Special Issue "Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 41438

Special Issue Editor

School of Chemical Engineering, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia
Interests: ore minerals; trace element analysis; ore deposit geology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, “Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019”, will cover topics of broad interest to the international geoscience community. The Special Issue will contain invitation-only original research and review articles from prominent researchers in the field that cover recent advances in microanalytical techniques, including geochronology and isotope geochemistry, compositional data for natural minerals of all types, and experimental work on their synthetic analogues, as well as the application of mineral chemistry to issues such as the petrogenesis of igneous rocks or exploration for mineral deposits.

Prof. Dr. Nigel J. Cook
Guest Editor

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 6606 KiB  
Article
New Insights into the Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Sb Ores from Greece
Minerals 2020, 10(3), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10030236 - 06 Mar 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3349
Abstract
Antimony is a common metalloid occurring in the form of Sb-sulfides and sulfosalts, in various base and noble metal deposits. It is also present in corresponding metallurgical products (concentrates) and, although antimony has been considered a penalty element in the past, recently it [...] Read more.
Antimony is a common metalloid occurring in the form of Sb-sulfides and sulfosalts, in various base and noble metal deposits. It is also present in corresponding metallurgical products (concentrates) and, although antimony has been considered a penalty element in the past, recently it has gained interest due to its classification as a critical raw material (CRM) by the European Union (EU). In the frame of the present paper, representative ore samples from the main Sb-bearing deposits of Greece (Kilkis prefecture, Chalkidiki prefecture (Kassandra Mines), and Chios Isl.) have been investigated. According to optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) data, the Greek ores contain stibnite (Sb2S3), boulangerite (Pb5Sb4S11), bournonite (PbCuSbS3), bertherite (FeSbS4), and valentinite (Sb2O3). Bulk analyses by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) confirmed, for the first time published, the presence of a significant Hg content in the Kilkis Sb-ore. Furthermore, Kassandra Mines ores are found to contain remarkable amounts of Bi, As, Sn, Tl, and Se (excluding Ag, which is a bonus element). The above findings could contribute to potential future exploration and exploitation of Sb ores in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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21 pages, 6702 KiB  
Article
Hydrothermal Chromitites from the Oman Ophiolite: The Role of Water in Chromitite Genesis
Minerals 2020, 10(3), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10030217 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5074
Abstract
The role of water-rich solutions in the formation of chromitites has been the matter of controversy. We found small chromite concentrations (chromitites) in diopsidites, precipitated from high-temperature hydrothermal fluids, in the mantle to the crust of the Oman ophiolite. Here, we present petrologic [...] Read more.
The role of water-rich solutions in the formation of chromitites has been the matter of controversy. We found small chromite concentrations (chromitites) in diopsidites, precipitated from high-temperature hydrothermal fluids, in the mantle to the crust of the Oman ophiolite. Here, we present petrologic characteristics of the hydrothermal chromitites to understand their genesis. In the chromitites, the chromite is associated with uvarovite in the crust and diopside + grossular in the mantle. They are discriminated from the magmatic podiform chromitite by dominance of the Ca-Al silicates in the matrix. The fluids responsible for chromite precipitation are possibly saline, being derived from the seawater circulated into the mantle through the crust. The saline fluids precipitate chromite to form chromite upon decompression and cooling, and transport platinum-group elements (especially Pt and Pd). The fluids obtain Ca and Al from the crustal rocks and Cr from the mantle rocks during circulation. Saline fluids are also supplied from the slab to the mantle wedge, and can metasomatically precipitate chromite and pyroxenes within peridotites. They re-distribute Cr and chromite in peridotites along with circulation of saline fluids in the mantle wedge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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31 pages, 4527 KiB  
Article
An Integrated Study of the Serpentinite-Hosted Hydrothermal System in the Pollino Massif (Southern Apennines, Italy)
Minerals 2020, 10(2), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10020127 - 31 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
A comprehensive study of the serpentinite and associated veins belonging to the Frido Unit in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) is presented here with the aim to provide new constraints about the hydrothermal system hosted by the accretionary wedge of the southern Apennines. [...] Read more.
A comprehensive study of the serpentinite and associated veins belonging to the Frido Unit in the Pollino Massif (southern Italy) is presented here with the aim to provide new constraints about the hydrothermal system hosted by the accretionary wedge of the southern Apennines. The studied serpentinites are from two different sites: Fosso Arcangelo and Pietrapica. In both sites, the rocks show mylonitic-cataclastic structures and pseudomorphic and patch textures and are traversing by pervasive carbonate and quartz-carbonate veins. The mineralogical assemblage of serpentinites consists of serpentine group minerals (with a predominance of lizardite), amphiboles, pyroxene, chlorite, titanite, magnetite, and talc. In some samples, hydro-garnet was also detected and documented here for the first time. As for cutting veins, different mineralogical compositions were observed in the two sites: calcite characterizes the veins from Fosso Arcangelo, whereas quartz and dolomite are the principal minerals of the Pietrapica veins infill, suggesting a different composition of mineralizing fluids. Stable isotopes of C and O also indicate such a different chemistry. In detail, samples from the Pietrapica site are characterized by δ13C fluctuations coupled with a δ18O shift documenting calcite formation in an open-system where mixing between deep and shallow fluids occurred. Conversely, δ13C and δ18O of the Fosso Arcangelo veins show a decarbonation trend, suggesting their developing in a closed-system at deeper crustal conditions. Precipitation temperature calculated for both sites indicates a similar range (80 °C to 120 °C), thus suggesting carbonate precipitation within the same thermal system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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22 pages, 4269 KiB  
Article
Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Trace Elements in Pyrite: Prediction, Bias and Artefacts in Defining Mineral Signatures
Minerals 2020, 10(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10010061 - 10 Jan 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 5652
Abstract
Pyrite is the most common sulphide in a wide range of ore deposits and well known to host numerous trace elements, with implications for recovery of valuable metals and for generation of clean concentrates. Trace element signatures of pyrite are also widely used [...] Read more.
Pyrite is the most common sulphide in a wide range of ore deposits and well known to host numerous trace elements, with implications for recovery of valuable metals and for generation of clean concentrates. Trace element signatures of pyrite are also widely used to understand ore-forming processes. Pyrite is an important component of the Olympic Dam Cu–U–Au–Ag orebody, South Australia. Using a multivariate statistical approach applied to a large trace element dataset derived from analysis of random pyrite grains, trace element signatures in Olympic Dam pyrite are assessed. Pyrite is characterised by: (i) a Ag–Bi–Pb signature predicting inclusions of tellurides (as PC1); and (ii) highly variable Co–Ni ratios likely representing an oscillatory zonation pattern in pyrite (as PC2). Pyrite is a major host for As, Co and probably also Ni. These three elements do not correlate well at the grain-scale, indicating high variability in zonation patterns. Arsenic is not, however, a good predictor for invisible Au at Olympic Dam. Most pyrites contain only negligible Au, suggesting that invisible gold in pyrite is not commonplace within the deposit. A minority of pyrite grains analysed do, however, contain Au which correlates with Ag, Bi and Te. The results are interpreted to reflect not only primary patterns but also the effects of multi-stage overprinting, including cycles of partial replacement and recrystallisation. The latter may have caused element release from the pyrite lattice and entrapment as mineral inclusions, as widely observed for other ore and gangue minerals within the deposit. Results also show the critical impact on predictive interpretations made from statistical analysis of large datasets containing a large percentage of left-censored values (i.e., those falling below the minimum limits of detection). The treatment of such values in large datasets is critical as the number of these values impacts on the cluster results. Trimming of datasets to eliminate artefacts introduced by left-censored data should be performed with caution lest bias be unintentionally introduced. The practice may, however, reveal meaningful correlations that might be diluted using the complete dataset. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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25 pages, 5511 KiB  
Article
Chlorine Isotope Composition of Apatite from the >3.7 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt, SW Greenland
Minerals 2020, 10(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10010027 - 28 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3855
Abstract
The study of the oldest surviving rock suites is crucial for understanding the processes that shaped the early Earth and formed an environment suitable for life. The metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the early Archean Isua supracrustal belt contain abundant apatite, the geochemical [...] Read more.
The study of the oldest surviving rock suites is crucial for understanding the processes that shaped the early Earth and formed an environment suitable for life. The metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks of the early Archean Isua supracrustal belt contain abundant apatite, the geochemical signatures of which may help decipher ancient environmental conditions. However, previous research has shown that secondary processes, including amphibolite-facies metamorphism, have reset the original hydrogen isotope composition (δD) of apatite from the Isua belt; therefore, δD values are not indicative of primary conditions in the Archean. Here, we report the first in situ chlorine isotope (δ37Cl) analyses by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) from Isua apatite, which we combine with information from transmission electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence imaging, and spectroscopy, documenting the micron-scale internal features of apatite crystals. The determined δ37ClSMOC values (chlorine isotope ratios vs. standard mean ocean chloride) fall within a range from −0.8‰ to 1.6‰, with the most extreme values recorded by two banded iron formation samples. Our results show that δ37Cl values cannot uniquely document primary signatures of apatite crystals, but the results are nonetheless helpful for assessing the extent of secondary overprint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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30 pages, 28969 KiB  
Article
Double-Front Crystallization in the Chapesvara Ultramafic Subvolcanic Complex, Serpentinite Belt, Kola Peninsula, Russia
Minerals 2020, 10(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10010014 - 23 Dec 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1933
Abstract
Dunite–harzburgite–olivine-bearing orthopyroxenite successions in the subvolcanic Chapesvara-I and Chapesvara-II intrusions in the Serpentinite Belt, western Kola Peninsula, are notably magnesian. The mean Mg# value (whole-rock) is 86.6, and the olivine is Fo84−89. The upper contact facies (UCF) displays a lower Mg# [...] Read more.
Dunite–harzburgite–olivine-bearing orthopyroxenite successions in the subvolcanic Chapesvara-I and Chapesvara-II intrusions in the Serpentinite Belt, western Kola Peninsula, are notably magnesian. The mean Mg# value (whole-rock) is 86.6, and the olivine is Fo84−89. The upper contact facies (UCF) displays a lower Mg# (81.6). It consists of grains of Fo92 and abundant chromian spinel, implying rapid crystallization of an almost unfractionated melt. On average, the whole-rock Al2O3/TiO2 value is 22.45, close to 22.9 (UCF) and to the primitive mantle, ~22. The rise of primitive ultramafic magma presumably occurred in a special tectonic setting at the boundary of the Paleoproterozoic Lapland Granulite Terrane and the Belomorian Composite Terrane of Archean age. The Chapesvara suite resembles examples of the Al-undepleted komatiites in the Barberton Belt, South Africa, with magmas of up to 30–35% MgO. The UCF rock yields an anomalously low molar MgO/SiO2 value, close to that of dunitic rocks located at the center of the Chapesvara-II body. This rock is the most primitive, as indicated by the maximum Fo content of olivine, the lowest value of (Gd/Yb)N, 0.52, and the lowest abundances of middle to heavy rare-earth elements (REE) in the chondrite-normalized spectrum. The crystallization of the Chapesvara-II sill-like intrusion likely proceeded in two stages, which are evident from the olivine compositions varying from the maximum Fo92 (UCF) to Fo≤89.5 (the central dunite zone). At Stage 1, the UCF rock (Fo92) crystallized first, close to the upper contact. The area of crystallization then shifted to a central portion of the Chapesvara-II body, in which the dunitic zone (Fo89.5) formed in situ (Stage 2). The compositional variations in chromian spinel are consistent with this suggestion. Two crystallization trends were recognized. The type-1 trend displays a relative maximum or minimum close to the center, and then diverges into two linear subtrends directed upward and downward. This pattern is manifested in the variations of Mg# in olivine and chromian spinel, the whole-rock contents of Al and Ca, and in levels of incompatible elements: Ti, V, Zr, Y, and Hf. The type-2 trend decreases or increases uniformly from top to bottom. Variations in amount of Ni in olivine, the Fe3+# index in chromian spinel, and in values of Mg# (rocks), follow a type-2 trend. Variations in total amounts of REE, Nb, and Th, which gradually increase downward, are also related to a type-2 trend. Thus, a contrasting development and possible interference of the two types of evolutionary trends were observed in the crystallization history of the Chapesvara-II sill-like body. A double-front crystallization, hitherto unreported, involved two fronts moving upward and downward, respectively. The upward subtrend appeared to be of subordinate importance, whereas the extent of fractional crystallization of the downward front was much greater. Crystallization proceeded from the top to the bottom, presumably because of the preferential loss of heat at the roof. Variations in the Fe3+# index indicate that the level of fO2 also increased downward with progressive crystallization. Convection cells were presumably the key mechanism of accumulation of the crystallizing olivine grains to form the central dunite zone close to the center of the sill-like intrusion. The observed characteristics of the Chapesvara complex indicate the existence of a primitive-mantle source and imply a highly magnesian composition of intruding magma not only for Chapesvara, but also for the Pados-Tundra layered complex and associated suites of the Serpentinite Belt in the Kola Peninsula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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25 pages, 22219 KiB  
Article
Efflorescent Sulfate Crystallization on Fractured and Polished Colloform Pyrite Surfaces: A Migration Pathway of Trace Elements
Minerals 2020, 10(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10010012 - 21 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3348
Abstract
The colloform pyrite variety incorporates many trace elements that are released in the environment during rapid oxidation. Colloform pyrite from the Chiprovtsi silver–lead deposit in Bulgaria and its oxidation efflorescent products were studied using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and [...] Read more.
The colloform pyrite variety incorporates many trace elements that are released in the environment during rapid oxidation. Colloform pyrite from the Chiprovtsi silver–lead deposit in Bulgaria and its oxidation efflorescent products were studied using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Pyrite is enriched with (in ppm): Co (0.1–964), Ni (1.8–3858), Cu (2.9–3188), Zn (3.1–77), Ag (1.2–1771), As (8179–52,787), Se (2.7–21.7), Sb (48–17792), Hg (4–2854), Tl (1.7–2336), Pb (13–7072), and Au (0.07–2.77). Gypsum, anhydrite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, römerite, copiapite, aluminocopiapite, magnesiocopiapite, coquimbite, aluminocoquimbite, voltaite, and ammoniomagnesiovoltaite were identified in the efflorescent sulfate assemblage. Sulfate minerals contain not only inherited elements from pyrite (Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag, In, As, Sb, Hg, Tl, and Pb), but also newly introduced elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Mn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Sn, Cs, Ba, REE, U, and Th). Voltaite group minerals, copiapite, magnesiocopiapite, and römerite incorporate most of the trace elements, especially the most hazardous As, Sb, Hg, and Tl. Colloform pyrite occurrence in the Chiprovtsi deposit is limited. Its association with marbles would further restrict the oxidation and release of hazardous elements into the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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29 pages, 7707 KiB  
Article
The Chemical Evolution from Older (323–318 Ma) towards Younger Highly Evolved Tin Granites (315–314 Ma)—Sources and Metal Enrichment in Variscan Granites of the Western Erzgebirge (Central European Variscides, Germany)
Minerals 2019, 9(12), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9120769 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2708
Abstract
The sources and critical enrichment processes for granite related tin ores are still not well understood. The Erzgebirge represents one of the classical regions for tin mineralization. We investigated the four largest plutons from the Western Erzgebirge (Germany) for the geochemistry of bulk [...] Read more.
The sources and critical enrichment processes for granite related tin ores are still not well understood. The Erzgebirge represents one of the classical regions for tin mineralization. We investigated the four largest plutons from the Western Erzgebirge (Germany) for the geochemistry of bulk rocks and autocrystic zircons and relate this information to their intrusion ages. The source rocks of the Variscan granites were identified as high-grade metamorphic rocks based on the comparison of Hf-O isotope data on zircons, the abundance of xenocrystic zircon ages as well as Nd and Hf model ages. Among these rocks, restite is the most likely candidate for later Variscan melts. Based on the evolution with time, we could reconstruct enrichment factors for tin and tungsten starting from the protoliths (575 Ma) that were later converted to high-grade metamorphic rocks (340 Ma) and served as sources for the older biotite granites (323–318 Ma) and the tin granites (315–314 Ma). This evolution involved a continuous enrichment of both tin and tungsten with an enrichment factor of ~15 for tin and ~7 for tungsten compared to the upper continental crust (UCC). Ore level concentrations (>10–100 times enrichment) were achieved only in the greisen bodies and dykes by subsequent hydrothermal processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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21 pages, 4650 KiB  
Article
Trace Elements in Magnetite from the Pagoni Rachi Porphyry Prospect, NE Greece: Implications for Ore Genesis and Exploration
Minerals 2019, 9(12), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9120725 - 24 Nov 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6032
Abstract
Magnetite is a common accessory phase in various types of ore deposits. Its trace element content has proven to have critical implications regarding petrogenesis and as guides in the exploration for ore deposits in general. In this study we use LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation-inductively [...] Read more.
Magnetite is a common accessory phase in various types of ore deposits. Its trace element content has proven to have critical implications regarding petrogenesis and as guides in the exploration for ore deposits in general. In this study we use LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) analyses of trace elements to chemically characterize magnetite from the Pagoni Rachi Cu–Mo–Re–Au porphyry-style prospect, Thrace, northern Greece. Igneous magnetite mostly occurs as euhedral grains, which are commonly replaced by hematite in fresh to propylitic-altered granodiorite porphyry, whereas, hydrothermal magnetite forms narrow veinlets or is disseminated in sodic/potassic-calcic altered (albite + K-feldspar + actinolite + biotite + chlorite) granodiorite porphyry. Magnetite is commonly associated with chalcopyrite and pyrite and locally exhibits martitization. Laser ablation ICP-MS analyses of hydrothermal magnetite yielded elevated concentrations in several trace elements (e.g., V, Pb, W, Mo, Ta, Zn, Cu, and Nb) whereas Ti, Cr, Ni, and Sn display higher concentration in its magmatic counterpart. A noteworthy enrichment in Mo, Pb, and Zn is an unusual feature of hydrothermal magnetite from Pagoni Rachi. High Si, Al, and Ca values in a few analyses of hydrothermal magnetite imply the presence of submicroscopic or nano-inclusions (e.g., chlorite, and titanite). The trace element patterns of the hydrothermal magnetite and especially the decrease in its Ti content reflect an evolution from the magmatic towards the hydrothermal conditions under decreasing temperatures, which is consistent with findings from analogous porphyry-style deposits elsewhere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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41 pages, 10244 KiB  
Article
Exceptional Multi Stage Mineralization of Secondary Minerals in Cavities of Flood Basalts from the Deccan Volcanic Province, India
Minerals 2019, 9(6), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9060351 - 07 Jun 2019
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6170
Abstract
Flood basalts of the Deccan Volcanic Province erupted between about 67.5 to 60.5 Ma ago and reached a thickness of up to 3500 m. The main part consists of compound and simple lava flows with a tholeiitic composition erupted within 500,000 years at [...] Read more.
Flood basalts of the Deccan Volcanic Province erupted between about 67.5 to 60.5 Ma ago and reached a thickness of up to 3500 m. The main part consists of compound and simple lava flows with a tholeiitic composition erupted within 500,000 years at about 65 Ma. Within the compound lava flows, vesicles and cavities are frequent. They are filled by secondary minerals partly of well development and large size. This study presents data on the secondary mineralization including detailed field descriptions, optical, cathodoluminescence and SEM microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, fluid inclusions, C and O isotope analyses, and Rb-Sr and K-Ar geochronology. The investigations indicate a multistage precipitation sequence with three main stages. During stage I clay minerals and subsurface filamentous fabrics (SFFs), of probably biogenic origin, formed after the lava flows cooled down near to the Earth’s surface. In stage II, first an assemblage of calcite (I) and zeolite (I) (including mordenite, heulandite, and stilbite) as well as plagioclase was overgrown by chalcedony, and finally a second calcite (II) and zeolite (II) generation developed by burial metamorphism by subsequent lava flows. Stage III is characterized by precipitation of a third calcite (III) generation together with powellite and apophyllite from late hydrothermal fluids. Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages of apophyllite indicate a large time span for stage III. Apophyllite formed within different time intervals from the Paleogene to the early Miocene even within individual lava flows at certain localities. From the Savda/Jalgaon quarry complex, ages cluster at 44–48 Ma and 25–28 Ma, whereas those from the Nashik area are 55–58 Ma and 21–23 Ma, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology 2019)
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