Petrogenesis, Magmatism and Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Mineral Geochemistry and Geochronology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2024) | Viewed by 8444

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
Interests: magmatism and tectonic evolution in orogenic belt; Paleo-Tethyan orogeny; crust–mantle interaction
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
School of Geosciences, Yangtze University, Wuhan 430100, China
Interests: igneous petrology and geochemistry; paleo-tethyan tectono-magmatic evolution; magmatism and petroleum exploration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The formation of igneous rocks in orogenic belts is the response to the coupling of the crust–mantle material cycle and geodynamics. These structures represent important probes for revealing the growth mechanism of continental crust and associated deep geodynamic processes. Igneous rocks, generated in different tectonic settings including the opening and closing of oceanic basin, terranes collision and post-collisional extension, usually exhibit different rock assemblages and geochemical compositions, thus making them the key objects for tectonic reconstruction. The fact that magma sources and evolution processes play key roles in their origin is well known, however, how and to what degree do the different magma sources and magmatic evolution processes contribute to the petrological and geochemical diversity of igneous rocks in orogenic belts is debated and remains controversial. Over the past few decades, the scientific community has made a variety of breathroghs in their understanding of magma reservoirs. Unlike the conceptual melt-dominated magma chamber model, numerous geophysical and petrological studies have revealed that magma chambers mostly exist in the form of crystal-rich mush reservoirs. This new model requires us to rethink and study the evolution process and petrogenesis of igneous rocks, especially the mechanism of crust–mantle interaction in crystal mush magma. Hence, Minerals is placing an open call for original research, methods, comprehensive summary and review papers and other types of submissions for a thematic Special Issue entitled “Petrogenesis, Magmatism and the Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts”. We particularly encourage (but are not limited to) contributions of the following issues:

  • Magma sources and petrological diversity;
  • Magmatic processes in crustal magma reservoir;
  • Magmatic tempos in orogenic belts and their implications for crust growth;
  • Mafic magmatism in different geodynamic processes;
  • Numerical modelling approaches predicting the magmatic evolution and geochemical diversity.

Dr. Fuhao Xiong
Dr. Bin Liu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • magmatism
  • petrogenesis
  • magmatic process
  • magmatic reservoir
  • geodynamic
  • tectonic

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

22 pages, 25391 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications of the Oligocene Dalongtan Shoshonitic Syenite Porphyry in Central Yunnan, Southeastern Tibetan Plateau: Constraints from Geochronology, Geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf Isotopes
by Hang Yang, Anlin Liu, Peng Wu and Feng Wang
Minerals 2024, 14(3), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14030282 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Shoshonitic rocks are widely distributed in post-collisional settings and provide key information on deep geodynamic mechanisms and magmatic evolution. In this paper, we present petrographic, zircon U-Pb age-related, trace elemental, Hf isotopic, bulk-rock elemental, and Sr-Nd isotopic data of the Dalongtan shoshonitic syenite [...] Read more.
Shoshonitic rocks are widely distributed in post-collisional settings and provide key information on deep geodynamic mechanisms and magmatic evolution. In this paper, we present petrographic, zircon U-Pb age-related, trace elemental, Hf isotopic, bulk-rock elemental, and Sr-Nd isotopic data of the Dalongtan shoshonitic syenite porphyries (DSSPs) in central Yunnan, southeastern Tibet. The DSSPs formed at 33.2 ± 0.3 Ma in a post-collisional setting. They define linear trends on Harker diagrams, and they display similar trace element patterns and enriched bulk-rock Sr-Nd isotopes [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70964–0.70968, εNd(t) = −12.9 to −12.7] and zircon Hf isotopes (εHf(t) = −15.7 to −13.1) to the coeval mantle-derived potassic mafic rocks. This suggests that the DSSPs were fractionated from the lithospheric mantle-derived mafic magmas. The DSSPs, along with the coeval felsic and mafic magmatic rocks (37.2–32.3 Ma), exhibit a planar distribution on the SE Tibet and predate the left-lateral shearing of the Ailaoshan–Red River shear zone (ARSZ) (32–22 Ma), suggesting that there are no genetic relationships between them. The DSSPs have geochemical characteristics similar to those of A-type granites, with high total alkalinity (10.39–11.17 wt.%), HFSE concentrations (Zr + Nb + Ce + Y = 890.2–1054.3 ppm), Ga/Al ratios (10,000 × Ga/Al = 2.95–3.46), whole-rock zircon saturation temperatures (906–947 °C), and oxygen fugacity (ΔFMQ = +3.30–+4.65), indicating that they are products of the high-temperature melting of the lithosphere as a result of asthenosphere upwelling in extensional settings. Based on our data and regional observations, it is proposed that the generation of the DSSPs may be linked to the convective thinning of the thickened lithospheric mantle following the India–Asia collision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrogenesis, Magmatism and Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 7384 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis and Tectonic Significance of Early Permian Intermediate–Felsic Rocks in the Southern Beishan Orogen, Northwest China: Geochronological and Geochemical Constraints
by Runwu Li, Shangguo Su, Huiyi Sun, Ruibin Liu and Yutian Xia
Minerals 2024, 14(1), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14010114 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 797
Abstract
Permian intermediate–felsic igneous rocks, widely distributed in the southern Beishan orogen, provide crucial constraints on the geodynamic process of the late Paleozoic Paleo-Asian Ocean. New zircon U–Pb dating using LA–ICP–MS determines the age of the northern Qingshan diorites, the Heishantou quartz diorites, and [...] Read more.
Permian intermediate–felsic igneous rocks, widely distributed in the southern Beishan orogen, provide crucial constraints on the geodynamic process of the late Paleozoic Paleo-Asian Ocean. New zircon U–Pb dating using LA–ICP–MS determines the age of the northern Qingshan diorites, the Heishantou quartz diorites, and the southern Qingshan biotite granodiorites at 300 Ma, 294 Ma, and 291–286 Ma, respectively. Their whole-rock compositions exhibit arc-like geochemical features. Moreover, their zircon trace elements show the characteristics of continental arc zircons. The diorites, characterized by low SiO2, high MgO with Mg# (50–52), and low Cr, Co, and Ni, display enrichment in Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7060 to 0.7061; ℇNd(t) = −1.4 to −1.7; ℇHf(t) = −4.7 to −0.6), originating from the fractionation process of magma derived from the enriched mantle. The quartz diorites show moderate SiO2 and variable MgO (2.75–3.84 wt%) and exhibit enrichment in Sr-Nd (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7048–0.7050; ℇNd(t) = −1.5–+0.9) and depletion in zircon Hf isotopes (ℇHf(t) = 3.8 to 7.8). Combined with their high Y (20.0–21.0 ppm) and low (La/Yb)N (6.0 to 17.2), we conclude that they originated from the juvenile lower crust previously influenced by oceanic sediments, with the input of enriched mantle-derived materials. The biotite granodiorites display low A/CNK (0.91–0.97), 10000*Ga/Al (1.8–1.9), and Ti-in-zircon temperatures (average 711 °C), indicating that they are I-type granitoids. These rocks show enrichment in Sr-Nd isotopes (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7054 to 0.7061; ℇNd(t) = −2.0 to −1.6) and many variable zircon Hf isotopes (ℇHf(t) = −2.3 to +4.5). Geochemical studies indicate that they originate from the mixing of magmas derived from the enriched mantle and preexisting juvenile lower crust. All these data imply the existence of oceanic subduction in southern Beishan during the early Permian. Integrating these results with previous studies, it is inferred that the retreating subduction of the Liuyuan Ocean contributed to early Permian intermediate–felsic rocks becoming widespread in the Shibanshan unit, the southernmost part of the Beishan orogen, and also why the Paleo-Asian Ocean in southern Beishan did not close during the early Permian. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrogenesis, Magmatism and Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 9365 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis and Geodynamic Implications of Cretaceous Nb-Enriched Mafic Dykes in the East Kunlun Orogen, Northern Tibet Plateau: Constraints from Geochronology, Geochemistry and Sr-Nd Isotopes
by Zhiqiang Chu, Hu Zhou, Mingchi Wang, Jiaming Zhou and Fuhao Xiong
Minerals 2024, 14(1), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/min14010089 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 728
Abstract
There is a magmatic lull period in the East Kunlun orogen (EKO) during the Jurassic to the Cretaceous. However, due to the lack of records of magmatic activity restricts our understanding of the late Mesozoic magmatic-tectonic evolution of the EKO. Herein, an integrated [...] Read more.
There is a magmatic lull period in the East Kunlun orogen (EKO) during the Jurassic to the Cretaceous. However, due to the lack of records of magmatic activity restricts our understanding of the late Mesozoic magmatic-tectonic evolution of the EKO. Herein, an integrated study of geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopes were conducted for the Cretaceous mafic dykes in the EKO, Northern Tibet Plateau, to reveal their petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. LA-ICP-MS Zircon U-Pb dating reveals that the studied mafic dykes comprising diabase and diabase porphyry emplaced at ca. 80.9 ± 0.8 Ma. The Cretaceous mafic dykes have low contents of SiO2 (46.36 wt.%~47.40 wt.%) but high contents of MgO (6.79 wt.%~7.38 wt.%), TiO2 (1.91 wt.%~2.13 wt.%), Nb (12.4~18.3 ppm) and Nb/U ratio (31~39), resembling Nb-enriched mafic dykes. They exhibit chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) and primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns, remarkably similar but not identical to the oceanic island basalts (OIB). The moderate REE fractionation ((La/Yb)N = 3.55~5.37), weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.87~0.97) and relative enrichment of Rb, Ba, K, as well as high contents of Cr and Ni and slightly depleted Sr-Nd isotopes (εNd(t) = −0.18~1.33), suggest that the studied dykes originate from a partial melting of spinel lherzolite and a little of garnet which was previously modified by subducted sediments. Combined with other evidence, we propose that the studied Cretaceous Nb-enriched mafic dykes in the Northern Tibet Plateau were formed in the intraplate setting, which may be a partial melting of the enriched mantle in the lower lithosphere caused by the activity of the East Kunlun strike-slip fault. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrogenesis, Magmatism and Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5448 KiB  
Article
Mineralogical Constraints on Magma Recharge and Mixing of the Post-Collisional Potassic Volcanic Rocks in Dahongliutan, NW Tibetan Plateau
by Wenjian Yang, Bo Zhao, Hongmei Yu, Jiandong Xu, Feixiang Wei and Xiaoge Cui
Minerals 2023, 13(12), 1463; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13121463 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 779
Abstract
Post-collisional potassic magmatic rocks are widely distributed in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau, yet their magmatic processes remain poorly understood. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the whole-rock major and trace elements, as well as the mineral textures and chemistry of the Dahongliutan [...] Read more.
Post-collisional potassic magmatic rocks are widely distributed in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau, yet their magmatic processes remain poorly understood. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the whole-rock major and trace elements, as well as the mineral textures and chemistry of the Dahongliutan volcanic rocks in the NW Tibetan Plateau, aiming to reveal the magmatic processes prior to eruption and speculate on the triggering mechanism. The results show that the Dahongliutan volcanic rocks are potassic trachyandesites, which undergo polybaric crystallization during magma ascension. The phenocrysts in these potassic rocks exhibit various textural and compositional zoning styles. The green cores of green-core clinopyroxenes show textural (e.g., resorption texture) and chemical (Fe-rich) disequilibrium with the host rock compositions, suggesting that they may be antecrysts and crystallized from early batches of more evolved magmas. Additionally, alkali feldspar phenocrysts also display disequilibrium characteristics (e.g., overgrowth rim and sieve texture), indicating hot mafic magma recharge and mixing in the magma plumbing system. Therefore, we conclude that the disequilibrium textural and compositional features of green-core clinopyroxene and alkali feldspar phenocrysts provide evidence of magma recharge and mixing prior to eruption. Furthermore, it is likely that the eruption of the Dahongliutan volcano was triggered by magma recharge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrogenesis, Magmatism and Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 15379 KiB  
Article
Geochemistry and Zircon U–Pb Geochronology of the Wugongshan Granites in the Northwestern Jiangxi Area, China: Implications for the Paleozoic Tectonic Development of South China
by Guangqin Yang, Yaoyao Zhang, Kai Liu, Yi Zhou, Shuxun Wang and Hailong Huo
Minerals 2023, 13(11), 1427; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13111427 - 09 Nov 2023
Viewed by 939
Abstract
The properties of the Caledonian orogeny along the transition belt of the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks have received much attention in recent years. The widespread Early Paleozoic granites provide critical geological clues for unraveling the tectonic evolution and geodynamic processes of the South [...] Read more.
The properties of the Caledonian orogeny along the transition belt of the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks have received much attention in recent years. The widespread Early Paleozoic granites provide critical geological clues for unraveling the tectonic evolution and geodynamic processes of the South China Continent (SCC). Here we present new zircon U–Pb chronology, whole-rock major and trace elements, in situ Hf isotopes for Paleozoic granites, i.e., the Wugongshan granites in the northwest Jiangxi province, and aim to explore the magmatism and properties of the Caledonian orogeny involved in their formation. Our new data show that the Wugongshan granites were emplaced during the Early Silurian Period (442–438 Ma). The Paleozoic Wugongshan granites belong to S-type muscovite-bearing peraluminous granites (MPG) and show a single origin. The Wugongshan granites exhibit negative εHf(t) values (−11.56 to −6.19) and TDM2 model ages of 2148–1809 Ma, indicating their derivation from an ancient crustal source, through partial melting of ancient crustal material. The Wugongshan granitic magmatism is probably being generated in an extensional environment related to an intracontinental orogeny setting. It is inferred that the Paleozoic tectonic–magmatic event in the Wugongshan area was associated with the oceanic–continental convergence of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. The Wugongshan granites highlight the intracontinental magmatism in the Early Paleozoic orogeny in the SCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrogenesis, Magmatism and Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 16233 KiB  
Article
Late Cretaceous-Paleocene Arc and Back-Arc System in the Neotethys Ocean, Zagros Suture Zone
by Yousif Mohammad, Kurda Abdulla and Hossein Azizi
Minerals 2023, 13(11), 1367; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13111367 - 26 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
The Bulfat Igneous Complex comprises the Bulfat and Walash groups and is situated in the Zagros Suture Zone, in the junction of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Zircon U-Pb data indicat an age of 63.7 ± 1.5 Ma for the trondhjemite rocks within the [...] Read more.
The Bulfat Igneous Complex comprises the Bulfat and Walash groups and is situated in the Zagros Suture Zone, in the junction of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Zircon U-Pb data indicat an age of 63.7 ± 1.5 Ma for the trondhjemite rocks within the Bulfat group. Walash group is primarily composed of basalt to andesite rocks, interbedded with sedimentary rocks. Zircon U-Pb dating yields an age of 69.7 ± 2.7 Ma for the Walash group. Whole rocks chemistry shows that the Bulfat rocks have affinity to MORB and calc alkaline series but Walsh are mainly plot in the calc alkaline field. Whole rocks Sr-Nd isotope ratios show that the 143Nd/144Nd (i) changes from 0.51243 to 0.52189 and 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratios vary from 0.70345 to 0.7086. The calculated εNd(t) values, based on the CHUR, yield predominantly high positive values ranging from +6 to +8 for most samples. However, a few samples exhibit lower values (+2 to +3). Our data suggest that the interaction between lithospheric (depleted mantle, MORB-Like) and asthenospheric mantle (OIB-like) melts significantly controlled the magmatic evolution of the Bulfat group. The strong positive εNd(t) values (ranging from +6 to +8) align more consistently with a highly depleted lithospheric mantle source for the Walsh group. Therefore, the gradual transition from an arc signature at 70 Ma to a MORB signature around 63 Ma, occurred over a relatively short period of about 10 million years, and indicates the presence of an arc and back-arc system in the Neotethys ocean before the collision of the Arabian and Iran plates during the Cenozoic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrogenesis, Magmatism and Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 13063 KiB  
Article
Petrogenesis and Geodynamic Significance of the Early Triassic Nanpo Adakitic Pluton of the Luang Prabang-Loei Tectonic Belt (Northwestern Laos) in the East Tethys Domain: Constraints from Zircon U-Pb-Hf Isotope Analyses and Whole-Rock Geochemistry
by Hui Li, Jie Gan, Zhengwei He, Yu Gan, Bin Wang, Yong Li and Wei Jiang
Minerals 2023, 13(6), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13060821 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
Adakites are magmatic rocks with specific geochemical characteristics and specific dynamics that provide important clues to understanding the magmatic-tectonic evolution of orogenic belts. We studied the Early Triassic Nanpo adakitic pluton of the Luang Prabang-Loei tectonic belt in the Eastern Tethys domain (Laos [...] Read more.
Adakites are magmatic rocks with specific geochemical characteristics and specific dynamics that provide important clues to understanding the magmatic-tectonic evolution of orogenic belts. We studied the Early Triassic Nanpo adakitic pluton of the Luang Prabang-Loei tectonic belt in the Eastern Tethys domain (Laos Sarakan) using detailed petrological, zircon U-Pb chronological, whole-rock geochemical, and zircon Lu-Hf isotope studies to constrain their petrogenesis. The rocks are predominantly diorites and granodiorites with Early Triassic zircon U-Pb emplacement ages ranging from 247.9 ± 1.0 to 249.0 ± 2.4 Ma. Moderate SiO2 (56.26–65.95 wt%) and Na2O (3.24–5.00 wt%) contents, with Na2O/K2O values between 1.76 and 2.51 and A/CNK values between 0.81 and 0.94, indicate that the rocks belong to the metaluminous calc-alkaline rock series. The high Sr content (590–918 ppm), low Y (6.30–11.89 ppm) and Yb (1.99–3.44 ppm) contents, intermediate Mg# (42–50) values, and high Sr/Y and (La/Yb) N ratios (Sr/Y = 24–41, (La/Yb) N = 6.84–13.8) are typical for adakites. Zircon Hf isotope analysis shows a significant variation in the εHf(t) values (6.7–12.0), with a mean value of 9.4 and a TDM2 of 512–845 Ma. Geochemical evidence indicates that the Nanpo adakitic rock was formed by the partial melting of the thickened lower crust in the plate-breaking environment and has an important contribution to the underplated mantle-derived magma. We propose that the Early Triassic adakites in the Luang Prabang-Loei tectonic belt formed during the transition from subduction to a continental collision, and the mixing of crust- and mantle-derived magmas is the main mechanism for the growth of continental crust in the Paleo-Tethys orogenic belt of southeastern Asia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrogenesis, Magmatism and Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 14088 KiB  
Article
Late Ordovician High Ba-Sr Intrusion in the Eastern North Qilian Orogen: Implications for Crust–Mantle Interaction and Proto-Tethys Ocean Evolution
by Shaoqing Zhao, Lianfu Hai, Bin Liu, Huan Dong, Chao Mei, Qinghai Xu, Caixia Mu and Xiangcheng Wei
Minerals 2023, 13(6), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13060744 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 1008
Abstract
High Ba-Sr granitic rocks are widespread in Phanerozoic orogenic systems, and their petrogenesis is important for revealing the evolutionary process of the Proto-Tethys Ocean in the North Qilian orogenic belt. This paper presents a combination of zircon U-Pb age, whole-rock major and trace [...] Read more.
High Ba-Sr granitic rocks are widespread in Phanerozoic orogenic systems, and their petrogenesis is important for revealing the evolutionary process of the Proto-Tethys Ocean in the North Qilian orogenic belt. This paper presents a combination of zircon U-Pb age, whole-rock major and trace element concentrations, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data for Caowa high Ba-Sr dioritic intrusion from the eastern part of the North Qilian orogenic belt, aiming to decipher its petrogenesis and tectonic setting. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yield an emplacement age of 450 ± 2 Ma for the Caowa intrusion, indicating a magmatic activity of the Late Ordovician. The Caowa quartz diorites contain moderate contents of SiO2, MgO, Mg#, and resultant high concentrations of Na2O + K2O, Fe2O3T, and Al2O3, displaying calc-alkaline and metaluminous characteristics. The studied samples have relatively elevated Ba (up to 1165 ppm) and Sr (561 to 646 ppm) contents, with obvious enrichment in LILEs (e.g., Ba, Th, U) and depletions in HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti), resembling those of typical high Ba-Sr granitoids in subduction zones. Together with enriched Sr-Nd isotopic composition [(87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.7082–0.7086, εNd(t) = −5.1 to −4.9], and the wide ranges of zircon εHf(t) values (−13.2 to +8.5), it suggests that these high Ba-Sr quartz diorites were derived from a mixture magma source between the ancient crust materials and the enriched lithospheric mantle metasomatized by fluid released from subducted oceanic crust or sediment. Taking into account the ophiolites, high pressure metamorphic rocks, and arc magmatic rocks in the region, we infer that due to the influence of the northward subduction of the Qilian Proto-Tethys Ocean, the Laohushan oceanic crust of the North Qilian back-arc basin was subducted during the Late Ordovician and resulted in extensive metasomatism of lithospheric mantle by fluids derived from oceanic crust or sediments, and the Caowa high Ba-Sr quartz diorites were generated in the process of crust–mantle interaction during the Late Ordovician. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Petrogenesis, Magmatism and Geodynamics of Orogenic Belts)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop