Advances in MEMS Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition

A special issue of Micromachines (ISSN 2072-666X). This special issue belongs to the section "A:Physics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 10839

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: MEMS devices; micro-technology; micro-engineering; material characterization; dynamic analysis of MEMS
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Guest Editor
Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Interests: optimal design; evolutionary algorithms; mathematical modelling; MEMS materials; nano-characterization
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

MEMS can bring innovation in many fields of engineering due to their small size and high reliability. They are an essential discovery for how materials, devices, and systems are perceived, designed, and manufactured in general. In recent years, due to the growing MEMS-based sensor markets, a lot of effort has been invested in theoretical models for the development of MEMS, static and dynamic experimental investigations, as well as in designing and manufacturing commercially successful MEMS for real-world applications. The latest scientific discoveries include new materials with superior properties, state-of-the-art fabrication methods, innovative testing and characterization techniques, and custom original solutions for special applications.

This Special Issue aims to encompass high-quality research contributions focused on the advances in the theoretical modeling of MEMS devices, their numerous applications, as well as actuation mechanisms, materials, optimal design, simulation, experimental testing, and novel fabrication techniques of such devices. The goal is to gather the recent research conducted in this field and to highlight the development trends and perspectives of MEMS devices.

We look forward to receiving your contributions!

Prof. Dr. Marius Pustan
Dr. Florina Maria Șerdean
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • MEMS optimal design
  • MEMS experimental characterization
  • simulations
  • MEMS sensors
  • MEMS actuators
  • MEMS materials
  • analytical and finite elements models
  • MEMS applications

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 9900 KiB  
Article
Design of a Shock-Protected Structure for MEMS Gyroscopes over a Full Temperature Range
by Yingyu Xu, Jing Lin, Chunhua He, Heng Wu, Qinwen Huang and Guizhen Yan
Micromachines 2024, 15(2), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi15020206 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Impact is the most important factor affecting the reliability of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyroscopes, therefore corresponding reliability design is very essential. This paper proposes a shock-protected structure (SPS) capable of withstanding a full temperature range from −40 °C to 80 °C to enhance [...] Read more.
Impact is the most important factor affecting the reliability of Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyroscopes, therefore corresponding reliability design is very essential. This paper proposes a shock-protected structure (SPS) capable of withstanding a full temperature range from −40 °C to 80 °C to enhance the shock resistance of MEMS gyroscopes. Firstly, the shock transfer functions of the gyroscope and the SPS are derived using Single Degree-of-Freedom and Two Degree-of-Freedom models. The U-folded beam stiffness and maximum positive stress are deduced to evaluate the shock resistance of the silicon beam. Subsequently, the frequency responses of acceleration of the gyroscope and the SPS are simulated and analyzed in Matlab utilizing the theoretical models. Simulation results demonstrate that when the first-order natural frequency of the SPS is approximately one-fourth of the gyroscope’s resonant frequency, the impact protection effect is best, and the SPS does not affect the original performance of the gyroscope. The acceleration peak of the MEMS gyroscope is reduced by approximately 23.5 dB when equipped with the SPS in comparison to its counterpart without the SPS. The anti-shock capability of the gyroscope with the SPS is enhanced by approximately 13 times over the full-temperature range. After the shock tests under the worst case, the gyroscope without the SPS experiences a beam fracture failure, while the performance of the gyroscope with the SPS remains normal, validating the effectiveness of the SPS in improving the shock reliability of MEMS gyroscopes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in MEMS Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 2143 KiB  
Article
The High-Efficiency Design Method for Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer
by Wen Liu, Tianlong Zhao, Zhiyuan He, Jingze Ye, Shaotong Gong, Xianglong Wang and Yintang Yang
Micromachines 2023, 14(10), 1891; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14101891 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1275
Abstract
In this research, a high-efficiency design method of the capacitive MEMS accelerometer is proposed. As the MEMS accelerometer has high precision and a compact structure, much research has been carried out, which mainly focused on the structural design and materials selection. To overcome [...] Read more.
In this research, a high-efficiency design method of the capacitive MEMS accelerometer is proposed. As the MEMS accelerometer has high precision and a compact structure, much research has been carried out, which mainly focused on the structural design and materials selection. To overcome the inconvenience and inaccuracy of the traditional design method, an orthogonal design and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm are introduced to improve the design efficiency. The whole process includes a finite element method (FEM) simulation, high-efficiency design, and verification. Through the theoretical analysis, the working mechanism of capacitive MEMS accelerometer is clear. Based on the comparison among the sweep calculation results of these parameters in the FEM software, four representative structural parameters are selected for further study, and they are le, nf, lf and wPM, respectively. le and lf are the length of the sensing electrode and fixed electrode on the right. nf is the number of electrode pairs, and wPM is the width of the mass block. Then, in order to reduce computation, an orthogonal design is adopted and finally, 81 experimental groups are produced. Sensitivity SV and mass Ma are defined as evaluation parameters, and structural parameters of experimental groups are imported into the FEM software to obtain the corresponding calculation results. These simulation data are imported into neural networks with the PSO algorithm. For a comprehensively accurate examination, three cases are used to verify our design method, and every case endows the performance parameters with different weights and expected values. The corresponding structural parameters of each case are given out after 24 iterations. Finally, the maximum calculation errors of SV and Ma are 1.2941% and 0.1335%, respectively, proving the feasibility of the high-efficiency design method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in MEMS Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition)
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18 pages, 1440 KiB  
Article
Geometrical Characterisation of TiO2-rGO Field-Effect Transistor as a Platform for Biosensing Applications
by Anis Amirah Alim, Roharsyafinaz Roslan, Sh. Nadzirah, Lina Khalida Saidi, P. Susthitha Menon, Ismail Aziah, Dee Chang Fu, Siti Aishah Sulaiman, Nor Azian Abdul Murad and Azrul Azlan Hamzah
Micromachines 2023, 14(9), 1664; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14091664 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1176
Abstract
The performance of the graphene-based field-effect transistor (FET) as a biosensor is based on the output drain current (Id). In this work, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was investigated to obtain a high-performance device that produces a higher Id value. Using [...] Read more.
The performance of the graphene-based field-effect transistor (FET) as a biosensor is based on the output drain current (Id). In this work, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was investigated to obtain a high-performance device that produces a higher Id value. Using the finite element method, a novel top-gate FET was developed in a three-dimensional (3D) simulation model with the titanium dioxide-reduced graphene oxide (TiO2-rGO) nanocomposite as the transducer material, which acts as a platform for biosensing application. Using the Taguchi mixed-level method in Minitab software (Version 16.1.1), eighteen 3D models were designed based on an orthogonal array L18 (6134), with five factors, and three and six levels. The parameters considered were the channel length, electrode length, electrode width, electrode thickness and electrode type. The device was fabricated using the conventional photolithography patterning technique and the metal lift-off method. The material was synthesised using the modified sol–gel method and spin-coated on top of the device. According to the results of the ANOVA, the channel length contributed the most, with 63.11%, indicating that it was the most significant factor in producing a higher Id value. The optimum condition for the highest Id value was at a channel length of 3 µm and an electrode size of 3 µm × 20 µm, with a thickness of 50 nm for the Ag electrode. The electrical measurement in both the simulation and experiment under optimal conditions showed a similar trend, and the difference between the curves was calculated to be 28.7%. Raman analyses were performed to validate the quality of TiO2-rGO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in MEMS Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 3029 KiB  
Article
Research on Pedestrian Indoor Positioning Based on Two-Step Robust Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filter with Smartphone MEMS Sensors
by Jijun Geng, Xuexiang Yu, Congcong Wu and Guoqing Zhang
Micromachines 2023, 14(6), 1252; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14061252 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
With the development of location-based service (LBS), indoor positioning based on pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) has become a hot research topic. Smartphones are becoming more popular for indoor positioning. This paper proposes a two-step robust-adaptive-cubature Kalman filter (RACKF) algorithm based on smartphone micro-electro-mechanical-system [...] Read more.
With the development of location-based service (LBS), indoor positioning based on pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) has become a hot research topic. Smartphones are becoming more popular for indoor positioning. This paper proposes a two-step robust-adaptive-cubature Kalman filter (RACKF) algorithm based on smartphone micro-electro-mechanical-system (MEMS) sensor fusion for indoor positioning. To estimate pedestrian heading, a quaternion-based robust-adaptive-cubature Kalman filter algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the model noise parameters are adaptively corrected based on the fading-memory-weighting method and the limited-memory-weighting method. The memory window of the limited-memory-weighting algorithm is modified based on the characteristics of pedestrian walking. Secondly, an adaptive factor is constructed based on the partial state inconsistency to overcome filtering-model deviation and abnormal disturbances. Finally, to identify and control the measurement outliers, the robust factor based on maximum-likelihood estimation is introduced into the filtering to enhance the robustness of heading estimation and support more robust dynamic-position estimation. In addition, based on the accelerometer information, a nonlinear model is constructed and the empirical model is used to estimate the step length. Combining heading and step length, the two-step robust-adaptive-cubature Kalman filter is proposed to improve the pedestrian-dead-reckoning method, which enhances the adaptability and robustness of the algorithm and further improves the accuracy of the plane-position solution. The adaptive factor based on the prediction residual and the robust factor based on the maximum-likelihood estimation are introduced into the filter to improve the adaptability and robustness of the filter, reduce the positioning error, and improve the accuracy of the pedestrian-dead-reckoning method. Three different smartphones are used to validate the proposed algorithm in an indoor environment. Additionally, the experimental results confirm the algorithm’s effectiveness. From the results of the three smartphones, the root mean square error (RMSE) of the indoor-positioning results obtained by the proposed method is about 1.3–1.7 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in MEMS Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition)
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17 pages, 5675 KiB  
Article
A Non-Contact Fall Detection Method for Bathroom Application Based on MEMS Infrared Sensors
by Chunhua He, Shuibin Liu, Guangxiong Zhong, Heng Wu, Lianglun Cheng, Juze Lin and Qinwen Huang
Micromachines 2023, 14(1), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14010130 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2365
Abstract
The ratio of the elderly to the total population around the world is larger than 10%, and about 30% of the elderly are injured by falls each year. Accidental falls, especially bathroom falls, account for a large proportion. Therefore, fall events detection of [...] Read more.
The ratio of the elderly to the total population around the world is larger than 10%, and about 30% of the elderly are injured by falls each year. Accidental falls, especially bathroom falls, account for a large proportion. Therefore, fall events detection of the elderly is of great importance. In this article, a non-contact fall detector based on a Micro-electromechanical Systems Pyroelectric Infrared (MEMS PIR) sensor and a thermopile IR array sensor is designed to detect bathroom falls. Besides, image processing algorithms with a low pass filter and double boundary scans are put forward in detail. Then, the statistical features of the area, center, duration and temperature are extracted. Finally, a 3-layer BP neural network is adopted to identify the fall events. Taking into account the key factors of ambient temperature, objective, illumination, fall speed, fall state, fall area and fall scene, 640 tests were performed in total, and 5-fold cross validation is adopted. Experimental results demonstrate that the averages of the precision, recall, detection accuracy and F1-Score are measured to be 94.45%, 90.94%, 92.81% and 92.66%, respectively, which indicates that the novel detection method is feasible. Thereby, this IOT detector can be extensively used for household bathroom fall detection and is low-cost and privacy-security guaranteed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in MEMS Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 7511 KiB  
Article
Design and Fabrication of an Integrated Hollow Concave Cilium MEMS Cardiac Sound Sensor
by Bo Wang, Pengcheng Shi, Yuhua Yang, Jiangong Cui, Guojun Zhang, Renxin Wang, Wendong Zhang, Changde He, Yirui Li and Shuotong Wang
Micromachines 2022, 13(12), 2174; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13122174 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1332
Abstract
In light of a need for low-frequency, high sensitivity and broadband cardiac murmur signal detection, the present work puts forward an integrated MEMS-based heart sound sensor with a hollow concave ciliary micro-structure. The advantages of a hollow MEMS structure, in contrast to planar [...] Read more.
In light of a need for low-frequency, high sensitivity and broadband cardiac murmur signal detection, the present work puts forward an integrated MEMS-based heart sound sensor with a hollow concave ciliary micro-structure. The advantages of a hollow MEMS structure, in contrast to planar ciliated micro-structures, are that it reduces the ciliated mass and enhances the operating bandwidth. Meanwhile, the area of acoustic-wave reception is enlarged by the concave architecture, thereby enhancing the sensitivity at low frequencies. By rationally designing the acoustic encapsulation, the loss of heart acoustic distortion and weak cardiac murmurs is reduced. As demonstrated by experimentation, the proposed hollow MEMS structure cardiac sound sensor has a sensitivity of up to −206.9 dB at 200 Hz, showing 6.5 dB and 170 Hz increases in the sensitivity and operating bandwidth, respectively, in contrast to the planar ciliated MEMS sensor. The SNR of the sensor is 26.471 dB, showing good detectability for cardiac sounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in MEMS Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition)
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10 pages, 3093 KiB  
Article
A Highly Accurate Method for Measuring Response Time of MEMS Thermopiles
by Zeqing Xiang, Meng Shi, Na Zhou, Chenchen Zhang, Xuefeng Ding, Yue Ni, Dapeng Chen and Haiyang Mao
Micromachines 2022, 13(10), 1717; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi13101717 - 11 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1567
Abstract
The response time is an important parameter for thermopiles sensors, which reflects the response speed of the device. The accurate measurement of response time is extremely important to evaluate device characteristics for using them in suitable scenarios. In this work, to accurately measure [...] Read more.
The response time is an important parameter for thermopiles sensors, which reflects the response speed of the device. The accurate measurement of response time is extremely important to evaluate device characteristics for using them in suitable scenarios. In this work, to accurately measure the response time of thermopile sensors, an Al microheater is integrated in a MEMS thermopile as an in situ heat source. Compared with the traditional chopper measurement method for response time, this approach avoids mechanical delay induced by chopper blades. Accordingly, based on this approach, the response time of the device is measured to be 6.9 ms, while that is 12.7 ms when a chopping system is used, demonstrating that an error of at least 5.8 ms is avoided. Such an approach is quite simple to realize and provides a novel route to accurately measure the response time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in MEMS Theory and Applications, 2nd Edition)
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