Biodegradable Formulations for Ocular Drug Delivery

A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923). This special issue belongs to the section "Drug Delivery and Controlled Release".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 12280

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Innovation, Therapy and Pharmaceutical Development in Ophthalmology (InnOftal) Research Group, UCM 920415, Department of Pharmaceutics and Food Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal, s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: drug delivery systems; eye diseases; pharmaceutical development; biopharmacy

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Ophthalmology, Miguel Servet University Hospital, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
2. Miguel Servet Ophthalmology Research Group (GIMSO), Aragon Health Research Institute (IIS Aragon), University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: optic neuropathy; glaucoma; neuro-ophthalmology; ocular drug delivery; optic coherence tomography

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The treatment of ocular pathology is challenging. It is necessary to reach the target cell and maintain effective concentrations at the site of action. Drug penetration, drug metabolism, and cell–drug interactions are influenced by the surrounding cellular microenvironment and the pathological stage. There is currently a demand to develop ophthalmic formulations based on personalized medicine and focused on the individual needs of each patient. In addition, there is a search for new formulations that minimize iatrogenesis, patient discomfort, and costs. In recent decades, several technological approaches based on nano- and microtechnology, in situ hydrogel systems, implants, or inserts have proven to be powerful tools for more efficient delivery of active substances to both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. The biomaterials used to prepare these systems must be highly biocompatible with the delicate ocular structures. In this sense, biodegradable drug delivery systems are generally preferred as they disappear from the administration site once they have released their content. In addition, from a technological point of view, there are still important issues to address and resolve, such as sterilization of these systems or their long-term stability and storage. This Special Issue is open to original research articles, review articles, or mini-reviews in this field covering technological, methodological, pharmacological (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo), or biochemical approaches to biodegradable ophthalmic formulations for the treatment of ocular pathology, but also for a potential application for early diagnosis.

Dr. Irene Bravo-Osuna
Dr. María Jesús Rodrigo Sanjuán
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • intraocular drug delivery system
  • optic neuropathy
  • retinal disease
  • ocular surface disease
  • nanosystems for ocular drug delivery
  • personalized medicine
  • microsystems for ocular drug delivery
  • early diagnosis
  • ocular implants and inserts
  • hydrogels for ocular drug delivery

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Review

17 pages, 315 KiB  
Review
Intravitreal DEX Implant for the Treatment of Diabetic Macular Edema: A Review of National Consensus
by Roberta Spinetta, Francesco Petrillo, Michele Reibaldi, Antonia Tortori, Maria Mazzoni, Cristian Metrangolo, Francesco Gelormini, Federico Ricardi and Antonio Giordano
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(10), 2461; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15102461 - 13 Oct 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1192
Abstract
Diabetic macular edema (DME)’s therapeutic approach can frequently be challenging. The purpose of the review is to propose evidence-based recommendations on the employment of intravitreal dexamethasone implants (DEX) when approaching patients suffering from DME. Seven national consensuses redacted by different groups of retina [...] Read more.
Diabetic macular edema (DME)’s therapeutic approach can frequently be challenging. The purpose of the review is to propose evidence-based recommendations on the employment of intravitreal dexamethasone implants (DEX) when approaching patients suffering from DME. Seven national consensuses redacted by different groups of retina specialists from Europe and Asia were examined and confronted. Each consensus was redacted utilizing a Delphi approach, in person meetings, or by reviewing the literature. DEX can be studied as a first-line strategy in individuals suffering from DME with inflammatory OCT biomarkers, in vitrectomized eyes, in patients with recent cardiovascular events, in pregnant women, in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery or with poor compliance. The other parameters considered were the indications to the DME treatment, when to switch to DEX, the definition of non-responder to anti-VEGFs agents and to the DEX implant, whether to combine DEX with laser photocoagulation, the association between glaucoma and DEX, and the management of DEX and the cataract. Although several years have passed since the introduction of DEX implants in the DME treatment, there is still not a unified agreement among retina specialists. This paper compares the approach in the DME treatment between countries from different continents and provides a broader and worldwide perspective of the topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Formulations for Ocular Drug Delivery)
36 pages, 1532 KiB  
Review
A New Era in Ocular Therapeutics: Advanced Drug Delivery Systems for Uveitis and Neuro-Ophthalmologic Conditions
by Kevin Y. Wu, Kenneth Tan, Dania Akbar, Mazen Y. Choulakian and Simon D. Tran
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(7), 1952; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15071952 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2824
Abstract
The eye’s intricate anatomical barriers pose significant challenges to the penetration, residence time, and bioavailability of topically applied medications, particularly in managing uveitis and neuro-ophthalmologic conditions. Addressing this issue, polymeric nano-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have surfaced as a promising solution. These systems [...] Read more.
The eye’s intricate anatomical barriers pose significant challenges to the penetration, residence time, and bioavailability of topically applied medications, particularly in managing uveitis and neuro-ophthalmologic conditions. Addressing this issue, polymeric nano-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have surfaced as a promising solution. These systems enhance drug bioavailability in hard-to-reach target tissues, extend residence time within ocular tissues, and utilize biodegradable and nanosized polymers to reduce undesirable side effects. Thus, they have stimulated substantial interest in crafting innovative treatments for uveitis and neuro-ophthalmologic diseases. This review provides a comprehensive exploration of polymeric nano-based DDS used for managing these conditions. We discuss the present therapeutic hurdles posed by these diseases and explore the potential role of various biopolymers in broadening our treatment repertoire. Our study incorporates a detailed literature review of preclinical and clinical studies from 2017 to 2023. Owing to advancements in polymer science, ocular DDS has made rapid strides, showing tremendous potential to revolutionize the treatment of patients with uveitis and neuro-ophthalmologic disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Formulations for Ocular Drug Delivery)
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45 pages, 2262 KiB  
Review
Overcoming Treatment Challenges in Posterior Segment Diseases with Biodegradable Nano-Based Drug Delivery Systems
by Kevin Y. Wu, Maxine Joly-Chevrier, Dania Akbar and Simon D. Tran
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(4), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15041094 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2417
Abstract
Posterior segment eye diseases present a challenge in treatment due to the complex structures in the eye that serve as robust static and dynamic barriers, limiting the penetration, residence time, and bioavailability of topical and intraocular medications. This hinders effective treatment and requires [...] Read more.
Posterior segment eye diseases present a challenge in treatment due to the complex structures in the eye that serve as robust static and dynamic barriers, limiting the penetration, residence time, and bioavailability of topical and intraocular medications. This hinders effective treatment and requires frequent dosing, such as the regular use of eye drops or visits to the ophthalmologist for intravitreal injections, to manage the disease. Moreover, the drugs must be biodegradable to minimize toxicity and adverse reactions, as well as small enough to not affect the visual axis. The development of biodegradable nano-based drug delivery systems (DDSs) can be the solution to these challenges. First, they can stay in ocular tissues for longer periods of time, reducing the frequency of drug administration. Second, they can pass through ocular barriers, offering higher bioavailability to targeted tissues that are otherwise inaccessible. Third, they can be made up of polymers that are biodegradable and nanosized. Hence, therapeutic innovations in biodegradable nanosized DDS have been widely explored for ophthalmic drug delivery applications. In this review, we will present a concise overview of DDSs utilized in the treatment of ocular diseases. We will then examine the current therapeutic challenges faced in the management of posterior segment diseases and explore how various types of biodegradable nanocarriers can enhance our therapeutic arsenal. A literature review of the pre-clinical and clinical studies published between 2017 and 2023 was conducted. Through the advances in biodegradable materials, combined with a better understanding of ocular pharmacology, the nano-based DDSs have rapidly evolved, showing great promise to overcome challenges currently encountered by clinicians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Formulations for Ocular Drug Delivery)
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33 pages, 826 KiB  
Review
Updates on Biodegradable Formulations for Ocular Drug Delivery
by Ta-Hsin Tsung, Yi-Hao Chen and Da-Wen Lu
Pharmaceutics 2023, 15(3), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics15030734 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2597
Abstract
The complex nature of the ocular drug delivery barrier presents a significant challenge to the effective administration of drugs, resulting in poor therapeutic outcomes. To address this issue, it is essential to investigate new drugs and alternative delivery routes and vehicles. One promising [...] Read more.
The complex nature of the ocular drug delivery barrier presents a significant challenge to the effective administration of drugs, resulting in poor therapeutic outcomes. To address this issue, it is essential to investigate new drugs and alternative delivery routes and vehicles. One promising approach is the use of biodegradable formulations to develop potential ocular drug delivery technologies. These include hydrogels, biodegradable microneedles, implants, and polymeric nanocarriers such as liposomes, nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, nanomicelles, and nanoemulsions. The research in these areas is rapidly growing. In this review, we provide an overview of recent updates in biodegradable formulations for ocular drug delivery over the past decade. Additionally, we examine the clinical use of different biodegradable formulations in various ocular diseases. The aim of this review is to gain a deeper understanding of potential future trends in biodegradable ocular drug delivery systems and to raise awareness of their potential for practical clinical application as a means of providing new treatment options for ocular diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Formulations for Ocular Drug Delivery)
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25 pages, 2773 KiB  
Review
The Use of Polymer Blends in the Treatment of Ocular Diseases
by Raquel Gregorio Arribada, Francine Behar-Cohen, Andre Luis Branco de Barros and Armando Silva-Cunha
Pharmaceutics 2022, 14(7), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071431 - 07 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2493
Abstract
The eye is an organ with limited drug access due to its anatomical and physiological barriers, and the usual forms of ocular administration are limited in terms of drug penetration, residence time, and bioavailability, as well as low patient compliance. Hence, therapeutic innovations [...] Read more.
The eye is an organ with limited drug access due to its anatomical and physiological barriers, and the usual forms of ocular administration are limited in terms of drug penetration, residence time, and bioavailability, as well as low patient compliance. Hence, therapeutic innovations in new drug delivery systems (DDS) have been widely explored since they show numerous advantages over conventional methods, besides delivering the content to the eye without interfering with its normal functioning. Polymers are usually used in DDS and many of them are applicable to ophthalmic use, especially biodegradable ones. Even so, it can be a hard task to find a singular polymer with all the desirable properties to deliver the best performance, and combining two or more polymers in a blend has proven to be more convenient, efficient, and cost-effective. This review was carried out to assess the use of polymer blends as DDS. The search conducted in the databases of Pubmed and Scopus for specific terms revealed that although the physical combination of polymers is largely applied, the term polymer blend still has low compliance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodegradable Formulations for Ocular Drug Delivery)
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