, Kristina Hnízdilová, Catriona Matheson, Wez Steele, Andrew McAuley, Fiona Raeburn, Lucy Skea and Alexander Baldacchino
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030088 - 22 May 2023
Viewed by 2590
Abstract
There have been increases in prescriptions of high strength opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), but CNCP patients perceive themselves as being at low risk of opioid overdose and generally have limited overdose awareness. This study examined how an overdose prevention intervention (opioid [...] Read more.
There have been increases in prescriptions of high strength opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), but CNCP patients perceive themselves as being at low risk of opioid overdose and generally have limited overdose awareness. This study examined how an overdose prevention intervention (opioid safety education, naloxone training, and take-home naloxone (THN)) delivered by community pharmacists for patients prescribed high-strength opioids for CNCP would work in practice in Scotland. Twelve patients received the intervention. CNCP patients and Community Pharmacists were interviewed about their experiences of the intervention and perceptions of its acceptability and feasibility. CNCP patients did not initially perceive themselves as being at risk of overdose but, through the intervention, developed insight into opioid-related risk and the value of naloxone. Pharmacists also identified patients’ low risk perceptions and low overdose awareness. While pharmacists had positive attitudes towards the intervention, they outlined challenges in delivering it under time and resource pressures and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Overdose prevention interventions are required in the CNCP population as this group has elevated risk factors for overdose but are commonly overlooked. Customised overdose prevention interventions for CNCP patients attend to gaps in overdose awareness and risk perceptions in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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13 pages, 3788 KiB  
Article
Medication-Related Problems Identified and Addressed by Pharmacists Dispensing COVID-19 Antivirals at a Community Pharmacy
by Danielle Kieck, Leeann Mahalick and Thanh Truc Vo
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030087 - 20 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1794
Abstract
Safe dispensing of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) oral antivirals requires comprehensive patient assessment to identify and address significant medication-related problems (MRPs). Given the fast-paced environment of community pharmacies and limited access to outside patient records, there are challenges with pharmacists ensuring the safe [...] Read more.
Safe dispensing of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) oral antivirals requires comprehensive patient assessment to identify and address significant medication-related problems (MRPs). Given the fast-paced environment of community pharmacies and limited access to outside patient records, there are challenges with pharmacists ensuring the safe and appropriate dispensing of these medications. An independent community pharmacy in Pennsylvania developed and implemented a COVID-19 oral antiviral assessment protocol to systematically review all prescriptions dispensed for nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid™) and molnupiravir (Lagevrio™) to identify and address MRPs. A retrospective review was conducted to assess documented MRPs, including significant drug–drug interactions and inappropriate dosing requiring intervention, for prescriptions dispensed from 9 February 2022 to 29 April 2022. Pharmacists identified one or more significant MRPs requiring intervention on 42 of the 54 nirmatrelvir/ritonavir prescriptions (78%) and 0 of the 7 molnupiravir prescriptions. Most pharmacist interventions involved drug–drug interactions between nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors and calcium channel blockers, along with four renal dose adjustments for nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. This study highlights the ability of community pharmacists to identify and address MRPs and promotes the use of a protocol to encourage safe dispensing practices for medications prone to MRPs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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13 pages, 255 KiB  
Article
Implementation of a Patient Questionnaire in Community Pharmacies to Improve Care for Patients Using Combined Antithrombotic Therapy: A Qualitative Study
by Renate C. A. E. van Uden, Marit A. Bakker, Stephan G. L. Joosten, Karina Meijer, Patricia M. L. A. van den Bemt, Matthijs L. Becker and Marcia Vervloet
Pharmacy 2023, 11(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11030080 - 27 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1551
Abstract
For several indications or combinations of indications the use of more than one antithrombotic agent is required. The duration of combined antithrombotic therapy depends on indication and patient characteristics. This study investigated the use of an antithrombotic questionnaire tool that had been developed [...] Read more.
For several indications or combinations of indications the use of more than one antithrombotic agent is required. The duration of combined antithrombotic therapy depends on indication and patient characteristics. This study investigated the use of an antithrombotic questionnaire tool that had been developed for pharmacists to detect patients with possible incorrect combined antithrombotic therapy. The objective of this study was to identify potential barriers and facilitators that could influence the implementation of the developed antithrombotic questionnaire tool in daily community pharmacy practice. A qualitative study was conducted at 10 Dutch community pharmacies in which the antithrombotic questionnaire tool had been used with 82 patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with pharmacy staff who used the antithrombotic questionnaire tool. The interview questions to identify barriers and facilitators were based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. The interview data were analysed using a deductive thematic analysis. Ten staff members from nine different pharmacies were interviewed. Facilitators for implementation were that the questionnaire was easily adaptable and easy to use, as well as the relative short duration to administer the questionnaire. A possible barrier for using the questionnaire was a lower priority for using the questionnaire at moments when the workload was high. The pharmacists estimated that the questionnaire could be used for 70–80% of the patient population and they thought that it was a useful addition to regular medication surveillance. The antithrombotic questionnaire tool can be easily implemented in pharmacy practice. To implement the tool, the focus should be on integrating its use into daily activities. Pharmacists can use this tool in addition to regular medication surveillance to improve medication safety in patients who use combined antithrombotic therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
19 pages, 3627 KiB  
Article
Pharmacists’ Satisfaction with Work and Working Conditions in New Zealand—An Updated Survey and a Comparison to Canada
by Sharon Jessie Lam, Larry D. Lynd and Carlo A. Marra
Pharmacy 2023, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11010021 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1979
Abstract
Background: As roles have evolved over time, changes in workplace environments have created higher patient expectations creating stressful conditions for pharmacists. Aim: To evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of their working conditions, work dissatisfaction, and psychological distress; determine their predictors in New Zealand (NZ); and [...] Read more.
Background: As roles have evolved over time, changes in workplace environments have created higher patient expectations creating stressful conditions for pharmacists. Aim: To evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of their working conditions, work dissatisfaction, and psychological distress; determine their predictors in New Zealand (NZ); and compare results with Canadian studies and historic NZ data. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to registered pharmacists in NZ. The survey included demographics, work satisfaction, psychological distress, and perceptions of their working conditions (six statements with agreement rated on a 5-point Likert scale). Comparisons were made with surveys from Canada and NZ. Chi-square, t-tests, and non-parametric statistics were used to make comparisons. Results: The response rate was 24.7% (694/2815) with 73.1% practicing in a community pharmacy (45.8% independent, 27.3% chains). Pharmacists disagreed on having adequate time for breaks and tasks, while the majority contemplated leaving the profession and/or not repeating their careers again if given the choice. Working longer hours and processing more prescriptions per day were predictive factors for poorer job satisfaction. More NZ pharmacists perceived their work environment to be conducive to safe and effective primary care (57% vs. 47%, p < 0.001) and reported that they had enough staff (45% vs. 32%, p = 0.002) as compared to Canadian pharmacists. Pharmacists’ job satisfaction and psychological distress have not improved compared to the assessment 20 years prior. Conclusions: NZ pharmacists perceive working conditions to be sub-optimal yet had higher satisfaction than their Canadian counterparts. Work dissatisfaction and psychological distress are high and have not improved over the last two decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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20 pages, 524 KiB  
Article
Community Pharmacists’ Beliefs about Suboptimal Practice during the Times of COVID-19
by Lun Shen Wong, Sanya Ram and Shane Scahill
Pharmacy 2022, 10(6), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10060140 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2439
Abstract
Introduction: Community pharmacies are high-performance workplaces; if the environment is not conducive to safe practice, mistakes can occur. There has been increasing demand for pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic as they have become integral to the response. Suboptimal practices in the work environment [...] Read more.
Introduction: Community pharmacies are high-performance workplaces; if the environment is not conducive to safe practice, mistakes can occur. There has been increasing demand for pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic as they have become integral to the response. Suboptimal practices in the work environment and with pharmacists and their teams can impact the safe delivery of services. New Zealand pharmacists’ perceptions of the current work environment and beliefs around whether suboptimal practice have increased within the last five years and the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on their practices are unknown. Aim/Objectives: To assess what New Zealand pharmacists associate with suboptimal practice in their workplace and investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on pharmacists and their workplaces. Methods: We employed an anonymous online questionnaire derived from a human factors framework utilised in the aviation industry to explore the potential environment, team and organisational factors as the determinants of suboptimal work practices. The software, hardware, environment and liveware (S.H.E.L.L) model was adapted to create questions classifying the risk factors to potentially identify aspects of work systems that are vulnerable and may provide risks to optimal practice. Additional perceptions around the effect of COVID-19 on their workplace and roles as pharmacists were explored. Participants were community pharmacists working in New Zealand contacted via a mailing list of the responsible authority for the profession. Findings: We received responses from 260 participants. Most participants indicated that suboptimal practice had increased in the last 5 years (79.8%). The majority of participants indicated that COVID-19 had impacted their workplaces (96%) and their roles as pharmacists (92.1%). Participants perceived that suboptimal practice was associated with a lack of leadership and appropriate management; poor access to resourcing, such as adequate staff and narrow time constraints for work tasks; a lack of procedures; competition; and stress. A lack of experience, professionalism and poor communication between staff, patients and external agencies were also issues. COVID-19 has affected pharmacists personally and their work environments. Further study in this area is required. Conclusions: We have identified that pharmacists across all sectors of New Zealand agreed that suboptimal practices had increased in the last 5 years. A human factors S.H.E.L.L framework can be used to classify themes to understand the increases in suboptimal practice and the role of COVID-19 on pharmacist practice. Many of these themes build on the growing body of the international literature around the effect of the pandemic on pharmacist practice. Areas for which there are less historical data to compare longitudinally include pharmacist wellbeing and the impact of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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15 pages, 2327 KiB  
Article
Impact of Illegible Prescriptions on Dispensing Practice: A Pilot Study of South African Pharmacy Personnel
by Tasneem Modi, Ntandoyenkosi Khumalo, Rubina Shaikh, Zelna Booth, Stephanie Leigh-de Rapper and Gillian Dumsile Mahumane
Pharmacy 2022, 10(5), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050132 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4191
Abstract
Illegible prescriptions are an illegal, frequent, and longstanding problem for pharmacy personnel engaged in dispensing. These contribute to patient safety issues and negatively impact safe dispensing in pharmaceutical delivery. To date, little is documented on measures taken to assess the negative impact posed [...] Read more.
Illegible prescriptions are an illegal, frequent, and longstanding problem for pharmacy personnel engaged in dispensing. These contribute to patient safety issues and negatively impact safe dispensing in pharmaceutical delivery. To date, little is documented on measures taken to assess the negative impact posed by illegible prescriptions on South African pharmacy dispensing personnel. Therefore, this pilot study was performed to evaluate the ability of pharmacy personnel to read and interpret illegible prescriptions correctly; and to report on their perceived challenges, views and concerns when presented with an illegible prescription to dispense. A cross-sectional, three-tiered self-administered survey was conducted among pharmacy personnel. A total of 885 measurements were recorded. The ability to read an illegible prescription is not an indicator of competency, as all (100%) participants (novice and experienced) made errors and experienced difficulty evaluating and deciphering the illegible prescription. The medication names and dosages were correctly identified by only 20% and 18% of all participants. The use of digital prescriptions was indicated by 70% of the participants as a probable solution to the problem. Overall, improving the quality of written prescriptions and instructions can potentially assist dispensing pharmacy personnel in reducing illegible prescription-related patient safety issues and dispensing errors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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8 pages, 239 KiB  
Article
Medication-Related Problems and Interventions Identified and Addressed by Pharmacists Conducting Enhanced Medication Therapy Management Services
by Laura E. Knockel, Yury Kim, Kelly Kent and William R. Doucette
Pharmacy 2022, 10(5), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10050111 - 04 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2091
Abstract
Pharmacists identify, resolve, and document medication-related problems (MRPs) in community pharmacies. Enhanced medication therapy management (eMTM) targets specific situations, such as high-risk medications, while continuous medication monitoring (CoMM) occurs for every patient and is integrated into the dispensing process. This study describes types [...] Read more.
Pharmacists identify, resolve, and document medication-related problems (MRPs) in community pharmacies. Enhanced medication therapy management (eMTM) targets specific situations, such as high-risk medications, while continuous medication monitoring (CoMM) occurs for every patient and is integrated into the dispensing process. This study describes types and frequencies of MRPs and interventions for health plan-directed eMTM and pharmacist-identified CoMM for a cohort of Medicare Part D patients. Pharmacy dispensing and clinical records from one independent community pharmacy in the Midwest were reviewed for patients eligible for eMTM in 2019. Data were coded for medication-related problems and interventions; descriptive statistics were calculated. Forty-seven patients were included in the study, resulting in 439 health plan-directed and 775 pharmacist-identified MRPs and corresponding interventions for a total of 1214 over 12 months. The average age of the patients was 77; they received an average of about 14 medications dispensed over 25 dates. Nonadherence was the most common MRP overall, as well as for the two categories separately. Patient Counseling and Lab Values Needed MRPs were found more often by pharmacists. Continue to Monitor was the most common intervention flagged overall. Medication Discontinued was found more often in health plan-directed interventions; Patient Counseling occurred more frequently in pharmacist-identified interventions. Using pharmacists to identify MRPs can complement health plan-driven eMTM, which can provide more complete medication management. Future work is needed to determine if this approach is reproducible in other pharmacies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
15 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Improving the Experience of Providing Care in Community-Based Pharmacies
by Jon C. Schommer, SuHak Lee, Caroline A. Gaither, Nancy A. Alvarez and April M. Shaughnessy
Pharmacy 2022, 10(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10040067 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1987
Abstract
This study applied a human factors and ergonomics approach to describe community-based pharmacy personnel perspectives regarding how work environment characteristics affect the ability to perform the duties necessary for optimal patient care and how contributors to stress affect the ability to ensure patient [...] Read more.
This study applied a human factors and ergonomics approach to describe community-based pharmacy personnel perspectives regarding how work environment characteristics affect the ability to perform the duties necessary for optimal patient care and how contributors to stress affect the ability to ensure patient safety. Data were obtained from the 2021 APhA/NASPA National State-Based Pharmacy Workplace Survey, launched in the United States in April 2021. Promotion of the online survey to pharmacists and pharmacy technicians was accomplished through social media, email, and online periodicals. Responses continued to be received through the end of 2021. A data file containing 6973 responses was downloaded on 7 January 2022 for analysis. Qualitative thematic analysis was applied for developing operational definitions and coding guidelines for content analysis of the data. The patterns of responses for the dependent variables were compared among community-based practice setting types (chain, supermarket/mass merchandiser, and independent) and work positions (manager, staff pharmacist, technician/clerk, and owner). Chi-square analysis was used for determining statistically significant differences. The findings showed that personnel working in community-based pharmacies reported undesirable work environments and work stress that affected their ability to perform assigned duties for optimal patient care and ensure patient safety. Four work system elements were identified that were both facilitators and barriers to the ability to perform duties and ensure patient safety: (1) people, (2) tasks, (3) technology/tools, and (4) organizational context. Acknowledging local contexts of workplaces, giving adequate control, applying adaptive thinking, enhancing connectivity, building on existing mechanisms, and dynamic continuous learning are key elements for applying the HFE (human factors ergonomics) approach to improving the experience of providing care in community-based pharmacies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
10 pages, 462 KiB  
Article
Pharmacists’ Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Recommendations
by Roland Langer and Mirjam Thanner
Pharmacy 2022, 10(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy10030051 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3793
Abstract
Seasonal influenza vaccination rates among European countries remain low despite the World Health Organization’s recommendations to vaccinate high-risk groups. Healthcare worker recommendations are strong predictors of increased vaccination uptake in the population. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze seasonal influenza vaccination recommendation behavior [...] Read more.
Seasonal influenza vaccination rates among European countries remain low despite the World Health Organization’s recommendations to vaccinate high-risk groups. Healthcare worker recommendations are strong predictors of increased vaccination uptake in the population. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze seasonal influenza vaccination recommendation behavior among pharmacists towards high-risk groups including patients, coworkers, and pharmacists’ family members during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based research was conducted in Switzerland during the flu season and sent to all members of the Swiss Pharmacist Association. In December 2020, 569 community pharmacists completed the online survey. The influenza vaccination recommendation rates for high-risk patients were 93.6% for the elderly, 70.7% for pregnant women, 65.2% for immunocompromised people, and 60.3% for patients with chronic diseases. Pharmacists tend to recommend influenza immunization to patients more than to family members and colleagues. Holding a certification to administer immunization and personal influenza vaccine history were the main predictors for recommending influenza vaccination to patients, family members, and colleagues. Our results indicated that influenza vaccination recommendation rates in our whole sample of pharmacists, were higher for vaccinated and immunizing pharmacists. Ensuring high vaccinations rates and high ratio of immunizing pharmacists may be important in promoting seasonal influenza vaccination in the general population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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19 pages, 468 KiB  
Opinion
Community Pharmacies in the Asian Countries of Developing Health System: Formation, Regulation, and Implication
by Shaymaa Alenezi, Mona Alanazi, Reaam Aljazaeri, Marwah Almuzaini, Shorouq Alrasheidi, Wafa Bin Shamlan, Raghad Aljohani, Ghadeer Alhawiti, Meaad Alqarni, Ehdaa Aljabri, Majd Qmmash and Mohammed Kanan
Pharmacy 2023, 11(4), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11040127 - 10 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2855
Abstract
Community pharmacies (CPs) in Asian countries are often the first point of contact for patients withinthe healthcare system and their preferred place to purchase medicines. The number of CPs may vary across Asian countries, and each country has developed its own design and [...] Read more.
Community pharmacies (CPs) in Asian countries are often the first point of contact for patients withinthe healthcare system and their preferred place to purchase medicines. The number of CPs may vary across Asian countries, and each country has developed its own design and functioning. The regulatory environment plays a crucial role in shaping and governing CPs. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive literature review in order to enhance understanding of the establishment and regulation of CPs. By undertaking this review, the researchers, policymakers, and practitioners sought to gain a deeper insight into the performance and functions of CPs and the regulatory frameworks that govern them. Moreover, this review shed light on implementation strategies, effects on patient outcomes, and the barriers and challenges associated with their establishment. A narrative literature review method was adopted with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Significant disparities can be observed when comparing the stated intentions of regulations with their actual implementation. Recently, there has been an inclusion of public health practices. Unfortunately, pharmacy procedures conducted in such environments have been characterized by inadequate understanding and inappropriate care. This poor performance can be attributed to employees’ focus on maximizing profits. Several shortcomings can arise, including incomplete patient history documentation, failure to refer patients who require medical attention, unauthorized dispensing of prescription-only medicines (POM), dispensing clinically inappropriate or excessive medication doses, selling incomplete antibiotic courses, and inadequate information and counseling services. Regulatory interventions can help strengthen these services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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10 pages, 238 KiB  
Project Report
Community Pharmacy Recruitment for Practice-Based Research: Challenges and Lessons Learned
by Jessica Roller, Anna Pfeiffer, Courtney Humphries, Chloe Richard, Jon Easter, Stefanie Ferreri and Melanie Livet
Pharmacy 2023, 11(4), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy11040121 - 22 Jul 2023
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Abstract
To support the successful integration of community pharmacies into value-based care models, research on the feasibility and effectiveness of novel pharmacist-provided patient care services is needed. The UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, supported by the National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS) Foundation, [...] Read more.
To support the successful integration of community pharmacies into value-based care models, research on the feasibility and effectiveness of novel pharmacist-provided patient care services is needed. The UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, supported by the National Association of Chain Drug Stores (NACDS) Foundation, designed the Community-based Valued-driven Care Initiative (CVCI) to (1) identify effective value-based patient care interventions that could be provided by community pharmacists, (2) implement and evaluate the feasibility of the selected patient care interventions, and (3) develop resources and create collaborative sustainability opportunities. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe recruitment strategies for CVCI and share lessons learned. The project team identified pharmacies for recruitment through a mixed data analysis followed by a “fit” evaluation. A total of 42 pharmacy organizations were identified for recruitment, 24 were successfully contacted, and 9 signed on to the project. During recruitment, pharmacies cited concerns regarding the financial sustainability of implementing and delivering the patient care services, challenges with staffing and infrastructure, and pharmacists’ comfort level. To foster participation, it was vital to have leadership buy-in, clear benefits from implementation, and assured sustainability beyond the research period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community-Based Pharmacy Practice Quality Improvement and Research)
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