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Volume 12, April
 
 

Pharmacy, Volume 12, Issue 3 (June 2024) – 12 articles

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12 pages, 522 KiB  
Article
The Role of a Clinical Pharmacist in the Identification of Potentially Inadequate Drugs Prescribed to the Geriatric Population in Low-Resource Settings Using the Beers Criteria: A Pilot Study
by Tijana Kovačević, Maja Savić Davidović, Vedrana Barišić, Emir Fazlić, Siniša Miljković, Vlado Djajić, Branislava Miljković and Peđa Kovačević
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030084 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 198
Abstract
Population aging is a global phenomenon. Each country in the world faces an increased number of older persons in the total population. With aging, a high prevalence of multiple chronic diseases occurs, leading to the use of complex therapeutic regimens and often to [...] Read more.
Population aging is a global phenomenon. Each country in the world faces an increased number of older persons in the total population. With aging, a high prevalence of multiple chronic diseases occurs, leading to the use of complex therapeutic regimens and often to polypharmacy. Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is a medicine prescribed to a patient for whom the risks outweigh the benefits. Today, several tools are used to evaluate the use of pharmacotherapy in older adults, one of them is the 2019 AGS Beers Criteria. In this prospective, pilot study, we aimed to investigate if the number of PIMs in elderly patients would be significantly reduced if a clinical pharmacist performed a pharmacotherapy review. The study included 66 patients over 65 years of age who were hospitalized at the 1200-bed university hospital. The intervention was conducted by a clinical pharmacist who reviewed the patients’ pharmacotherapy and provided written suggestions to physicians. The pharmacotherapy was again reviewed at the patients’ discharge from the hospital. A total number of 204 PIMs were identified in the pharmacotherapy of the study population. At discharge, the number of PIMs decreased to 67. A total of 67% of the pharmacist’s suggestions were accepted by the physicians. The pharmacist’s intervention led to significant decrease in the number of PIMs on patients’ discharge letters. Full article
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20 pages, 490 KiB  
Article
Associations between Diabetes-Specific Medication Regimen Complexity and Cardiometabolic Outcomes among Underserved Non-Hispanic Black Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
by Cheryl Wisseh, Edward Adinkrah, Linda Opara, Sheila Melone, Emem Udott, Mohsen Bazargan and Magda Shaheen
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030083 - 26 May 2024
Viewed by 220
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and glycemic control in underserved non-Hispanic Black adults presents with multifaceted challenges: balancing the optimal complexity of antihyperglycemic medications prescribed, limited medication access due to socioeconomic status, medication nonadherence, and high prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities. This single-center, [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) management and glycemic control in underserved non-Hispanic Black adults presents with multifaceted challenges: balancing the optimal complexity of antihyperglycemic medications prescribed, limited medication access due to socioeconomic status, medication nonadherence, and high prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities. This single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective chart analysis evaluated the association of Medication Regimen Complexity (MRC) with cardiometabolic outcomes (glycemic, atherogenic cholesterol, and blood pressure control) among non-Hispanic Black adults with type 2 diabetes. Utilizing 470 independent patient electronic health records, MRC and other covariates were examined to determine their associations with cardiometabolic outcomes. Chi-square tests of independence and multiple logistic regression were performed to identify associations between MRC and cardiometabolic outcomes. Our findings indicate significant negative and positive associations between MRC and glycemic control and atherogenic cholesterol control, respectively. However, there were no associations between MRC and blood pressure control. As diabetes MRC was shown to be associated with poor glycemic control and improved atherogenic cholesterol control, there is a critical need to standardize interdisciplinary diabetes care to include pharmacists and to develop more insurance policy interventions that increase access to newer, efficacious diabetes medications for historically marginalized populations. Full article
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9 pages, 529 KiB  
Opinion
Empowering Pharmacists: Strategies for Addressing the Opioid Crisis through a Public Health Lens
by Tamera D. Hughes, Juliet Nowak, Elizabeth Sottung, Amira Mustafa and Geetha Lingechetty
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030082 - 23 May 2024
Viewed by 358
Abstract
Background: The opioid crisis in the US is a severe public health issue, prompting pharmacists to adopt various strategies for prevention, harm reduction, treatment, and recovery. Despite progress, barriers persist. Results: This commentary examines five determinants of public health in relation to pharmacist-led [...] Read more.
Background: The opioid crisis in the US is a severe public health issue, prompting pharmacists to adopt various strategies for prevention, harm reduction, treatment, and recovery. Despite progress, barriers persist. Results: This commentary examines five determinants of public health in relation to pharmacist-led interventions for the opioid crisis: individual behavior, social factors, policymaking, health service accessibility, and biological/genetic considerations. Pharmacists can influence individual behavior through education and support, address social determinants like stigma, advocate for policy changes, ensure health service accessibility, and personalize opioid prescriptions based on biological factors. Conclusion: Pharmacists play a crucial role in addressing the opioid crisis by navigating these determinants. Pharmacists’ engagement is essential for reducing opioid-related harms and improving public health outcomes through advocacy, service provision, and education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists’ Role in Reducing Problematic Opioid Use)
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11 pages, 244 KiB  
Article
Treatment of Heartburn: A Survey of Ontario and Québec Community Pharmacists
by Nardine R. Nakhla, Sherilyn K. D. Houle and Jeffrey G. Taylor
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030081 - 22 May 2024
Viewed by 343
Abstract
The shift of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) from prescription to nonprescription (nonRx) status in Canada has altered pharmacist treatment options for heartburn. This report examines pharmacist approaches to therapy based on case severity; pharmacist confidence and consult duration were also explored. A 2022 [...] Read more.
The shift of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) from prescription to nonprescription (nonRx) status in Canada has altered pharmacist treatment options for heartburn. This report examines pharmacist approaches to therapy based on case severity; pharmacist confidence and consult duration were also explored. A 2022 online survey gathered data from Ontario and Québec pharmacists regarding their therapeutic approaches for two hypothetical heartburn cases. A total of 715 pharmacists participated, with most having 1–10 years of experience. In Ontario, common choices for the milder case included a solo histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) (21.2%), combination H2RA + antacid (29.4%), and nonRx PPI (22.3%). For the more severe case, common choices for Québec were switches to nonRx H2RA (22.1%), combination H2RA + antacid (13.4%), a nonRx PPI (24.9%), or prescription PPI (22.5%). Pharmacists often recommended switching medications or referring patients with recurring symptoms after seven days. The approaches varied significantly between cases and provinces. The Ontario pharmacists favoured a combination H2RA + antacid for the milder case, while the Québec pharmacists preferred a solo H2RA. For the more severe case, both groups often chose nonRx H2RA followed by nonRx PPI. Despite the differences, the pharmacists demonstrated confidence in managing these situations. These findings highlight potential debates regarding optimal therapeutic approaches and the impact of drug scheduling on patient care. Full article
11 pages, 1155 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Steroid-Induced Osteoporosis Prevention Using Tracing Reports in Collaboration between Hospitals and Community Pharmacists
by Nonoko Ishihara, Shuji Yamashita, Shizuno Seiki, Keito Tsutsui, Hiroko Kato-Hayashi, Shuji Sakurai, Kyoko Niwa, Takuyoshi Kawai, Junko Kai, Akio Suzuki and Hideki Hayashi
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030080 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a side effect of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment; however, despite established prevention guidelines in various countries, a gap persists between these guidelines and clinical practice. To address this gap, we implemented a collaborative intervention between hospitals and community pharmacists, aiming [...] Read more.
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a side effect of glucocorticoid (GC) treatment; however, despite established prevention guidelines in various countries, a gap persists between these guidelines and clinical practice. To address this gap, we implemented a collaborative intervention between hospitals and community pharmacists, aiming to assess its effectiveness. Pharmacists recommended to the prescribing doctor osteoporosis treatment for patients who did not undergo osteoporosis treatment with a fracture risk score of ≥3 via tracing reports (TRs), between 15 December 2021, and 21 January 2022. Data were extracted from electronic medical records, including prescriptions, concomitant medications, reasons for not pursuing osteoporosis treatment, and TR contents. Of 391 evaluated patients, 45 were eligible for TRs, with 34 (75.6%) being males. Prednisolone was the most common GCs administered, and urology was the predominant treatment department. Among the 45 patients who received TRs, prescription suggestions were accepted for 19 (42.2%). After undertaking the intervention, guideline adherence significantly increased from 87% to 92.5%. This improvement indicates that TRs effectively bridged the evidence–practice gap in GIOP prevention among GC patients, suggesting their potential utility. Expansion of this initiative is warranted to further prevent GIOP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medication Use and Patient Safety in Clinical Pharmacy)
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7 pages, 393 KiB  
Article
The Divergence between Self- and Preceptor-Assessments of Student Performance during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences
by Tonya Brim-Dauterman and Shantanu Rao
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030079 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 416
Abstract
(1) Objectives: A divergence in self- and preceptor-evaluations of clinical skills has been noted during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). The goal of this study was to determine the domains of overestimation of clinical skills by students during their APPE rotations. (2) Methods: [...] Read more.
(1) Objectives: A divergence in self- and preceptor-evaluations of clinical skills has been noted during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs). The goal of this study was to determine the domains of overestimation of clinical skills by students during their APPE rotations. (2) Methods: Preceptor-assigned grades for APPE rotations from 2017–2022 were analyzed to identify instances of letter grade B or lower. The self- and preceptor-evaluations of APPE rotation were compared to determine the domains of divergence in evaluation between students and preceptors. (3) Results: Between 2017 and 2022, 305 student APPE rotations were graded as B or lower (~14%) by the preceptors. A statistically significant difference was noted between self- and preceptor-assigned letter grades across all practice settings including ambulatory patient care, community pharmacy, general medicine patient care, hospital/health system pharmacy, and special population patient care APPE rotations. In addition, examining the self- and preceptor evaluation rubric for these rotations revealed a statistically significant overestimation of clinical skills by students in all 9 domains of APPE evaluation. Finally, the divergence in the rating of clinical skills between student- and preceptor evaluation was found to be highest in the domains of planning and follow-up of patient care, disease knowledge, and communication with patients. (4) Conclusions: Students who fail to exhibit exemplary practice readiness during APPEs tend to overestimate their clinical skills in all domains of APPE evaluation. The results from our study support the need for additional avenues to assist in the identification of deficits in student learning before APPEs to increase their self-awareness (metacognition). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experiential Learning in Pharmacy)
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9 pages, 212 KiB  
Case Report
Buprenorphine Use for Analgesia in Palliative Care
by Leanne K. Jackson, Ivy O. Poon, Mary A. Garcia, Syed Imam and Ursula K. Braun
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030078 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic long-acting partial µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist that can be used for chronic pain as a sublingual tablet, transdermal patch (Butrans®), or a buccal film (Belbuca®). Buprenorphine’s unique high receptor binding affinity and slow dissociation at [...] Read more.
Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic long-acting partial µ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist that can be used for chronic pain as a sublingual tablet, transdermal patch (Butrans®), or a buccal film (Belbuca®). Buprenorphine’s unique high receptor binding affinity and slow dissociation at the MOR allow for effective analgesia while offering less adverse effects compared to a full agonist opioid, in particular, less concern for respiratory depression and constipation. It is underused in chronic pain and palliative care due to misconceptions and stigma from its use in opioid use disorder (OUD). This case report discusses the unique pharmacology of buprenorphine, including its advantages, disadvantages, available formulations, drug–drug interactions, initiation and conversion strategies, and identifies ideal populations for use, especially within the palliative care patient population. Full article
10 pages, 237 KiB  
Article
Understanding Pharmacy Students’ Preparedness towards Counseling over Cannabis Use Disorder
by Sourab Ganna, Jerusha Daggolu and Sujit S. Sansgiry
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030077 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 436
Abstract
The rise in cannabis use prompts significant concerns regarding pharmacy students’ abilities to counsel patients over cannabis use disorder. This study aims to understand pharmacy students’ preparedness to counsel patients with cannabis use disorder (CUD) and evaluate the relationship between knowledge, attitudes towards [...] Read more.
The rise in cannabis use prompts significant concerns regarding pharmacy students’ abilities to counsel patients over cannabis use disorder. This study aims to understand pharmacy students’ preparedness to counsel patients with cannabis use disorder (CUD) and evaluate the relationship between knowledge, attitudes towards medical cannabis (MC) and recreational cannabis (RC), and behavior intention (BI) to counsel over CUD. A cross-sectional survey was administered to pharmacy students. Descriptive analyses of sample characteristics were assessed with the t-test and one-way ANOVA test. Pearson correlation and linear regression were conducted, measuring the strength and direction of relationships. The average scores for knowledge, attitudes towards MC use and RC, and behavioral intention were 81% (SD 16%), 4.13 (SD 0.75), 3.28 (0.80), and 2.74 (1.00). Significant correlations were observed between knowledge–attitudes toward MC, knowledge–attitudes towards RC, and attitudes towards RC–behavioral intentions. Linear regression indicated attitudes towards MC use and RC, academic year, awareness of MC use legality, obtained knowledge, and past patient interaction were significantly associated with behavioral intention on confidence in counseling over CUD. There is a gap in students’ behavioral intention to counsel. These findings emphasize the importance of ample preparation that enables student pharmacists to address patient needs related to cannabis use confidently. Full article
12 pages, 223 KiB  
Article
An Over-the-Counter Hearing Aid Clinical Trial in Rural Alabama: Project Design and Potential Implications for Pharmacy and Audiology Interprofessional Collaborations
by Marcia J. Hay-McCutcheon, Abigail F. Hubbard, Emma B. Brothers, Rebecca S. Allen and Xin Yang
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030076 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 453
Abstract
Over-the-counter hearing aids (OTC HAs) have the potential to help adults with perceived mild-to-moderate hearing loss across the US, especially in rural communities, where access to hearing healthcare is extremely limited or non-existent. The purpose of this study was to describe an OTC [...] Read more.
Over-the-counter hearing aids (OTC HAs) have the potential to help adults with perceived mild-to-moderate hearing loss across the US, especially in rural communities, where access to hearing healthcare is extremely limited or non-existent. The purpose of this study was to describe an OTC HA clinical trial being conducted in five rural counties of Alabama and to provide preliminary anecdotal data related to the use and care of these hearing aids by the participants. In brief, for this clinical trial, adults with hearing loss were randomly placed in one of three groups where they received varying levels of support for setting, using, and maintaining their OTC HAs. Listening tests and surveys were administered to assess the extent to which they benefitted from the hearing aids as related to word understanding, communication with others in natural settings, and hearing aid use and care. Currently, anecdotal findings suggested that, although some participants required very little support to successfully use their hearing aids, others had difficulty setting and caring for their devices and could have benefitted from individualized guidance. Future quantitative studies will assess the extent of support needed for successful hearing aid benefit and use. Potentially, collaborations among pharmacy and audiology professionals could lead to increased access to hearing healthcare by supporting the use and purchase of OTC HAs in rural pharmacy settings. Full article
17 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
Peer Ambassador Perspectives in a Culturally Tailored Self-Management Intervention for African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study
by Meng-Jung Wen, Ejura Y. Salihu, Choua Yang, Martha Maurer and Olayinka O. Shiyanbola
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030075 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 551
Abstract
Objective: Diabetes disproportionately affects African Americans, leading to higher morbidity and mortality. This study explores the experiences of African American adults who successfully self-manage their type 2 diabetes (called Peer Ambassadors) and provided phone-based peer support in a 6-month culturally tailored diabetes self-management [...] Read more.
Objective: Diabetes disproportionately affects African Americans, leading to higher morbidity and mortality. This study explores the experiences of African American adults who successfully self-manage their type 2 diabetes (called Peer Ambassadors) and provided phone-based peer support in a 6-month culturally tailored diabetes self-management program for African Americans guided by the information–motivation–behavioral skills model. Design: A group discussion using a semi-structured discussion guide was conducted. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify the facilitators and barriers to completing the role of a Peer Ambassador and to develop strategies for overcoming possible challenges in the future. Setting: Key informant discussions were conducted in a community location to gain insights into Ambassadors’ motivations and challenges in delivering peer support. Participants: Three Peer Ambassadors completed ethics training and peer mentor training and received a phone call guide before providing support to their peers. Results: There were four core themes related to Peer Ambassador experiences: (1) Motivation to be a Peer Ambassador, (2) program elements that supported Peer Ambassador role, (3) key elements of achieving engagement, and (4) challenges related to being a Peer Ambassador. Conclusions: This study showed Peer Ambassadors in a culturally tailored peer supported self-management program found fulfillment in sharing experiences and supporting peers. They highly valued educational group sessions for knowledge updates and sustaining their health-related goals, suggesting the potential benefits of recognizing milestones or providing advanced training for future program sustainability. Findings suggest the importance of recruiting motivated patients and providing effective facilitation for peer support roles, including addressing barriers such as time commitment and lack of socialization opportunities. Full article
19 pages, 383 KiB  
Review
Exploring Feedback Mechanics during Experiential Learning in Pharmacy Education: A Scoping Review
by Dania Alkhiyami, Salam Abou Safrah, Ahsan Sethi and Muhammad Abdul Hadi
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030074 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 627
Abstract
(1) Background: This scoping review aims to explore the literature on feedback for pharmacy students during experiential learning, with a focus on identifying the modes of delivery of feedback and the perceived impact of feedback on student learning outcomes. (2) Methods: The scoping [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This scoping review aims to explore the literature on feedback for pharmacy students during experiential learning, with a focus on identifying the modes of delivery of feedback and the perceived impact of feedback on student learning outcomes. (2) Methods: The scoping review was conducted in accordance with the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology and reported following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, ERIC, and ProQuest Central were searched electronically from their inception until the end of February 2023 using a combination of keywords and MeSH terms related to feedback, pharmacy education, and student learning outcomes. Data were synthesized narratively. (3) Results: This review included 13 studies published between 2008 and 2022. Almost half of the included studies were conducted in the USA (n = 6, 46%) and reported the perspective of undergraduate pharmacy students (n = 6, 46%). Verbal feedback was the most common mode of feedback delivery (n = 6, 46%). The enablers of effective feedback included timely feedback (n = 6, 46%), feedback provided in a goal-oriented and objective manner (n = 5, 40%), and student-specific feedback (n = 4, 30%). On the other hand, the most common impediments to feedback efficacy were providing extremely positive feedback and lack of constructive criticism. (4) Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of feedback model implementation in pharmacy education and preceptor training programs to ensure effective and quality feedback to pharmacy students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Experiential Learning in Pharmacy)
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16 pages, 4555 KiB  
Article
Development and Implementation of an Ultraviolet-Dye-Based Qualification Procedure for Hand Washing and Disinfection to Improve Quality Assurance of Pharmacy Preparations and Compounding, Especially in Cleanrooms: A Pilot Study
by Catharina W. J. Knol, Paul H. Stob and Herman J. Woerdenbag
Pharmacy 2024, 12(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy12030073 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Even though, nowadays, most medicines are manufactured industrially, patients may have medical needs that can only be met by a tailor-made approach. This requires the availability of pharmacy preparations made under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions. An efficient hand hygiene practice is essential [...] Read more.
Even though, nowadays, most medicines are manufactured industrially, patients may have medical needs that can only be met by a tailor-made approach. This requires the availability of pharmacy preparations made under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions. An efficient hand hygiene practice is essential herewith, especially if sterile products that are prepared in a cleanroom are concerned. The effectiveness of hand washing and hand disinfection procedures greatly relies on adequate training. We carried out an observational cross-sectional pilot study aimed at optimizing hand hygiene training with objective and measurable quality assessments using an ultraviolet (UV) dye. Practical acceptance criteria for qualifying personnel through this method were set and evaluated. In total, 25 GMP-qualified cleanroom operators washed and disinfected their hands with UV dye hand wash lotion and UV dye hand alcohol, respectively. To obtain a proof-of-concept, the results were judged based on adherence to the WHO six-step protocol and associated acceptance criteria. Commonly missed areas were brought to light, and the influence of procedure duration was investigated. UV-dye-based assessments appeared to be more valuable in hand disinfection than in hand washing. In both procedures, the back of the hands and the thumbs were frequently missed. This underpins the need for enhanced and repeated education on hand washing and disinfection. Additionally, a dry skin gave rise to extra cleaning challenges. From this pharmacy practice pilot study with a focus on pharmaceutical product care, it may be concluded that the application of UV-dye-based assessments offers valuable insights for pharmacists to optimize hand hygiene, thereby increasing the safety of tailor-made medicines and on-site preparations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Practice and Practice-Based Research)
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