Special Issue "Understanding the Immune Response during HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Infection"
A special issue of Pathogens (ISSN 2076-0817). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunological Responses and Immune Defense Mechanisms".
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2023) | Viewed by 3913
Interests: HIV pathogenesis and cure; HIV/TB coinfection; aging mucosal immunity and inflammation of aging
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remain leading causes of mortality and morbidity in infected people. HIV-Mtb coinfection further increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) by 20-fold and mortality by 4-fold, while altering the clinical presentation and outcome. Moreover, it complicates TB diagnosis and treatment even in individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Although HIV-1-induced depletion of CD4+ T cells underlies worse outcome of HIV-TB coinfection, broader immune deficits induced by HIV also contribute to disease pathogenesis. Conversely, Mtb infection also impacts on the immune response to HIV-1 by driving transcriptional activation via production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and increasing cellular susceptibility to HIV-1 infection via increased CCR5 expression and production of cytokines (such as IL-2 and Toll-like receptor 2 upregulation). Yet, precise immunopathological mechanisms of HIV-TB coinfection remain unclear. While these impairments in immune responses are a major barrier to properly diagnosing or ameliorating TB, they also represent an opportunity to understand novel immune mechanisms of protection against TB in HIV-infected and uninfected persons.
Additionally, there is emerging interest in understanding innate immune responses to Mtb and BCG vaccines in HIV-infected individuals and developing TB/HIV dual vaccine candidates. Improved understanding of the immunopathology of HIV-associated TB has the potential to improve preventative measures, such as by informing vaccine design and diagnostics and developing new immunomodulatory therapies. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive overview of our current understanding of the immune response during HIV and Mtb infection. We therefore welcome the submission of original research and review articles that cover, but are not limited to, the following topics:
- Identification of biomarkers of HIV/TB coinfection.
- Changes in immune cells functions and signaling pathways that increase TB susceptibility in coinfected individuals or in animal models of HIV/TB.
- Role of innate and adaptive immune cells in response to Mtb/BCG at lung mucosa.
- Effects of ART on lung mucosal immune responses to BCG vaccine and Mtb infection.
Dr. Namita Rout
Dr. Vijayakumar Velu
Manuscript Submission Information
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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pathogens is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.
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- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- lung mucosa
- immune response